- [The role of infection prevention in the control of antimicrobial resistance : Any avoided infection contributes to the reduction of antibiotic use]. [Review]
- BGBundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2018 Mar 19
- Clinically relevant infections are the primary indication for the use of antimicrobial agents in human medicine. Consequently, the prevention of infections is the fundament of all measures to rationa...
Clinically relevant infections are the primary indication for the use of antimicrobial agents in human medicine. Consequently, the prevention of infections is the fundament of all measures to rationally reduce the use of antibiotics. A prevented infection must not be treated. For the prevention of several community-acquired infections, vaccines are available. In addition, several infections may be prevented on the basis of knowledge and responsible behavior. However, the prevention of nosocomial infections depends mainly on the responsibility of third parties in the context of medical procedures. Effective preventive measures are described in guidelines carefully prepared by the commission for hospital hygiene and infection prevention in Germany. The consequent implementation of these guidelines contributes to patient safety and the prevention of the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Highly cost-effective measures are a high degree of compliance with the rules for hand hygiene, perioperative antiseptic measures, and guidelines for the use of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis. The documentation of decreasing or low rates of infections and antimicrobial resistance helps to verify the success of preventive measures.
- A rare case of severe third degree friction burns and large Morel-Lavallee lesion of the abdominal wall. [Journal Article]
- BTBurns Trauma 2018; 6:6
- CONCLUSIONS: MLL is a rare, often overlooked, internal degloving injury. Surgeons must maintain a high index of suspicion when dealing with third degree friction burns as they may mask underlying injuries such as MLL, and a delay in diagnosis can lead to increased morbidity.
- Structural and biochemical characterization of a GH3 Β-glucosidase from the probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium adolescentis. [Journal Article]
- BBiochimie 2018 Mar 16
- Bifidobacterium is an important genus of probiotic bacteria colonizing the human gut. These bacteria can uptake oligosaccharides for the fermentative metabolism of hexoses and pentoses, producing lac...
Bifidobacterium is an important genus of probiotic bacteria colonizing the human gut. These bacteria can uptake oligosaccharides for the fermentative metabolism of hexoses and pentoses, producing lactate, acetate as well as short-chain fatty acids and propionate. These end-products are known to have important effects on human health. β-glucosidases (EC 22.214.171.124) are pivotal enzymes for the metabolism and homeostasis of Bifidobacterium, since they hydrolyze small and soluble saccharides, typically producing glucose. Here we describe the cloning, expression, biochemical characterization and the first X-ray structure of a GH3 β-glucosidase from the probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BaBgl3). The purified BaBgl3 showed a maximal activity at 45 °C and pH 6.5. Under the optimum conditions, BaBgl3 is highly active on 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (pNPG) and, at a lesser degree, on 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside (pNPX, about 32% of the activity observed for pNPG). The 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of BaBgl3 revealed a three-domain structure composed of a TIM barrel domain, which together with α/β sandwich domain accommodate the active site and a third C-terminal fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain with unknown function. Modeling of the substrate in the active site indicates that an aspartate interacts with the hydroxyl group of the C6 present in pNPG but absent in pNPX, which explains the substrate preference. Finally, the enzyme is significantly stabilized by glycerol and galactose, resulting in considerable increase in the enzyme activity and its lifetime. The structural and biochemical studies presented here provide a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of complex carbohydrates degradation utilized by probiotic bacteria as well as for the development of new prebiotic oligosaccharides.
- Machine learning methods as a tool to analyse incomplete or irregularly sampled radon time series data. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Mar 01; 630:1155-1167
- Machine learning is a class of statistical techniques which has proven to be a powerful tool for modelling the behaviour of complex systems, in which response quantities depend on assumed controls or...
Machine learning is a class of statistical techniques which has proven to be a powerful tool for modelling the behaviour of complex systems, in which response quantities depend on assumed controls or predictors in a complicated way. In this paper, as our first purpose, we propose the application of machine learning to reconstruct incomplete or irregularly sampled data of time series indoor radon (222Rn). The physical assumption underlying the modelling is that Rn concentration in the air is controlled by environmental variables such as air temperature and pressure. The algorithms "learn" from complete sections of multivariate series, derive a dependence model and apply it to sections where the controls are available, but not the response (Rn), and in this way complete the Rn series. Three machine learning techniques are applied in this study, namely random forest, its extension called the gradient boosting machine and deep learning. For a comparison, we apply the classical multiple regression in a generalized linear model version. Performance of the models is evaluated through different metrics. The performance of the gradient boosting machine is found to be superior to that of the other techniques. By applying learning machines, we show, as our second purpose, that missing data or periods of Rn series data can be reconstructed and resampled on a regular grid reasonably, if data of appropriate physical controls are available. The techniques also identify to which degree the assumed controls contribute to imputing missing Rn values. Our third purpose, though no less important from the viewpoint of physics, is identifying to which degree physical, in this case environmental variables, are relevant as Rn predictors, or in other words, which predictors explain most of the temporal variability of Rn. We show that variables which contribute most to the Rn series reconstruction, are temperature, relative humidity and day of the year. The first two are physical predictors, while "day of the year" is a statistical proxy or surrogate for missing or unknown predictors.
- MUC16 overexpression induced by gene mutations promotes lung cancer cell growth and invasion. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2018 Feb 23; 9(15):12226-12239
- Air pollution is one of the leading causes of lung cancer. Air pollution-related lung cancer is a deteriorating public health problem, particularly in developing countries. TheMUC16gene is one of the...
Air pollution is one of the leading causes of lung cancer. Air pollution-related lung cancer is a deteriorating public health problem, particularly in developing countries. TheMUC16gene is one of the most frequently mutated genes in air pollution-related lung cancer. In the present study,MUC16mRNA expression was increased in ∼50% of air pollution-related lung cancer samples obtained from patients residing in air-polluted regions (Xuanwei and Fuyuan, Yunnan, China), andMUC16mRNA levels were correlated with the degree of air pollution. Furthermore, sequencing of the capturedMUC16gene identified 561 mutation sites within theMUC16gene in the air pollution-related lung cancer tissues. Interestingly, some mutations at specific sites and one region were associated withMUC16mRNA up-regulation. Therefore, we further investigated the impacts of gene mutation onMUC16expressions and cell behaviors in cultured cells by inducing certain mutations within theMUC16gene using CRISPER/Cas9 genome editing technology. Certain mutations within theMUC16gene inducedMUC16overexpression at both the mRNA and the protein level in the cultured cells. Additionally,MUC16overexpression induced by gene mutations had functional effects on the behavior of lung cancer cells, including increasing their resistance to cisplatin, promoting their growth, and enhancing their migration and invasion capabilities. Based on the data, we suggest that MUC16 mutations potentially associated with air pollution may participate in the development and progression of air pollution-related lung cancer. In addition to ovarian cancer, MUC16 may be a candidate biomarker for lung cancer.
- Expression levels of serum miRNA-195 in different types of patients with cholangiocarcinoma and its value to determine the prognosis thereof. [Journal Article]
- OLOncol Lett 2018; 15(4):5947-5951
- This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of microRNA-195 (miRNA-195) in different types of patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and its correlation with the prognosis. Serum samples we...
This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of microRNA-195 (miRNA-195) in different types of patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and its correlation with the prognosis. Serum samples were collected from different types of patients with CCA (I, II, III, IV) and normal cases, followed by detection of expression of miRNA-195 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The serum samples of 204 patients with CCA, including 75 cases of type I, 68 cases of type II, 35 cases of type III and 26 cases of type IV and 200 healthy subjects were selected. The baseline clinicopathological data of patients with CCA were assessed and recorded, and patients were followed up constantly. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was established, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the difference of miRNA-195 expression levels between patients with CCA and normal controls. Survival curves were set up for groups with high and low expression levels via the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to evaluate the difference of survival curves between the two groups. The expression of miR-195 in patients with CCA was significantly lower than that in the normal control group, with a sensitivity of 0.78 and a specificity of 0.76, and it was positively correlated with the pathological grade of CCA. Additionally, the expression level of serum miRNA-195 was associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.009) and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification (P=0.010). The survival analysis revealed that the prognosis in patients with CCA in types III and IV was poorer than that in those with types I and III who had a low expression of miRNA-195 (P=0.0026). The results show that miR-195 is an important marker that reflects the malignant degree of CCA, and it is expected to be a reference marker to determine the prognosis of CCA.
- Sutureless aortic valve replacement with concomitant valvular surgery. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018 Feb 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Perceval SU-AVR is a technically feasible and safe procedure in patients with severe aortic stenosis with good results even in the presence of multivalvular disease and atrial fibrillation surgery.
- Mortality risk factors in war-related pediatric burns: A comparative study among two distinct populations. [Journal Article]
- BBurns 2018 Mar 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis showed that flame/fire and blast burns were severe and fatal in more pediatric Syrian victims than the Turkey residents due to the severity of war inflicted burned wounds, the living conditions at the refugee camps, and the tent cities. Our present study is significant as our data would alert authorities to predict pediatric WRBI risk factors, burn survivals and casualties, and thus plan strategies to promote training programs for burn management of two distinct populations to reduce risk factors of burn mortality. Burnt surface area (BuSA) is a new parameter we derived to predict mortality risk factors in WRBI.
- Parameter-specific analgesic effects of electroacupuncture mediated by degree of regulation TRPV1 and P2X3 in inflammatory pain in rats. [Journal Article]
- LSLife Sci 2018 Mar 14
- CONCLUSIONS: EA has a parameter-specific effect on chronic inflammatory pain relief, which primarily depend on the stimulation frequency and not on the stimulation time at a certain stimulation time. The parameter-specific analgesic effect of EA is at least partially related to mediation of the protein level of TRPV1 and P2X3 expression in DRG of CFA rats.
New Search Next
- Comparison of 0.46% calcium diets with and without added anions with a 0.7% calcium anionic diet as a means to reduce periparturient hypocalcemia. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2018 Mar 14
- Most studies demonstrating that diets with low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) reduce hypocalcemia in cows add enough anions to the diet to reduce urine pH below 7.0. One objective of these ex...
Most studies demonstrating that diets with low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) reduce hypocalcemia in cows add enough anions to the diet to reduce urine pH below 7.0. One objective of these experiments was to determine whether there is any benefit to periparturient plasma Ca concentration if diet anion addition results in a lesser degree of acidification of the cow and urine pH does not go below 7.0. Another method for reducing hypocalcemia involves feeding a prepartal diet that is Ca deficient. This places the cow in negative Ca balance before calving, stimulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D secretion before calving and thus promoting Ca homeostasis at calving. As practiced in the field, low-Ca diets are often about 0.5% Ca. Our second objective was to determine whether a 0.46% Ca diet would be sufficiently low in Ca to stimulate PTH secretion before calving. A meta-analysis of the literature suggests that a 0.5% Ca, low-DCAD diet will reduce hypocalcemia better than a 0.7% Ca diet. A third objective was to compare periparturient plasma Ca in cows fed 0.46 or 0.72% Ca diets with similar DCAD. In experiment 1, anions (primarily chloride) or anions plus Ca were added to a 1.4% K basal diet to create the following diets: 0.46% Ca and +167 mEq/kg of DCAD, 0.46% Ca and -13 mEq/kg of DCAD, and 0.72% Ca and -17 mEq/kg of DCAD. In experiment 2, the same amounts of anion were added to a 2.05% K basal diet to create the following diets: 0.46% Ca and +327 mEq/kg of DCAD, 0.46% Ca and +146 mEq/kg of DCAD, and 0.72% Ca and +140 mEq/kg of DCAD. In experiment 1, cows fed the diet with 0.46% Ca and +167 mEq/kg of DCAD had significantly lower plasma Ca concentration after calving than cows fed the 0.46 or 0.72% Ca diets with anions. Periparturient plasma Ca concentrations did not differ in cows fed the low-DCAD diets with 0.46 or 0.72% Ca. Urine pH was reduced from 8.27 in the diet with 0.46% Ca and +167 mEq/kg of DCAD to 7.07 and 7.41 in the 0.46 and 0.72% Ca anion diets, respectively. Precalving plasma PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were similar in cows fed the 0.46% Ca diets and the 0.72% Ca diets, suggesting that the 0.46% Ca diets were not low enough in Ca to place the cow in negative Ca balance before calving. In experiment 2, adding the anion supplements to a 2.05% K diet did not reduce urine pH below 8.0. Periparturient plasma Ca concentrations did not differ in cows in any group in experiment 2. Precalving diets that are 0.46% Ca fed ad libitum are too high in Ca to stimulate Ca homeostasis before calving. Adding anions to a diet can benefit periparturient cow plasma Ca concentration, but only if it alters acid-base status enough to reduce urine pH below 7.5.