- Formulation and In Vitro, In Vivo Correlation Between Two Candesartan Cilexetil Tablets. [Journal Article]
- CPClin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2018 May 10
- In this study, the in vitro and in vivo interchangeability between generic candesartan 16 mg and the branded formulation was assessed. The in vitro release of these products was conducted in 3 pH med...
In this study, the in vitro and in vivo interchangeability between generic candesartan 16 mg and the branded formulation was assessed. The in vitro release of these products was conducted in 3 pH media (1.2, 5.0, and 6.8), and similarity factors (f2 ) were calculated. This bioequivalence study was a randomized, 2-period crossover study that included 42 healthy adult male subjects under fasting conditions with a 9-day washout. The pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters AUC0-last , AUC0-∞ , and Cmax , tmax , and the elimination half-life time were assessed based on the plasma concentrations of candesartan, using a newly developed and validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry bioanalytical method with acceptable degrees of linearity, sensitivity, precision, and accuracy. The geometric mean (ng·h/mL) of the AUC0-∞ for the test and brand was 1595.49 and 1620.54, respectively, and the Cmax (ng/mL) was 160.91 and 160.88, respectively. The 90%CIs of geometric mean ratios (test-to-reference ratios) were 98.26%, 98.45%, and 99.86% for AUC0-last , AUC0-∞ , and Cmax respectively. These PK parameters lie within the US Food and Drug Administration- and European Medicines Agency-specified bioequivalence limit (80%-125%). Both products were well tolerated by all the subjects. The tested drug product was bioequivalent to the reference drug and had the same safety profile.
- DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPLC ANALYTICAL METHODS USED-FOR DETERMINATION OF ASSAY, CONTENT UNIFORMITY AND DISSOLUTION OF IMMEDIATE RELEASE CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL 32 MG TABLETS. [Journal Article]
- APActa Pol Pharm 2017; 74(2):357-367
- New analytical methods have been developed and validated on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to assess the assay, content uniformity and dissolution of immediate release candesartan cile...
New analytical methods have been developed and validated on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to assess the assay, content uniformity and dissolution of immediate release candesartan cilexetil 32 mg tablets. Method development studies were performed on cyano column. Mobile phase of assay and content uniformity test consisted of mixture of 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 4.5 and methanol (40 : 60, v/v) adjusted to pH 4.0 with trifluoroacetic acid, whereas mobile phase of dissolution test consisted of mixture of I mM phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (50 : 50, v/v) adjusted to pH 2.0 with trifluoroacetic acid. Mobile phases were pumped at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, ultraviolet-visible (UV) detector was operated at 254 nm, injection volume was set at 20 μL, column temperature was held at 25⁰C. Dissolution medium was 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.5 including 0.70% (w/v) polysorbate 20. Validation studies met acceptance criteria of system suitability, specificity, linearity and range, accuracy, precision, detection limit (LOD), quantitation limit (LOQ) and robustness parameters.
- Survey to Identify Substandard and Falsified Tablets in Several Asian Countries with Pharmacopeial Quality Control Tests and Principal Component Analysis of Handheld Raman Spectroscopy. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Apr 02
- The World Health Organization has warned that substandard and falsified medical products (SFs) can harm patients and fail to treat the diseases for which they were intended, and they affect every reg...
The World Health Organization has warned that substandard and falsified medical products (SFs) can harm patients and fail to treat the diseases for which they were intended, and they affect every region of the world, leading to loss of confidence in medicines, health-care providers, and health systems. Therefore, development of analytical procedures to detect SFs is extremely important. In this study, we investigated the quality of pharmaceutical tablets containing the antihypertensive candesartan cilexetil, collected in China, Indonesia, Japan, and Myanmar, using the Japanese pharmacopeial analytical procedures for quality control, together with principal component analysis (PCA) of Raman spectrum obtained with handheld Raman spectrometer. Some samples showed delayed dissolution and failed to meet the pharmacopeial specification, whereas others failed the assay test. These products appeared to be substandard. Principal component analysis showed that all Raman spectra could be explained in terms of two components: the amount of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and the kinds of excipients. Principal component analysis score plot indicated one substandard, and the falsified tablets have similar principal components in Raman spectra, in contrast to authentic products. The locations of samples within the PCA score plot varied according to the source country, suggesting that manufacturers in different countries use different excipients. Our results indicate that the handheld Raman device will be useful for detection of SFs in the field. Principal component analysis of that Raman data clarify the difference in chemical properties between good quality products and SFs that circulate in the Asian market.
- HPMCAS as an effective precipitation inhibitor in amorphous solid dispersions of the poorly soluble drug candesartan cilexetil. [Journal Article]
- CPCarbohydr Polym 2018 Mar 15; 184:199-206
- Among the strategies to improve the biopharmaceutic properties of poorly soluble drugs, Supersaturating Drug Delivery Systems like polymer-based amorphous solid dispersions (SD) have been successfull...
Among the strategies to improve the biopharmaceutic properties of poorly soluble drugs, Supersaturating Drug Delivery Systems like polymer-based amorphous solid dispersions (SD) have been successfully applied. The screening of appropriate polymeric carriers to compose SD is a crucial point on their development. In this study, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) types L, M and H and polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (SOL) were evaluated by in vitro supersaturation studies regarding their anti-precipitant ability on the poorly soluble drug candesartan cilexetil (CC) under two different media, including biorelevant conditions. According to the results, HPMCAS M was considered the best carrier to develop SD containing CC among all the polymers tested, due to its good anti-precipitant performance in both media. In addition, the medium used in the in vitro supersaturation studies played an important role on the results, and its selection should be carefully done.
- Stability-Indicating Liquid Chromatographic Methods with Photodiode Array Detection and Light Scattering Detection for Simultaneous Determination of Candesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr Sci 2018 Feb 01; 56(2):99-107
- Development, validation and comparison of two stability-indicating LC methods, one with photodiode array detector (DAD) and the other with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD), were performed...
Development, validation and comparison of two stability-indicating LC methods, one with photodiode array detector (DAD) and the other with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD), were performed for simultaneous determination of candesartan cilexetil (CANC) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), in pharmaceutical samples. A RP-18 column (125 mm × 4 mm, 5 μm) was used for separation of CANC, HCTZ and its major degradation products, using acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) for DAD method and acetonitrile and water with acetic acid and triethylamine (pH 4.1) for ELSD method, as mobile phase in a gradient mode. The response with ELSD was fitted to a power function and the DAD response by a linear model over a range of 32-160 μg/mL for CANC and 25-125 μg/mL for HCTZ. The precision and accuracy of the methods were similar, with RSD below 3.0% and recovery between 98.1% and 103.9%. The drugs were subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, humidity and temperature. The degradation products were satisfactory separated from the main peaks and from each other. Both drugs mainly degrade by hydrolysis, showing the formation of one degradation product for HCTZ and two for CANC; its identification was conducted by LC/MS/MS. The methods were successfully applied to the analysis of CANC and HCTZ in combined commercial tablets. The performance of DAD and ELSD methods are comparable, therefore both methods are suitable for stability study and determination of CANC and HCTZ in pharmaceutical samples.
- Effect of surfactants and hydrophilic polymers on the stability of an antihypertensive drug candesartan cilexetil: Evaluation by HPLC. [Journal Article]
- APAnn Pharm Fr 2018; 76(1):32-43
- CONCLUSIONS: The drug showed 41%, 64%, 72% and 98% degradation in presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol 6000, polysorbate 80 and sodium lauryl sulphate, respectively.
- Neurohormonal Blockade and Circulating Cardiovascular Biomarkers During Anthracycline Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients: Results From the PRADA (Prevention of Cardiac Dysfunction During Adjuvant Breast Cancer Therapy) Study. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Heart Assoc 2017 Nov 08; 6(11)
- CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with contemporary anthracycline doses for early breast cancer is associated with increase in circulating cardiovascular biomarkers. This increase is, however, not associated with early decline in ventricular function. Beta-blockade may attenuate early myocardial injury, but whether this attenuation translates into reduced risk of developing ventricular dysfunction in the long term remains unclear.
- Comparative Pharmaceutical Evaluation of Candesartan and Candesartan Cilexetil: Physicochemical Properties, In Vitro Dissolution and Ex Vivo In Vivo Studies. [Journal Article]
- APAAPS PharmSciTech 2018; 19(2):661-667
- The aim of the present work is to answer the question is it possible to replace the ester prodrug candesartan cilexetil (CC) by its active metabolite candesartan (C) to bypass the in vivo variable ef...
The aim of the present work is to answer the question is it possible to replace the ester prodrug candesartan cilexetil (CC) by its active metabolite candesartan (C) to bypass the in vivo variable effect of esterase enzymes. A comparative physicochemical evaluation was conducted through solubility, dissolution, and stability studies; additionally, ex vivo permeation and in vivo studies were assessed. C demonstrated higher solubility over CC at alkaline pH. Moreover, dissolution testing using the pharmacopeial method showed better release profile of C even in the absence of surfactant in the testing medium. Both drugs demonstrated a slight degradation in acidic pH after short-term stability. Instead, shifting to alkaline pH of 6.5 and 7.4 showed superiority of C solution stability compared to CC solution. The ex vivo permeation results demonstrated that the parent compound C has a significant (P < 0.05) enhanced permeation compared to its prodrug from CC, that agreed with in vivo results in which C suspension reached significantly (P < 0.05) higher C max of 1.39 ± 0.59 μg/mL at T max of 0.66 ± 0.11 h, while CC suspension reached C max of 0.47 ± 0.22 μg/mL at T max of 2.00 ± 0.27 h, a lag period of 40 min is needed prior to detection of any absorbed CC in plasma. Those findings are not in agreement with the previously reported rationale on the prodrug formation owing to the poor permeability of the parent compound, suggesting the possibility of marketing the parent drug candesartan for clinical use similarly to azilsartan and its prodrug.
- Development and in vitro/in vivo performance of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems loaded with candesartan cilexetil. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharm Sci 2017 Nov 15; 109:503-513
- Candesartan cilexetil is widely used in the management of hypertension and heart failure. The drug delivery encounters obstacles of poor aqueous solubility, efflux by intestinal P-glycoprotein and vu...
Candesartan cilexetil is widely used in the management of hypertension and heart failure. The drug delivery encounters obstacles of poor aqueous solubility, efflux by intestinal P-glycoprotein and vulnerability to enzymatic degradation in small intestine. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) loaded with candesartan cilexetil were successfully developed to overcome such obstacles. Preliminary screening was carried out to select proper surfactant, co-surfactant and oil combination for successful SNEDDS formulation. All screened excipients were reported for their P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) modulation activity. Ternary and pseudo ternary diagrams were constructed to optimize the system. Peppermint oil and clove oil showed a high emulsification ability. The nature of obtained dispersions was identified to be nanoemulsions. Twenty-four formulations were evaluated for stability, robustness to dilution and self-emulsification efficiency. All formulations showed a very short emulsification time of <2min. The emulsification efficiency was significantly superior at pH6.8, at which the largest self-emulsifying region was also observed. Eight formulations were selected for further characterization according to cloud point measurement; mean droplet size, poly dispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential determination in addition to in vitro drug release study. All selected formulations showed very high cloud points (70-90°C), ultrafine mean droplet size (12±1.4 to 24.5±2.13nm), very low PDI values (0.015-0.1305) and almost a complete drug release after 12h. Formulation F15 (Peppermint oil 55% w/w: Cremophor RH40 25% w/w: Labrasol 20% w/w) was selected for further characterization. Its droplet size showed robustness to different dilution folds with different media and its TEM photograph showed spherical particles without any apparent aggregation even after 24h. Formulation F15 successfully controlled the systolic blood pressure of hypertensive rats for 24h with the maximum effect was observed after 2h. These results indicate that, SNEDDS could be promising delivery systems with a rapid onset of action and prolonged therapeutic effect of candesartan cilexetil.
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- Extraction of a dual-chamber pacemaker and inserting of a new automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator: The easy procedure almost became catastrophic: a case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96(35):e7919
- CONCLUSIONS: So, in this case, we reported a rare complication during pacemakers or ICD implantation that is the pericardial-pleural fistula with hemothorax formation in the contralateral hemithorax. Despite the patient's advanced age, we had the dexterity and luck to save her life.