- Managing emerging mutagenicity risks: Late stage mutagenic impurity control within the atovaquone second generation synthesis. [Journal Article]
- RTRegul Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Aug 14
- The mutagenic-impurity control strategy for a second generation manufacturing route to the non-mutagenic antipneumocystic agent atovaquone (2-((1R,4R)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)cyclohexyl)-3-hydroxynaphthale...
The mutagenic-impurity control strategy for a second generation manufacturing route to the non-mutagenic antipneumocystic agent atovaquone (2-((1R,4R)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)cyclohexyl)-3-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione) 1 is described. Preliminary assessment highlighted multiple materials of concern which were largely discharged either through returning a negative bacterial mutagenicity assay or through confidence that the impurity would be purged during the downstream processing from when it was first introduced. Additional genotoxicity testing highlighted two materials of concern where initial assessment suggested that testing for these impurities at trace levels within the drug substance would be required. Following a thorough review of process purging detail, spiking and purging experimentation, and an understanding of the process parameters to which they were exposed an ICH M7 Option 4 approach could be justified for their control. The development of two 1H NMR spectroscopy methods for measurement of these impurities is also described as well as a proposed summary table for describing the underlying rationale for ICH M7 control rationales to regulators. This manuscript demonstrates that process purging of potential mutagenic impurities can be realised even when they are introduced in the later stages of a process and highlights the importance of scientific understanding rather than relying on a stage-counting approach.
- A targeted structure-activity analysis of endochin-like quinolones reveals potent Qi and Qo site inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome bc1 and identifies ELQ-400 as a remarkably effective compound against acute experimental toxoplasmosis. [Journal Article]
- AIACS Infect Dis 2018 Aug 17
- Cytochrome bc1 inhibitors have been broadly studied as human and veterinary medicines, and agricultural fungicides. For the most part, cytochrome bc1 inhibitors compete with ubiquinol at the ubiquino...
Cytochrome bc1 inhibitors have been broadly studied as human and veterinary medicines, and agricultural fungicides. For the most part, cytochrome bc1 inhibitors compete with ubiquinol at the ubiquinol oxidation (Qo) site or with ubiquinone at the quinone reduction (Qi) site. 4(1H)-quinolones with 3-position substituents may inhibit either site based on quinolone ring substituents. 4(1 H)-quinolones that inhibit the Qi site are highly effective against toxoplasmosis, malaria and babesiosis and do not inhibit human cytochrome bc1. We tested a series of 4(1 H)-quinolones against wild type and drug resistant strains of T. gondii and P. falciparum. These experiments identified very potent compounds that inhibit T. gondii proliferation at picomolar concentrations. The most potent compounds target the Qo site, and for these compounds, an alkyl side chain confers greater potency against T. gondii than bulkier side chains. Our experiments also show that substituents on the quinolone ring influenced selectivity between T. gondii and P. falciparum and between Qo and Qi site-mediated activity. Comparison of the parasite cytochrome b sequences identified amino acids that are associated with drug resistance in P. falciparum exist naturally in wild type T. gondii. These underlying differences may influence drug susceptibility. Finally, a Qo site active 4(1 H)-quinolone-3-diarylether tested in a murine model of toxoplasmosis was superior to atovaquone, resulting in survival from Type I strain T. gondii infection. These experiments identify highly effective compounds for toxoplasmosis and provide valuable insight into the structure-activity relationship of cytochrome bc1 inhibitors.
- Influence of organic modifier and separation modes for lipophilicity assessment of drugs using thin layer chromatography indices. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr A 2018 Aug 04
- Lipophilicity constitutes one of the most important physicochemical properties in the design and development of drug molecules. In the present work thin layer chromatography (TLC) has been utilized t...
Lipophilicity constitutes one of the most important physicochemical properties in the design and development of drug molecules. In the present work thin layer chromatography (TLC) has been utilized to evaluate lipophilicity of 11 representative drugs, which included six proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, lansoprazole, ilaprazole, and tenatoprazole), an anti-vertigo drug, betahistine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, anti-malarial drug, atovaquone, an anti-HIV agent, atazanavir and a hormonal drug, calcitriol. Normal as well as reversed-phase separation modes were evaluated to study the effect of different organic modifiers for the estimation of lipophilicity. The quantitative descriptor of lipophilicity, the partition coefficient (logP) was estimated by suitably optimizing the solvent systems for both the modes. The best mobile phase pairs for NPTLC and RPTLC were toluene-acetonitrile and water-methanol respectively. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, as well as non-parametric methods like sum of ranking differences and generalized pair wise correlation revealed the dominant pattern in the data. The results obtained from both the separation modes were comparable and were in good agreement with the computational data for all the drugs.
- Activities of anti-Toxoplasma drugs and compounds against tissue cysts in the last three decades (1987 to 2017), a systematic review. [Review]
- PRParasitol Res 2018 Aug 08
- Currently, there is no approved therapy that can eradicate Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts, which are responsible for chronic infection. This systematic review was performed to assess drugs or compoun...
Currently, there is no approved therapy that can eradicate Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts, which are responsible for chronic infection. This systematic review was performed to assess drugs or compounds that can be used as anti-T. gondii tissue cysts in vitro and in vivo. English electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) were systematically searched for articles published up to 2017. A total of 55 papers published from 1987 to 2017 were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Among the drugs, atovaquone and azithromycin were found effective after long-term inoculation into mice; however, clinical cases of resistance to these drugs have been reported. Also, FR235222, QUI-11, tanshinone IIA, and hydroxyzine were shown to be effective against Toxoplasma cysts, but their effectiveness in vivo remains unknown. Additionally, compound 32, endochin-like quinolones, miltefosine, and guanabenz can be used as effective antiparasitic with the unique ability to reduce brain tissue cysts in chronically infected mice. Importantly, these antimicrobial agents are significant criteria for drug candidates. Future studies should focus on the biology and drug susceptibility of the cyst form of T. gondii in chronic toxoplasmosis patients to find more effective strategies that have sterilizing activity for eliminating T. gondii tissue cysts from the host, preventing disease relapse and potentially shortening the required duration of drug administration. Graphical abstract.
- Imported and autochthonous malaria in West Saudi Arabia: results from a reference hospital. [Journal Article]
- MJMalar J 2018 Aug 07; 17(1):286
- CONCLUSIONS: Haplotypes of P. falciparum in the western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia exhibit high resistance against antifolate drugs. These results should be extensively discussed when planning to modify anti-malarial drug protocols in the future.
- A Case of Recrudescence Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Treated with Atovaquone-Proguanil. [Journal Article]
- TPTurkiye Parazitol Derg 2018 Jun 01
- Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by infection with the Plasmodium protozoa transmitted by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Despite successful control programs in many c...
Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by infection with the Plasmodium protozoa transmitted by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Despite successful control programs in many countries, malaria remains to be a major disease burden worldwide, with approximately 584,000 deaths annually. The incidence of the disease and responsible species may differ due to increased human movements between countries. Plasmodium falciparum infection carries a poor prognosis with a high mortality if untreated, but it has an excellent prognosis if diagnosed early and treated appropriately. In the present study, we described a patient diagnosed with falciparum malaria and treated with atovaquone-proguanil who had a history of traveling to Uganda.
- Treatment of adults with acute uncomplicated malaria with azithromycin and chloroquine in India, Colombia, and Suriname. [Journal Article]
- RRRes Rep Trop Med 2017; 8:85-104
- CONCLUSIONS: In India, Colombia, and Suriname, 1 g azithromycin with CQ QD for 3 days was inferior to established comparator agents. An improved response rate was observed when the dose of azithromycin was increased to 2 g.
- [Diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of malaria in the Czech Republic]. [Journal Article]
- KMKlin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek 2018; 24(1):20-30
- Malaria represents the most important parasitic infection imported from the tropics causing death in 1-2 % of travelers with this diagnosis. Around 30 cases of malaria are diagnosed in the Czech Repu...
Malaria represents the most important parasitic infection imported from the tropics causing death in 1-2 % of travelers with this diagnosis. Around 30 cases of malaria are diagnosed in the Czech Republic every year. Fever is the most common clinical presentation. The most severe forms of malaria are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The diagnosis of malaria is based on examination of stained thick and thin blood smears. This method enables determination of Plasmodium species and parasite count. The treatment of ma-laria has to be initiated immediately after the laboratory confirmation. In the Czech Republic, uncomplicated falciparum malaria is treated by oral administration of artemether/lumefantrine or atovaquone/proguanil. Complicated falciparum malaria is treated by parenteral administration of quinine in combination with clindamycin. For the chemoprophylaxis of malaria in travelers to the highly endemic regions, atovaquone/proguanil, doxycycline or mefloquine are recommended.
- Targeting mitochondria by anthelmintic drug atovaquone sensitizes renal cell carcinoma to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biochem Mol Toxicol 2018 Jul 13; :e22195
- Targeting mitochondria respiration is an effective therapeutic strategy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Atovaquone is a FDA-approved antibiotic but is also known as a mitochondrial inhibitor. We found...
Targeting mitochondria respiration is an effective therapeutic strategy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Atovaquone is a FDA-approved antibiotic but is also known as a mitochondrial inhibitor. We found that atovaquone inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of RCC cells. Mechanistically, atovaquone inhibits mitochondrial respiration in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner, via targeting mitochondrial respiratory complex III. Although increased glycolysis was observed in atovaquone-treated cells, atovaquone decreased ATP levels. As a consequence of mitochondrial respiration inhibition, reactive oxygen species levels were increased by atovaquone. The complete rescue of atovaquone's effects by an antioxidant suggests the important role of oxidative stress in the action of atovaquone in RCC. Importantly, atovaquone enhanced the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and interferon-α (IFN-α). Our preclinical findings suggest that atovaquone is a useful addition for RCC treatment. Our work also further demonstrates that RCC is more dependent on mitochondrial respiration than glycolysis.
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- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- No information is available on the use of atovaquone during breastfeeding. However, the quantity of drug in breast milk is assumed too low to provide adequate protection against malaria for the breas...
No information is available on the use of atovaquone during breastfeeding. However, the quantity of drug in breast milk is assumed too low to provide adequate protection against malaria for the breastfed infant. A dosage has been established for infants weighing as little as 5 kg, so it is unlikely to adversely affect breastfed infants weighing 5 kg or more.