- The effects of respiratory inhaled drugs on the prevention of acute mountain sickness. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(32):e11788
- CONCLUSIONS: The prophylactic use of COM could prevent AMS in young Chinese male at 72 hours after high-altitude exposure. BUD also could reduce LLS but not prevent AMS at 72 hours. Ipratropium bromide maybe the effective drug in COM work on the prevention of AMS alone.
- Using Video Telehealth to Facilitate Inhaler Training in Rural Patients with Obstructive Lung Disease. [Journal Article]
- TJTelemed J E Health 2018 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated high patient acceptance of video telehealth training and objective improvement in inhaler technique.Video telehealth inhaler training using the TTG methodology is a promising program that improved inhaler technique and access to inhaler teaching for rural patients with COPD or asthma.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Although no published data exist on the use of ipratropium, its use produces negligible maternal serum levels and any drug in breastmilk would not be absorbed by the infant. The risk to the breastfed...
Although no published data exist on the use of ipratropium, its use produces negligible maternal serum levels and any drug in breastmilk would not be absorbed by the infant. The risk to the breastfed infant of maternal ipratropium inhalation is small.
- Experimental Substantiation of Inhalation Administration of Pathogenic Therapy of Toxic Convulsive Disorder for Correction of External Respiration Disorders. [Journal Article]
- BEBull Exp Biol Med 2018 Jun 19
- We studied the dynamics of respiratory function in rats during intratracheal poisoning with diisopropyl fluorophosphate and pentylenetetrazole in doses corresponding to the LD50 in humans. The maximu...
We studied the dynamics of respiratory function in rats during intratracheal poisoning with diisopropyl fluorophosphate and pentylenetetrazole in doses corresponding to the LD50 in humans. The maximum of external respiration impairment was recorded in 30 min after poisoning. Administration of diazepam and atropine both separately and in combination during the development of the first signs of poisoning did not significantly affect the respiration parameters, but reduced the incidence of seizures and contributed to a decrease in the rate of animal death. Intratracheal administration of cholinolytic, β2-adrenomimetic, or glutamate receptors antagonist promoted correction of the respiratory function. It was found that the maximum therapeutic effect in case of diisopropyl fluorophosphates poisoning was achieved after intratracheal administration of ipratropium bromide (0.086 mg/kg), salbutamol (0.086 mg/kg), and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg), while in case of pentylenetetrazole poisoning, intratracheal administration of ipratropium bromide (0.086 mg/kg) was most effective.
- Intramuscular versus oral corticosteroids to reduce relapses following discharge from the emergency department for acute asthma. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 06 02; 6:CD012629
- CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to identify whether IM corticosteroids are more effective in reducing relapse compared to oral corticosteroids among children or adults discharged from an ED or equivalent acute care setting for acute asthma. While we found no statistical differences, patients receiving IM corticosteroids reported fewer adverse events. Additional studies comparing the effectiveness of IM versus oral corticosteroids could provide further evidence clarity. Furthermore, there is a need for studies comparing different IM corticosteroids (e.g. IM dexamethasone versus IM methylprednisone) and different oral corticosteroids (e.g. oral dexamethasone versus oral prednisone), with consideration for dosing and pharmacokinetic properties, to better identify the optimal IM or oral corticosteroid regimens to improve patient outcomes. Other factors, such as patient preference and potential issues with adherence, may dictate practitioner prescribing.
- The mucin bundles responsible for airway cleaning are retained in cystic fibrosis and by cholinergic stimulation. [Journal Article]
- EREur Respir J 2018 May 31
- The beneficial effect of anti-cholinergic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases like COPD is well-documented although cholinergic stimulation paradoxically inhibits liquid absorption, in...
The beneficial effect of anti-cholinergic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases like COPD is well-documented although cholinergic stimulation paradoxically inhibits liquid absorption, increases cilia beat frequency, and increases airway surface liquid transport.Using pig tracheobronchial explants, we quantified basal mucus transport as well as after incubation with by the clinically used anti-muscarinic compound ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) and stimulation with acetylcholine.As expected the surface liquid transport was increased by acetylcholine and carbachol. In contrast, the mucus bundles secreted from the submucosal glands normally transported on the cilia were stopped from moving by acetylcholine, an effect inhibited by ipratropium bromide. Interestingly, in pigs lacking a functional CFTR channel, the mucin bundles were almost immobile. As in wild-type pigs the cystic fibrosis (CF) surface liquid transport increased after carbachol stimulation. The stagnant CF mucin bundles were trapped on the tracheal surface attached to the surface goblet cells. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria were moved by the mucus bundles in wild-type, but not CF pigs.Acetylcholine thus uncouples airway surface liquid transport from transport of the surface mucin bundles as the bundles are dynamically inhibited by acetylcholine and the CFTR channel, explaining initiation of CF and COPD and opening novel therapeutic windows.
- Amanita muscaria (fly agaric): from a shamanistic hallucinogen to the search for acetylcholine. [Journal Article]
- JRJ R Coll Physicians Edinb 2018; 48(1):85-91
- The mushroom Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) is widely distributed throughout continental Europe and the UK. Its common name suggests that it had been used to kill flies, until superseded by arsenic. T...
The mushroom Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) is widely distributed throughout continental Europe and the UK. Its common name suggests that it had been used to kill flies, until superseded by arsenic. The bioactive compounds occurring in the mushroom remained a mystery for long periods of time, but eventually four hallucinogens were isolated from the fungus: muscarine, muscimol, muscazone and ibotenic acid. The shamans of Eastern Siberia used the mushroom as an inebriant and a hallucinogen. In 1912, Henry Dale suggested that muscarine (or a closely related substance) was the transmitter at the parasympathetic nerve endings, where it would produce lacrimation, salivation, sweating, bronchoconstriction and increased intestinal motility. He and Otto Loewi eventually isolated the transmitter and showed that it was not muscarine but acetylcholine. The receptor is now known variously as cholinergic or muscarinic. From this basic knowledge, drugs such as pilocarpine (cholinergic) and ipratropium (anticholinergic) have been shown to be of value in glaucoma and diseases of the lungs, respectively.
- A Randomized Trial Comparing Metered Dose Inhalers and Breath Actuated Nebulizers. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Emerg Med 2018; 55(1):7-14
- CONCLUSIONS: Albuterol therapy by MDI is noninferior to BAN for the treatment of mild to moderate asthma exacerbations in children 2 to 17 years of age.
- Bronchodilator effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis extract on rat isolated airways is linked to the blockage of calcium entry. [Journal Article]
- PPhytomedicine 2018 Mar 15; 42:172-179
- CONCLUSIONS: The bronchodilator effect of L. rhinocerotis on airways is mediated by calcium signalling pathway downstream of Gαq-coupled protein receptors. The airway relaxation effect is both concentration- and incubation time-dependent. Our findings provide unequivocal evidence to support its traditional use to relieve asthma and cough.
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- Prevalence and clinical predictors of LPR among patients diagnosed with GERD according to the reflux symptom index questionnaire. [Journal Article]
- SJSaudi J Gastroenterol 2018 Apr 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Contradictory to what is frequently reported, LPR commonly occurs and positively correlates with GERD. Several modifiable clinical predictors of LPR might exist, which highlight the importance of performing a complete clinical assessment of the patients with reflux symptoms.