- Preconditioning with atorvastatin against renal ischemic-reperfusion injury in non-diabetic versus diabetic rats. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Physiol Pharmacol 2018 Nov 09
- Acute renal failure complicates renal ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) due to reactive oxygen species production. Atorvastatin (ATO) has antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. The current study inves...
Acute renal failure complicates renal ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) due to reactive oxygen species production. Atorvastatin (ATO) has antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. The current study investigated whether ATO alleviated damages induced by renal I/R injury in non-diabetic versus diabetic rat models. Thirty-six rats (18/group) were divided into non-diabetic and diabetic Groups, A and B, respectively: Group A1 (sham), Group A2 (I/R), Group A3 (ATO + I/R), Group B1 (sham), Group B2 (I/R), and Group B3 (ATO + I/R). All groups experienced 45 minutes of renal ischemia, bilaterally, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Groups A3 and B3 were treated with intraperitoneal single doses of ATO (10 mg/kg) 30 minutes before ischemia. Histological analysis of kidney tissues, immune expression of caspase 3 and CD44, kidney function tests, and oxidative stress markers, assessed tubular injury. Histological analysis revealed marked tubular damage in Groups A2 and B2 but improvement in Groups A3 and B3. Improvements were also found for immune expression of caspase 3 and CD44, kidney function tests, and oxidative stress markers. Our results suggested ATO may ameliorate renal I/R injury, differently between non-diabetic and diabetic rats.
- Temporal trends, determinants, and impact of high-intensity statin prescriptions after percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from a large single-center prospective registry. [Journal Article]
- AHAm Heart J 2018 Sep 12; 207:10-18
- CONCLUSIONS: Although the rate of HIS prescriptions after PCI has increased in recent years, important heterogeneity remains and should be addressed to improve practices in patients undergoing PCI.
- Therapeutic effect of irbesartan combined with atorvastatin calcium in the treatment of rats with coronary heart disease. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 16(5):4119-4123
- This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of irbesartan combined with atorvastatin calcium in the treatment of rats with coronary heart disease. One hundred sixty Wistar rats were select...
This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of irbesartan combined with atorvastatin calcium in the treatment of rats with coronary heart disease. One hundred sixty Wistar rats were selected to establish coronary heart disease model. Rats with coronary heart disease were randomly divided into 4 groups: Model, irbesartan, atorvastatin calcium and combination groups (irbesartan combined with atorvastatin calcium group). Rats in irbesartan group were treated with 50 mg/(kg.day) irbesartan; rats in atorvastatin calcium group were given atorvastatin calcium at a dose of 10 mg/(kg.day); rats in combination group were subjected to atorvastatin calcium at a dose of 10 mg/(kg.day) and irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/(kg.day), while rats in model groups were given intragastric administration of normal saline at a dose of 2 ml/day. Serum lipids, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and TC/HDL-C, were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer. Expression of sPLA2-V in myocardium and aortic trunk of rats was detected by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. After treatment, levels of serum TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C and TC/HDL-C in rats of each treatment group were better than those in model group (p<0.05). Expression level of sPLA2-V in myocardium and aortic trunk in model group was significantly higher than that in other groups (p<0.05). Expression level of sPLA2-V in combination group was significantly lower than that in irbesartan and atorvastatin calcium groups (p<0.05). Combination of irbesartan and atorvastatin calcium is superior to irbesartan or atorvastatin calcium alone in the treatment of rats with coronary heart disease. The possible explanation is that the two drugs can reduce the expression of sPLA2-V in myocardium and aortic trunk, which in turn relieved atherosclerosis and achieved better therapeutic effect.
- Erchen Decoction Ameliorates Lipid Metabolism by the Regulation of the Protein CAV-1 and the Receptors VLDLR, LDLR, ABCA1, and SRB1 in a High-Fat Diet Rat Model. [Journal Article]
- EBEvid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018; 2018:5309490
- Lipid metabolism disorder is a common metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal lipid levels in blood. Erchen decoction (ECD) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription, which is used for the ...
Lipid metabolism disorder is a common metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal lipid levels in blood. Erchen decoction (ECD) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription, which is used for the treatment of diseases caused by retention of phlegm dampness. It has been reported to ameliorate the disorder of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of ECD in lipid metabolism disorder induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. ECD (4.35g/kg/d) and atorvastatin (10mg/kg/d, positive control) were orally administered to HFD-fed rats for four weeks. The parameters, food, water consumption, body weight, body length, liver, and visceral fat weight and the content of serum lipids and lipid transporters were assessed. The effects of ECD on the mRNA and protein expression levels of lipid transport factors were measured by real-time PCR and western blotting. The present study demonstrated that ECD improved the disorders of serum lipid and lipid transporters in HFD-fed rats, TG (0.70±0.08 mmol/L, p<0.01), LDL-C (1.50±0.19 mmol/L, p<0.01), LDL (1.38±0.21 mmol/L, p<0.05), and oxLDL (1.77±0.39 ng/mL, p<0.05) were downregulated, while HDL-C (0.87±0.13 mmol/L, p<0.01), FFA (0.62±0.13 mmol/L, p<0.05), HDL (38.8±4.0 mg/dL, p<0.05), and CETP (903.6±120.0 ng/mL, p<0.05) were upregulated. But ECD obviously had no effects on the indices food/water/energy intake, body/tissue (liver and fat) weight, and BMI (p>0.05). Concomitantly, ECD reversed the abnormal expressions of those lipid transport factors in the liver and visceral fat.
- Statins attenuate outgrowth of breast cancer metastases. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Cancer 2018; 119(9):1094-1105
- CONCLUSIONS: As statins can block metastatic tumor outgrowth, they should be considered for use as long-term adjuvant drugs to delay clinical emergence and decrease mortality in breast cancer patients.
- Atorvastatin alleviates early hypertensive renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018 Nov 03; 109:602-609
- This study aimed to examine the effects of atorvastatin on early hypertensive renal damage and explored the underlying mechanisms. 12-week-old salt-loaded spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) were di...
This study aimed to examine the effects of atorvastatin on early hypertensive renal damage and explored the underlying mechanisms. 12-week-old salt-loaded spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) were divided into four groups: atorvastatin (AVT), losartan potassium (LP), atorvastatin combined with peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) inhibitor (AVT + GW9662), and saline. During 10 weeks administration blood pressure and urea albumin creatinine ratio were determined. We also examined the renal function, pathological changes of kidney, inflammatory cytokines in the serum and the association of the change of inflammatory factors in the kidney tissue. AVT did not reduce the mortality of the SHRs. AVT reduced the blood pressure of SHRs, but the effect was not comparable to that of LP. AVT significantly decreased urine protein. AVT and LP displayed comparable effects by significantly decreasing inflammatory cytokines (hs-CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β) levels in serum. AVT and LP both apparently improved renal pathological changes and significantly reduced the infiltration of macrophage in renal tubular interstitial. Both mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4, NFκB, MCP-1 were significantly down regulated in AVT and LP groups. There was no significant change in macrophage polarity. The addition of PPAR-γ inhibitor partially reduced the anti-inflammatory effect of AVT. These results mean that Atorvastatin can alleviates the pathology of hypertensive renal damage. Atorvastatin protects the kidney by reducing the apparent inflammation in salt-loaded SHRs. Atorvastatin alleviates inflammation partially by augmenting expression of PPAR-γ.
- Simultaneous LC-MS/MS analysis of simvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin and their active metabolites for plasma samples of obese patients underwent gastric bypass surgery. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Oct 28; 164:258-267
- Statins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are considered the first line treatment of hyperlipidemia to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of hyperlipidemia and th...
Statins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are considered the first line treatment of hyperlipidemia to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of hyperlipidemia and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are higher in obese patients. Published methods for the quantification of statins and their active metabolites did not test for matrix effect of or validate the method in hyperlipidemic plasma. A sensitive, specific, accurate, and reliable LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of simvastatin (SMV), active metabolite of simvastatin acid (SMV-A), atorvastatin (ATV), active metabolites of 2-hydroxy atorvastatin (2-OH-ATV), 4-hydroxy atorvastatin (4-OH-ATV), and rosuvastatin (RSV) was developed and validated in plasma with low (52-103 mg/dl, <300 mg/dl) and high (352-403 mg/dl, >300 mg/dl) levels of triglyceride. The column used in this method was ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm I.D., 1.7 μm). A gradient elution of mobile phase A (10 mM ammonium formate and 0.04% formic acid in water) and mobile phase B (acetonitrile) was used with a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min and run time of 5 min. The transitions of m/z 436.3 → 285.2 for SMV, m/z 437.2 → 303.2 for SMV-A, m/z 559.2 → 440.3 for ATV, m/z 575.4 → 440.3 for 2-OH-ATV and 4-OH-ATV, m/z 482.3 → 258.1 for RSV, and m/z 412.3 → 224.2 for fluvastatin (internal standard, IS) were determined by Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) method to detect transitions ions in the positive ion mode. The assay has a linear range of 0.25 (LLOQ) -100 ng/ml for all six analytes. Accuracy (87-114%), precision (3-13%), matrix effect (92-110%), and extraction recovery (88-100%) of the assay were within the 15% acceptable limit of FDA Guidelines in variations for plasma with both low and high triglyceride levels. The method was used successfully for the quantification of SMV, ATV, RSV, and their active metabolites in human plasma samples collected for an ongoing clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study on patients prior to and post gastric bypass surgery (GBS).
- Cost-Effectiveness of Primary Prevention with Statin Treatment for Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. [Journal Article]
- ATAdv Ther 2018 Nov 02
- CONCLUSIONS: Statin treatment with atorvastatin is most likely cost-effective for primary prevention in Chinese patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
- Intraoperative prediction of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury using urinary biomarkers of cell cycle arrest. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018 Sep 26
- CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative elevations of [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] can predict moderate or severe AKI and could provide an opportunity to alter postoperative management to prevent kidney injury.
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- Apelin‑13 ameliorates metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in a rat model of type 2 diabetes with a high‑fat diet. [Journal Article]
- MMMol Med Rep 2018 Oct 29
- Apelin has been reported to be associated with multiple physiological processes in the cardiovascular system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Apelin‑13 administration o...
Apelin has been reported to be associated with multiple physiological processes in the cardiovascular system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Apelin‑13 administration on cardiac function, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, endothelial function, inflammation and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic Goto‑Kakizaki (GK) rats, and compare the protective effects of Apelin‑13 with metformin or atorvastatin. In the present study, type 2 diabetes was induced in male Goto‑Kakizaki (GK) rats fed with high‑fat diet (HFD). Simultaneously, the rats were treated with metformin (350 mg/kg/d, by gavage), atorvastatin (50 mg/kg/d, by gavage) or Apelin‑13 (200 µg/kg/d, intraperitoneal injection) once daily for 4 consecutive weeks. Hemodynamic parameters were examined by RM6240BD multi‑channel physiological signal monitoring. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA‑IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein‑cholesterol (HDL‑C), low density lipoprotein‑cholesterol (LDL‑C), endothelin‑1 (ET‑1), nitric oxide (NO), constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), leptin and Apelin‑12 levels were measured. Western blotting was performed to determine the levels of Apelin‑12, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylated (p)‑5'adenosine monophosphate‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) α2. It was demonstrated that Apelin‑13 decreased heart rate, left ventricular end‑diastolic pressure, FPG, FINS, HOMA‑IR, TC, TG, LDL‑C, ET‑1, TNF‑α and leptin, whereas it increased the rise and fall of maximum rate of left ventricular pressure, HDL‑C, NO, cNOS activity and Apelin‑12 compared with the GK‑HFD group. In addition, GLUT4 and p‑AMPKα2 levels in myocardial tissues were elevated by administration of Apelin‑13. This protective effect of Apelin‑13 was comparable to that of metformin or atorvastatin. Overall, the present study demonstrated that administration ofApelin‑13 may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.