- Analysis of cocaine adulterants in human brain in cases of drug-related death. [Journal Article]
- FSForensic Sci Int 2018 Feb 10; 285:86-92
- CONCLUSIONS: The method was fully validated for cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BZE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), diltiazem (DIL), hydroxyzine (HYD), and levamisole (LEV) and partly validated for cetirizine (CET), lidocaine (LID), phenacetin (PHE), and procaine (PRO) in brain material. By analyzing post-mortem brain tissue of ten cocaine users, LEV, LID, and HYD as well as PHE were identified in contrast to DIL, PRO, and the HYD metabolite CET. HYD and LEV were found in moderate to high concentrations in some cases. Therefore, it cannot be excluded that they have caused adverse side effects.Because adulterants can potentially affect the central nervous and cardiac systems, it is likely that they enhance COC toxicity.
- [Experimental study on the effect of Yiqi Wenyang Decoction on nasal mucosa infiltration of NK cells in mice with allergic rhinitis]. [Journal Article]
- ZEZhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2017 Dec 07; 52(12):921-926
- CONCLUSIONS: Yiqi Wenyang Decoction can control the nasal symptom, reduce the local NK cell infiltration of nasal mucosa and inhibit the expression of the 2-type cytokines released by NK cells, which may be related with the potential mechanism of effective intervention of AR with Yiqi Wenyang Decoction.
- Quantitative analysis of drugs in hair by UHPLC high resolution mass spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- FSForensic Sci Int 2018; 283:9-15
- Liquid chromatographic methods coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry are increasingly used to identify compounds in various matrices including hair but there are few recommendations regarding ...
Liquid chromatographic methods coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry are increasingly used to identify compounds in various matrices including hair but there are few recommendations regarding the parameters and their criteria to identify a compound. In this study we present a method for the identification and quantification of a range of drugs and discuss the parameters used to identify a compound with high resolution mass spectrometry. Drugs were extracted from hair by incubation in a buffer:solvent mixture at 37°C during 18h. Analysis was performed on a chromatographic system comprised of an Agilent 6550 QTOF coupled to a 1290 Infinity UHPLC system. High resolution accurate mass data were acquired in the All Ions mode and exported into Mass Hunter Quantitative software for quantitation and identification using qualifier fragment ions. Validation included selectivity, matrix effects, calibration range, within day and between day precision and accuracy. The analytes were 7-amino-flunitrazepam, 7-amino-clonazepam, 7-amino-nitrazepam, acetylmorphine, alimemazine, alprazolam, amphetamine, benzoylecgonine, buprenorphine, diazepam, ethylmorphine, fentanyl, hydroxyzine, ketobemidone, codeine, cocaine, MDMA, methadone, methamphetamine, morphine, oxycodone, promethazine, propiomazine, propoxyphene, tramadol, zaleplone, zolpidem, and zopiclone. As proof of concept, hair from 29 authentic post mortem cases were analysed. The calibration range was established between 0.05ng/mg to 5.0ng/mg for all analytes except fentanyl (0.02-2.0), buprenorphine (0.04-2.0), and ketobemidone (0.05-4.0) as well as for alimemazine, amphetamine, cocaine, methadone, and promethazine (0.10-5.0). For all analytes, the accuracy of the fortified pooled hair matrix was 84-108% at the low level and 89-106% at the high level. The within series precisions were between 1.4 and 6.7% and the between series precisions were between 1.4 and 10.1%. From the 29 autopsy cases, 121 positive findings were encountered from 23 of the analytes in concentrations similar to those previously published. We conclude that the developed method proved precise and accurate and that it had sufficient performance for the purpose of detecting regular use of drugs or treatment with prescription drugs. To identify a compound we recommend the use of ion ratios as a complement to instrument software "matching scores".
- Role of TCTP for Cellular Differentiation and Cancer Therapy. [Journal Article]
- RPResults Probl Cell Differ 2017; 64:263-281
- The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved protein that is regulated due to a high number of extracellular stimuli. TCTP has an important role for cell cycle and normal...
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved protein that is regulated due to a high number of extracellular stimuli. TCTP has an important role for cell cycle and normal development. On the other side, tumor reversion and malignant transformation have been associated with TCTP. TCTP has been found among the 12 genes that are differentially expressed during mouse oocyte maturation, and an overexpression of this gene was reported in a wide variety of different cancer types. Its antiapoptotic effect is indicated by the interaction with several proapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family and the p53 tumor suppressor protein. In this article, we draw attention to the role of TCTP in cancer, especially, focusing on cell differentiation and tumor reversion, a biological process by which highly tumorigenic cells lose their malignant phenotype. This protein has been shown to be the most strongly downregulated protein in revertant cells compared to the parental cancer cells. Decreased expression of TCTP results either in the reprogramming of cancer cells into reversion or apoptosis. As conventional chemotherapy is frequently associated with the development of drug resistance and high toxicity, the urge for the development of new or additional scientific approaches falls into place. Differentiation therapy aims at reinducing differentiation backward to the nonmalignant cellular state. Here, different approaches have been reported such as the induction of retinoid pathways and the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors. Also, PPARγ agonists and the activation of the vitamin D receptor have been reported as potential targets in differentiation therapy. As TCTP is known as the histamine-releasing factor, antihistaminic drugs have been shown to target this protein. Antihistaminic compounds, hydroxyzine and promethazine, inhibited cell growth of cancer cells and decreased TCTP expression of breast cancer and leukemia cells. Recently, we found that two antihistaminics, levomepromazine and buclizine, inhibited cancer cell growth by direct binding to TCTP and induction of cell differentiation. These data confirmed that TCTP is an exquisite target for anticancer differentiation therapy and antihistaminics have potential to be lead compounds for the direct interaction with TCTP as new inhibitors of human TCTP and tumor growth.
- Treating Pediatric Anxiety: Initial Use of SSRIs and Other Antianxiety Prescription Medications. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Psychiatry 2017 Oct 31
- CONCLUSIONS: SSRIs are the most commonly used first-line medication for pediatric anxiety disorders, with about half of SSRI initiators continuing treatment for 6 months. Still, a third began therapy on a non-SSRI medication, for which there is limited evidence of effectiveness for pediatric anxiety, and a notable proportion of children initiated with 2 antianxiety medication classes.
- Chloral hydrate as a sedating agent for neurodiagnostic procedures in children. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 11 03; 11:CD011786
- CONCLUSIONS: The quality of evidence for the comparisons of oral chloral hydrate against several other methods of sedation was very variable. Oral chloral hydrate appears to have a lower sedation failure rate when compared with oral promethazine for children undergoing paediatric neurodiagnostic procedures. The sedation failure was similar for other comparisons such as oral dexmedetomidine, oral hydroxyzine hydrochloride, and oral midazolam. When compared with intravenous pentobarbital and music therapy, oral chloral hydrate had a higher sedation failure rate. However, it must be noted that the evidence for the outcomes for the comparisons of oral chloral hydrate against intravenous pentobarbital and music therapy was of very low to low quality, therefore the corresponding findings should be interpreted with caution.Further research should determine the effects of oral chloral hydrate on major clinical outcomes such as successful completion of procedures, requirements for additional sedative agent, and degree of sedation measured using validated scales, which were rarely assessed in the studies included in this review. The safety profile of chloral hydrate should be studied further, especially the risk of major adverse effects such as bradycardia, hypotension, and oxygen desaturation.
- Contact Dermatitis Reaction to 2-Octyl Cyanoacrylate Following 3 Orthopedic Procedures. [Journal Article]
- OOrthopedics 2017 Sep 21; :1-3
- Two-octyl cyanoacrylate is a popular skin adhesive used for closing surgical incisions. Since Food and Drug Administration approval in 1998, the few reports of adverse reactions following its use hav...
Two-octyl cyanoacrylate is a popular skin adhesive used for closing surgical incisions. Since Food and Drug Administration approval in 1998, the few reports of adverse reactions following its use have primarily been limited to the nonorthopedic literature. The authors present a case series of contact dermatitis associated with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate following orthopedic surgery and a review of the literature on the diagnosis and treatment of this complication. All 3 patients presented with blistering around their incisions within 2 weeks of surgery and responded to treatment involving removal of the offending agent and use of oral diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine and topical triamcinolone. One case was complicated by a draining hematoma, requiring irrigation and debridement. Complete resolution occurred in all cases. This case series is intended to increase awareness in the orthopedic community of allergic contact dermatitis to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate and its appropriate treatment. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].
- The Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) Bark Extract on Histamine-Induced Paw Edema and Ileum Smooth Muscle Contraction. [Journal Article]
- EBEvid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017; 2017:1416375
- Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as red aroeira, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory, gastric, and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to...
Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as red aroeira, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory, gastric, and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihistaminic activity of S. terebinthifolius (St) bark extract by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The effects of St were investigated on contractions induced by histamine, carbachol, and potassium chloride in isolated guinea pig ileum. St was also studied in response to hind paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Experiments revealed that although St (250, 500, and 1,000 µg/mL) reduced the histamine-induced contractions by 9.1 ± 1.8, 50.2 ± 2.0, and 68.9 ± 2.0%, respectively, it did not inhibit contractions induced by carbachol or KCl. The association of St (250 and 500 µg/mL) with hydroxyzine, an H1-antihistamine (0.125 and 0.250 µM), increased the inhibitory effect to 67.0 ± 3.2 and 85.1 ± 2.1%, respectively. Moreover, St (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) decreased paw edema from its peak by 33.9, 48.4, and 54.8%, respectively, whereas hydroxyzine (70 mg/kg) inhibited the peak edema by 56.5%. Altogether, the results suggest that the bark extract of S. terebinthifolius has an antihistaminic effect (H1).
- Practitioner Review: Treatment of chronic insomnia in children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disabilities. [Review]
- JCJ Child Psychol Psychiatry 2017 Sep 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Here, we provided a tentative guide for the use of drugs for insomnia in children with NDDs. Well-controlled studies employing both objective polysomnography and subjective sleep measures are needed to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of the currently prescribed pediatric sleep medicines in children with NDDs.
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- Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: Pathogenesis and Treatment Considerations. [Review]
- AAAllergy Asthma Immunol Res 2017; 9(6):477-482
- The treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria begins with antihistamines; however, the dose required typically exceeds that recommended for allergic rhinitis. Second-generation, relatively non-sedat...
The treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria begins with antihistamines; however, the dose required typically exceeds that recommended for allergic rhinitis. Second-generation, relatively non-sedating H₁-receptor blockers are typically employed up to 4 times a day. First-generation antihistamines, such as hydroxyzine or diphenhydramine (Atarax or Benadryl), were employed similarly in the past. Should high-dose antihistamines fail to control symptoms (at least 50%), omalizumab at 300 mg/month is the next step. This is effective in 70% of antihistamine-refractory patients. H₂-receptor blockers and leukotriene antagonists are no longer recommended; they add little and the literature does not support significant efficacy. For those patients who are unresponsive to both antihistamines and omalizumab, cyclosporine is recommended next. This is similarly effective in 65%-70% of patients; however, care is needed regarding possible side-effects on blood pressure and renal function. Corticosteroids should not be employed chronically due to cumulative toxicity that is dose and time dependent. Brief courses of steroid e.g., 3-10 days can be employed for severe exacerbations, but should be an infrequent occurrence. Finally, other agents, such as dapsone or sulfasalazine, can be tried for those patients unresponsive to antihistamines, omalizumab, and cyclosporine.