- Gastric Neuroendocrine Tumor and Duodenal Gastrinoma With Chronic Autoimmune Atrophic Gastritis. [Journal Article]
- PPancreas 2019; 48(1):131-134
- Our group observed the first case of synchronous gastric neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and duodenal gastrinoma with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), in the absence of Helicobacter pylori inf...
Our group observed the first case of synchronous gastric neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and duodenal gastrinoma with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), in the absence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic data were abstracted from the electronic medical record at Mount Sinai Hospital from 2013 to 2015. The patient's anonymity was carefully protected, and informed consent was obtained for publication of protected health information. A 53-year-old woman with hypertension presented to Mount Sinai Hospital in June 2013 for a second opinion for management of gastric and duodenal NETs. After evaluation by gastroenterology and surgery, repeat upper endoscopy with ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration revealed multiple diminutive type I gastric NETs and 2 duodenal NETs, against a background of autoimmune CAG, with biopsy pathology negative for H. pylori. She subsequently underwent a transduodenal resection of the duodenal NETs, confirming low-grade, gastrin-positive, stage T2 duodenal NET. On routine follow-up over the next 2 years, clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic surveillance revealed no recurrent or metastatic gastric or duodenal disease. This first report of synchronous duodenal gastrinoma and gastric NET in the setting of autoimmune CAG can broaden our understanding of gastric NET pathophysiology.
- Overexpression of IL-11 promotes premalignant gastric epithelial hyperplasia in isolation from germline gp130-JAK-STAT3 driver mutations. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Dec 06
- Expression of the cytokine IL-11 is elevated in human Helicobacter pylori infection and progressively increases with worsening gastric pathology. Additionally, IL-11 is required for tumour developmen...
Expression of the cytokine IL-11 is elevated in human Helicobacter pylori infection and progressively increases with worsening gastric pathology. Additionally, IL-11 is required for tumour development in STAT3 dependent murine models of gastric cancer (GC) and, when administered acutely, causes resolving atrophic gastritis. However, it is unclear whether locally elevated IL-11 ligand expression can, in isolation from oncogenic gp130-JAK-STAT pathway mutations, initiate GC pathogenesis. Here we developed a transgenic mouse model of stomach-specific (keratin 19 promoter) IL-11 ligand overexpression. Keratin 19 promoter-IL-11 transgenic ( K19-IL11Tg) mice showed specific IL-11 overexpression in gastric corpus and antrum, but not elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract, or in other tissues. K19-IL11Tg mice developed spontaneous premalignant disease of the gastric epithelium, progressing from atrophic gastritis to TFF2-positive metaplasia and severe epithelial hyperplasia, including adenoma-like lesions in a subset of older (1-year-old) animals. Though locally advanced, the hyperplastic lesions remained non-invasive. Helicobacter ( H.) pylori infection in K19-IL11Tg mice accelerated some aspects of the premalignant phenotype. Finally, K19-IL11Tg mice had splenomegaly in association with elevated serum IL-11, with spleens showing an expanded myeloid compartment. Our results provide direct in vivo functional evidence that stomach-specific overexpression of IL-11, in isolation from germline gp130-JAK-STAT3 genetic drivers, is sufficient for premalignant progression. These findings have important functional implications for human GC, in which frequent IL-11 overexpression occurs in the reported absence of somatic mutations in gp130 signalling components.
- Pernicious Anemia Presented with Isolated Nominal Dysphasia in Type Ill Polyglandular Failure Female Patient. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Sep 14; 10(9):e3306
- Pernicious anemia (also known as Biermer's disease) is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis which predominantly affects the fundus of the stomach. It results in a deficiency of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) as...
Pernicious anemia (also known as Biermer's disease) is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis which predominantly affects the fundus of the stomach. It results in a deficiency of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) as it affects the normal process of absorption in the ileum. The pernicious anemia is characterized by a wide range of hematological and neurological features. Neurological features can present without hematological manifestations. One of the early neurological features of this anemia is nominal dysphasia (word-finding difficulties), which was usually not reported before as an isolated finding. We present a case of pernicious anemia with isolated nominal dysphasia responding dramatically to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy.
- Clinical features of Helicobacter pylori antibody-positive junior high school students in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. [Journal Article]
- HHelicobacter 2018 Dec 04; :e12559
- CONCLUSIONS: Helicobacter pylori test for junior high school students represents an opportunity to diagnose the peptic ulcer, iron deficiency anemia, and gastric atrophy.
- Sero-prevalence of Helicobacter pylori CagA immunoglobulin G antibody, serum pepsinogens and haemoglobin levels in adults. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Dec 04; 8(1):17616
- Associations observed of Helicobacter pylori infection with haemoglobin levels are inconsistent. We examined associations of H. pylori sero-prevalence and serum pepsinogens (PGs), as non-invasive mar...
Associations observed of Helicobacter pylori infection with haemoglobin levels are inconsistent. We examined associations of H. pylori sero-prevalence and serum pepsinogens (PGs), as non-invasive markers of atrophic gastritis, with haemoglobin levels. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 654 Jewish and 937 Arab residents of Jerusalem, aged 25-78 years, randomly selected from Israel's national population registry in age-sex and population strata. Sera were tested for H. pylori IgG, cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) antigen IgG antibody and PGs levels. Multivariable models were fitted to account for confounders. Participants with atrophic gastritis (PGI < 30 μg/L or a PGI: PGII < 3.0) had lower haemoglobin levels than those without: beta-coefficient -0.34 (95% CI -0.59, -0.09); in men -0.27 (95% CI -0.67, 0.12), and in women -0.43 (95% CI -0.74, -0.12). Lower haemoglobin levels were noted in persons with CagA antibody than in those H. pylori sero-negative or H. pylori-CagA sero-negative: beta-coefficient -0.14 (95% CI -0.29, 0.01). Anaemia was more common among women and men with than without atrophic gastritis: adjusted OR 2.58 (95% CI 1.48, 4.48) and 1.52 (95% CI 0.59, 3.95), respectively. In conclusion, independent of known correlates, atrophic gastritis and apparently CagA sero-positivity, a marker of H. pylori virulent strains, are associated with lower haemoglobin levels.
- Combined Gastric and Colorectal Cancer Screening-A New Strategy. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 03; 19(12)
- CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of serum pepsinogen allows the identification of patients at increased risk of gastric cancer. A prevention strategy of combining a screening colonoscopy with a serological screening for preneoplastic gastric changes should be considered in the general population.
- Interferon-γ directly induces gastric epithelial cell death and is required for progression to metaplasia. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pathol 2018 Dec 03
- Chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa, often caused by autoimmune gastritis and/or infection with Helicobacter pylori, can lead to atrophy of acid-secreting parietal cells with metaplasia of rem...
Chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa, often caused by autoimmune gastritis and/or infection with Helicobacter pylori, can lead to atrophy of acid-secreting parietal cells with metaplasia of remaining cells. The histological pattern marks a critical step in the progression from chronic gastritis to gastric cancer, yet underlying mechanism(s) of inflammation-induced cell death of gastric epithelial cells are poorly understood. We investigated direct effects of a type 1 cytokine associated with autoimmunity and infection, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), on gastric epithelial cells. IFN-γ was applied to three dimensional organoid cultures of gastric epithelial cells derived from gastric corpus gland (gastroids) of control and IFN-γ receptor-deficient mice. Gastroids were also treated with supernatants from activated immune cells isolated from a mouse model of autoimmune-mediated atrophic gastritis (TxA23) with and without IFN-γ expression. Finally, histopathological analysis of atrophy and metaplasia severity was performed in TxA23 mice and compared to TxA23xIfng-/- mice. Gastric epithelial cells in gastroid cultures expressed IFN-γ receptor in the basolateral membrane, and gastroids died when treated with IFN-γ in an IFN-γ receptor-dependent manner. Supernatants from immune cells containing high levels of IFN-γ were highly toxic to gastroids, and toxicity was tempered when IFN-γ was either neutralized using a monoclonal antibody or when supernatants from Ifng-/- mouse immune cells were used. Finally, TxA23xIfng-/- mice showed near complete abrogation of pre-cancerous histopathological atrophy and metaplasia versus IFN-γ-sufficient controls. We identify IFN-γ as a critical promoter of parietal cell atrophy with metaplasia during the progression of gastritis to gastric atrophy and metaplasia.
- Two Cases of White Globe Appearance in Autoimmune Atrophic Gastritis. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Gastrointest Med 2018; 2018:7091520
- In this report, we described two patients with white globe appearance in autoimmune atrophic gastritis. Endoscopy revealed multiple white substances in the stomach in both cases. Biopsied specimens f...
In this report, we described two patients with white globe appearance in autoimmune atrophic gastritis. Endoscopy revealed multiple white substances in the stomach in both cases. Biopsied specimens from the lesions contained dilated glands and showed a decrease in parietal cells. Intraglandular necrotic debris and carcinoma were absent. These results confirmed that white globe appearance can be observed in autoimmune atrophic gastritis. Moreover, microscopic features for white globe appearance observed in these cases were different from those reported previously in gastric cancer lesions and were similar to those observed for noncancerous stomach.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that affects up to 50% of the population worldwide, with a higher prevalence in developing countries. H. pylori is ...
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that affects up to 50% of the population worldwide, with a higher prevalence in developing countries. H. pylori is the most important cause for chronic or atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric lymphoma, and gastric carcinoma; however, these complications are less often seen in children and adolescents compared to adults. H. pylori infection is usually acquired in early childhood and persists in the absence of treatment. A phase 3 clinical trial in children in China documented the efficacy and safety of an oral recombinant H. pylori vaccine, a future option to reduce the incidence of H. pylori infection.
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- Gastric Cancer Is the Leading Cause of Death in Italian Adult Patients With Common Variable Immunodeficiency. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:2546
- An increased prevalence of malignant lymphoma and of gastric cancer has been observed in large cohorts of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most frequently symptomatic primar...
An increased prevalence of malignant lymphoma and of gastric cancer has been observed in large cohorts of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most frequently symptomatic primary immunodeficiency. Surveillance strategies for cancers in CVID should be defined based on epidemiological data. Risks and mortality for cancers among 455 Italian patients with CVID were compared to cancer incidence data from the Italian Cancer Registry database. CVID patients showed an increased cancer incidence for all sites combined (Obs = 133, SIR = 2.4; 95%CI = 1.7-3.5), due to an excess of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (Obs = 33, SIR = 14.3; 95%CI = 8.4-22.6) and of gastric cancer (Obs = 25; SIR = 6.4; 95%CI = 3.2-12.5). CVID patients with gastric cancer and lymphoma had a worse survival in comparison to cancer-free CVID (HR: 4.8, 95%CI: 4.2-44.4 and HR: 4.2, 95%CI: 2.8-44.4). Similar to what observed in other series, CVID-associated lymphomas were more likely to be of B cell origin and often occurred at extra-nodal sites. We collected the largest case-series of gastric cancers in CVID subjects. In contrast to other reports, gastric cancer was the leading cause of death in CVID. Standardized mortality ratio indicated a 10.1-fold excess mortality among CVID patients with gastric cancer. CVID developed gastric cancer 15 years earlier than the normative population, but they had a similar overall survival. Only CVID diagnosed at early stage gastric cancer survived >24 months. Stomach histology from upper endoscopy performed before cancer onset showed areas of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia. CVID patients might progress rapidly to an advanced cancer stage as shown by patients developing a III-IV stage gastric cancer within 1 year from an endoscopy without signs of dysplasia. Based on high rate of mortality due to gastric cancer in Italian CVID patients, we hereby suggest a strategy aimed at early diagnosis, based on regular upper endoscopy and on Helicobacter pylori infection treatment, recommending an implementation of national guidelines.