- Salbutamol in acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning - a pilotdose-response phase II study. [Journal Article]
- CTClin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 Feb 20; :1-8
- CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study, within the limitations of its small size and variation between patients, found no apparent evidence that administration of nebulized salbutamol improved resuscitation of patients with acute OP insecticide self-poisoning. The data obtained provides a basis to design further studies to ultimately test the role of salbutamol in OP insecticide poisoning.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for antisialagogue/antivagaleffect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia.
Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for antisialagogue/antivagaleffect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia.
- Counteracting desensitization of human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with bispyridinium compounds as an approach against organophosphorus poisoning. [Journal Article]
- TLToxicol Lett 2017 Dec 14
- Irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of acetylcholine and overstimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors accounts for the acute toxicity of organoph...
Irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of acetylcholine and overstimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors accounts for the acute toxicity of organophosphorus compounds (OP). Accordingly, the mainstay pharmacotherapy against poisoning by OP comprises the competitive muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine to treat muscarinic effects and, in addition, oximes to reactivate inhibited AChE. A therapeutic gap still remains in the treatment of desensitized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors following OP exposure. Hereby, nicotinic effects result in paralysis of the central and peripheral respiratory system if untreated. Thus, these receptors pose an essential target for therapeutic indication to address these life-threatening nicotinic symptoms of the cholinergic crisis. Identification of ligands regulating dynamic transitions between functional states by binding to modulatory sites appears to be a promising strategy for therapeutic intervention. In this patch clamp study, the ability of differently substituted bispyridinium non-oximes to "resensitize" i.e. to recover the activity of desensitized human homomeric α7-type nAChRs stably transfected in CHO cells was investigated and compared to the already described α7-specific positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596. The structures of these bispyridinium analogues were based on the lead structure of the tert-butyl-substituted bispyridinium propane MB327, which has been shown to have a positive therapeutic effect due to a non-competitive antagonistic action at muscle-type nAChRs in vivo and has been found to have a positive allosteric activity at neuronal receptors in vitro. Prior to test compounds, desensitization of hα7-nAChRs was verified by applying an excess of nicotine revealing activation at low, and desensitization at high concentrations. Thereby, desensitization could be reduced by modulation with PNU-120596. Desensitization was further verified by dose-response profiles of agonists, carbamoylcholine and epibatidine in the absence and presence of PNU-120596. Although less pronounced than PNU-120596 and the lead structure MB327, bispyridinium compounds, particularly those substituted at position 3 and 4, resensitized the nicotine desensitized hα7-nAChRs in a concentration-dependent manner and prolonged the mean channel open time. In summary, identification of more potent compounds able to restore nAChR function in OP intoxication is needed for development of a putative efficient antidote.
- Utility of 2-Pyridine Aldoxime Methyl Chloride (2-PAM) for Acute Organophosphate Poisoning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. [Review]
- JMJ Med Toxicol 2017 Dec 11
- Organophosphates (OP) account for the majority of pesticide-related unintentional or intentional poisonings in lower- and middle-income countries. The therapeutic role of atropine is well-established...
Organophosphates (OP) account for the majority of pesticide-related unintentional or intentional poisonings in lower- and middle-income countries. The therapeutic role of atropine is well-established for patients with acute OP poisoning. The benefit of adding 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM), however, is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCT) to compare 2-PAM plus atropine in comparison to atropine alone for acute OP poisoning. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS up to March 2017. The Cochrane review handbook was used to assess the risk of bias. Data were abstracted and risk ratios (RR) were calculated for mortality, rate of intubation, duration of intubation, intermediate syndrome, and complications such as hospital-acquired infections, dysrhythmias, and pulmonary edema. We found five studies comprising 586 patients with varying risks of bias. The risk of death (RR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.5); intubation (RR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6); intermediate syndrome (RR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.6); complications (RR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.8); and the duration of intubation (mean difference 0.0, 95% CI - 1.6-1.6) were not significantly different between the atropine plus 2-PAM and atropine alone. Based on our meta-analysis of the available RCTs, 2-PAM was not shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute OP poisoning.
- Bioscavenger is effective as a delayed therapeutic intervention following percutaneous VX poisoning in the guinea-pig. [Journal Article]
- TLToxicol Lett 2017 Nov 26
- The prolonged systemic exposure that follows skin contamination with low volatility nerve agents, such as VX, requires treatment to be given over a long time due to the relatively short half-lives of...
The prolonged systemic exposure that follows skin contamination with low volatility nerve agents, such as VX, requires treatment to be given over a long time due to the relatively short half-lives of the therapeutic compounds used. Bioscavengers, such as butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), have been shown to provide effective post-exposure protection against percutaneous nerve agent when given immediately on signs of poisoning and to reduce reliance on additional treatments. In order to assess the benefits of administration of bioscavenger at later times, its effectiveness was assessed when administration was delayed for 2h after the appearance of signs of poisoning in guinea-pigs challenged with VX (4×LD50). VX-challenged animals received atropine, HI-6 and avizafone on signs of poisoning and 2h later the same combination with or without bioscavenger. Five out of 6 animals which received BChE 2h after the appearance of signs of poisoning survived to the end of the study at 48h, compared with 6 out of 6 which received BChE immediately on signs. All the animals (n=6+6) that received only MedCM, without the addition of BChE, died within 10h of poisoning. The toxicokinetics of a sub-lethal challenge of percutaneous VX were determined in untreated animals. Blood VX concentration peaked at approximately 4h after percutaneous dosing with 0.4×LD50; VX was still detectable at 36h and had declined to levels below the lower limit of quantification (10pg/mL) by 48h in 7 of 8 animals, with the remaining animal having a concentration of 12pg/mL. These studies confirm the persistent systemic exposure to nerve agent following percutaneous poisoning and demonstrate that bioscavenger can be an effective component of treatment even if its administration is delayed.
- Post-exposure treatment with the oxime RS194B rapidly reactivates and reverses advanced symptoms of lethal inhaled paraoxon in macaques. [Journal Article]
- TLToxicol Lett 2017 Nov 09
- Fatalities from organophosphate (OP) insecticide result from both occupational and deliberate exposure; significantly impacting human health. Like nerve agents, insecticides are neurotoxins which tar...
Fatalities from organophosphate (OP) insecticide result from both occupational and deliberate exposure; significantly impacting human health. Like nerve agents, insecticides are neurotoxins which target and inhibit acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in central and peripheral synapses in the cholinergic nervous system. Post-exposure therapeutic countermeasures generally include administration of atropine with a pyridinium aldoxime e.g. pralidoxime, to reactivate the OP-inhibited AChE. However, commonly used oximes inefficiently cross the bloodbrain barrier and are rapidly cleared and their benefit is debated. Recent findings have demonstrated the ability of a novel zwitterionic, centrally acting, brain penetrating oxime (RS194B) to reverse severe symptoms and rapidly reactivate sarin-inhibited AChE in macaques, but it has not been tested following OP pesticide poisoning. In the present study, the symptoms following a lethal dose of inhaled paraoxon (100ug/kg), were shown to mimic those in insecticide poisoned individuals and were also rapidly reversed in macaques by post-exposure IM administration of 80mg/kg of RS194B. This occurred with a concomitant reactivation of AChE to 40-100% in<1hr and BChE (40% in 8h). These findings will be used to develop a macaque model with RS194B as a post-exposure treatment for insecticide poisoning and generate efficacy data for approval under the FDA Animal rule.
- The efficacy of HI-6 DMS in a sustained infusion against percutaneous VX poisoning in the guinea-pig. [Journal Article]
- TLToxicol Lett 2017 Nov 10
- Post-exposure nerve agent treatment usually includes administration of an oxime, which acts to restore function of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). For immediate treatment of military personne...
Post-exposure nerve agent treatment usually includes administration of an oxime, which acts to restore function of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). For immediate treatment of military personnel, this is usually administered with an autoinjector device, or devices containing the oxime such as pralidoxime, atropine and diazepam. In addition to the autoinjector, it is likely that personnel exposed to nerve agents, particularly by the percutaneous route, will require further treatment at medical facilities. As such, there is a need to understand the relationship between dose rate, plasma concentration, reactivation of AChE activity and efficacy, to provide supporting evidence for oxime infusions in nerve agent poisoning. Here, it has been demonstrated that intravenous infusion of HI-6, in combination with atropine, is efficacious against a percutaneous VX challenge in the conscious male Dunkin-Hartley guinea-pig. Inclusion of HI-6, in addition to atropine in the treatment, improved survival when compared to atropine alone. Additionally, erythrocyte AChE activity following poisoning was found to be dose dependent, with an increased dose rate of HI-6 (0.48mg/kg/min) resulting in increased AChE activity. As far as we are aware, this is the first study to correlate the pharmacokinetic profile of HI-6 with both its pharmacodynamic action of reactivating nerve agent inhibited AChE and with its efficacy against a persistent nerve agent exposure challenge in the same conscious animal.
- Early changes in M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) induced by sarin intoxication may be linked to long lasting neurological effects. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotoxicology 2017 Nov 08
- The effect of sarin on the binding parameters (KD & Bmax) of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) was studied 24h and 1 week post exposure. Male & female Sprague-Daweley rats were poisoned wi...
The effect of sarin on the binding parameters (KD & Bmax) of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) was studied 24h and 1 week post exposure. Male & female Sprague-Daweley rats were poisoned with 1XLD50 sarin (80μg/kg, im) followed by treatment of trimedoxime bromide and atropine (7.5:5mg/kg, im) 1min later. Brains were removed and analyzed for M2 mAChR binding, using [3H]AFDX384, an M2 selective antagonist. A significant increase in KD of M2 mAChR was found in the cortex 24h post poisoning, displaying elevation from 4.65±1.16 to 8.45±1.06nM and 5.24±0.93 to 9.29±1.56nM in male and female rats, respectively. A rise in KD was also noted 1 week following exposure from 5.04±1.20 to 11.75±2.78 and from 5.37±1.02 to 11.66±1.73nM, presenting an added increase of 51 and 40% (compared to 24h) in males and females, respectively. Analysis of M2 receptor density (Bmax) revealed a significant reduction of 68% in males and insignificant reduction of 22% in females, 24h after sarin exposure which was followed by 37% recovery in males and 100% recovery in females, 1 week later. These results indicate that sarin induces a long-term decreased affinity in M2 mAChR (elevated KDs) and a transient effect on the number of this receptor subtype (Bmax). We hypothesize that the reduced affinity of the M2 receptors (negative auto-regulatory receptors) may cause long-term brain deficits by impairing the normal regulation release of ACh into the synaptic cleft.
- Efficacy of the antinicotinic compound MB327 against soman poisoning - Importance of experimental end point. [Journal Article]
- TLToxicol Lett 2017 Nov 07
- Medical countermeasures for acute poisoning by organophosphorus nerve agents are generally assessed over 24h following poisoning and a single administration of treatment. At 24h, the antinicotinic bi...
Medical countermeasures for acute poisoning by organophosphorus nerve agents are generally assessed over 24h following poisoning and a single administration of treatment. At 24h, the antinicotinic bispyridinium compound MB327 (1,10-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium)) dimethanesulfonate is as effective as the oxime HI-6 against poisoning by soman, when used as part of a treatment containing atropine and avizafone. In this study, we hypothesised that an earlier endpoint, at 6h, would be more appropriate for the pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action of MB327 and would therefore result in improved protection. MB327 diiodide (33.8mg/kg) or the oxime HI-6 DMS (30mg/kg), in combination with atropine and avizafone (each at 3mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly to guinea pigs 1min following subcutaneous soman and the LD50of the nerve agent was determined at 6h after poisoning for each treatment. The treatment containing HI-6 gave a similar level of protection at 6h as previously determined at 24h (protection ratios 3.9 and 2.9, respectively). In contrast, the protection achieved by treatment containing MB327 showed a striking increase at 6h (protection ratio >15.4) compared to the 24h end point (protection ratio 2.8). The treatment gave full protection for at least 5h against doses of soman up to 525μg/kg; in contrast, mortality began in animals treated with HI-6 after 1h. This study demonstrates the importance of using an appropriate end point and has shown that treatment including MB327 was far superior to oxime-based treatment for poisoning by soman, when assessed over a pharmacologically-relevant duration. The improved outcome was seen following a single dose of treatment: it is possible that additional doses to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations would further increase survival time. Antinicotinic compounds therefore offer a promising addition to treatment, particularly for rapidly aging or oxime-insensitive nerve agents.
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- Evaluation of the Influence of Three Newly Developed Bispyridinium Anti-nicotinic Compounds (MB408, MB442, MB444) on the Efficacy of Antidotal Treatment of Nerve Agent Poisoning in Mice. [Journal Article]
- BCBasic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2017 Nov 08
- The influence of three newly developed bispyridinium antinicotinic compounds (the non-oximes MB408, MB442 and MB444) on the therapeutic efficacy of a standard antidotal treatment (atropine in combina...
The influence of three newly developed bispyridinium antinicotinic compounds (the non-oximes MB408, MB442 and MB444) on the therapeutic efficacy of a standard antidotal treatment (atropine in combination with an oxime) of acute poisoning by the organophosphorus nerve agents tabun and soman was studied in mice. The therapeutic efficacy of atropine in combination with an oxime with or without one of the bispyridinium non-oximes was evaluated by determination of the LD50values of the nerve agents and measurement of the survival time after supralethal poisoning. Addition of all the tested non-oximes increased significantly the therapeutic efficacy of atropine in combination with an oxime against tabun poisoning. They also positively influenced the number of surviving mice 6 hr after supralethal poisoning with tabun. However, they were only slightly effective for the treatment of soman poisoning. The benefit of the tested bispyridinium non-oximes was dose-dependent. To conclude, the addition of bispyridinium non-oximes to the standard antidotal treatment of acute poisoning with tabun was beneficial regardless of the chosen non-oxime, but only slightly beneficial in the case of soman poisoning.