- Fractal fluctuations in exploratory movements predict differences in dynamic touch capabilities between children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and typical development. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0217200
- Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) struggle to perform a host of daily activities. Many of these involve forceful interaction with objects and thus implicate dynamic touch.…
Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) struggle to perform a host of daily activities. Many of these involve forceful interaction with objects and thus implicate dynamic touch. Therefore, deficits in dynamic touch could underlie functional difficulties presented by ADHD children. We investigated whether performance on a dynamic touch task (length perception by wielding) differ between children with ADHD and age-matched controls. We further examined whether this difference could be explained by fractal temporal correlations (wielding dynamics). Forty-two children (ADHD: 21; typically developing: 21) wielded unseen wooden rods and reported their perceived length in the form of magnitude productions. The rods varied in the magnitude of the first principal moment of inertia (I1). Three-dimensional displacements of hand and rod positions were submitted to Detrended Fluctuation Analysis to estimate trial-by-trial temporal correlations. Children with ADHD reported shorter length for rods with higher I1 than their typically developing peers, indicative of reduced sensitivity to mechanical information supporting dynamic touch. Importantly, temporal correlations in wielding dynamics moderated children's usage of I1. This finding points to a role of exploratory movements in perceptual deficits presented by children with ADHD and, thus, should be considered a new potential target for interventions.
- A randomized controlled trial of a brain-computer interface based attention training program for ADHD. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0216225
- CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the BCI-based attention training program can improve ADHD symptoms after a minimum of 24 sessions and maintenance training may sustain this improvement. This intervention may be an option for treating milder cases or as an adjunctive treatment.
- Current and emerging pharmacotherapy for the treatment of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). [Journal Article]
- EOExpert Opin Pharmacother 2019 May 21; :1-14
- ADHD is characterized by a developmentally inappropriate level of inattentiveness, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity. In adults, the disorder is frequently accompanied by Emotional Dysregulation (ED),…
ADHD is characterized by a developmentally inappropriate level of inattentiveness, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity. In adults, the disorder is frequently accompanied by Emotional Dysregulation (ED), associated to a variety of related psychiatric comorbidities, complicating its recognition and treatment management. Areas covered: This paper reviews randomized active comparator-controlled or placebo-controlled trials evaluating the use of pharmacotherapy in adults with ADHD and ED, other neurodevelopmental disorders, Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Anxiety Disorders (ADs). When controlled data are unavailable, the authors have included open-label and observational studies. Expert opinion: ED in adult patients with ADHD is a very common and impairing problem that can be treated with stimulants or atomoxetine. ADHD studies in adults with other neurodevelopment disorders are scarce; stimulants seem to be the most effective and safe drugs in treating ADHD symptoms, without worsening the core features of other neurodevelopmental disorders. In patients with ADHD and comorbid BD, the treatment of BD alone may result in residual symptoms of ADHD. Patients should be treated hierarchically: BD should be treated first, while ADHD should be treated combining ADHD medications and mood stabilizers after mood stabilization. The available evidence for treating patients with ADHD and comorbid ADs in adults supports the idea of an anti-anxiety/ADHD-specific treatment association.
- Genetic and environmental influences on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in Chinese adolescents: a longitudinal twin study. [Journal Article]
- ECEur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2019 May 20
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. However, no study has examined genetic and environmental influences in the longitudinal developmenta…
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. However, no study has examined genetic and environmental influences in the longitudinal developmental course of ADHD symptoms in a non-Western population. This study investigated changes of genetic and environmental influences and their contributions to the stability and change of ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention in Chinese adolescent twins. A prospective sample of 602 twin pairs (48% male) self-reported both DSM-IV ADHD symptom subscales three times at the approximate age of 12, 13, and 15 years. Longitudinal multivariate genetic analyses through structural equation modelling examined genetic and environmental contributions to the developmental course of ADHD symptoms. From early (time 1 and 2) to middle adolescence (time 3), both symptoms showed modest and non-significant genetic influences that became substantial and significant, whereas shared environmental influences were substantial and significant and became modest and non-significant. The same genetic factors influenced ADHD symptoms throughout adolescence, while shared and non-shared environmental influences largely came from new emerging factors. In early adolescence, genetic factor contributed to the stability of inattention, whereas shared environmental factor contributed to the stability of hyperactivity/impulsivity. Genetic influences of ADHD tended to be smaller, whereas shared environmental influences tended to be larger in Chinese than in Western populations. Genetic factors played a large role in the stability of ADHD throughout adolescence, while shared and non-shared environment primarily contributed to its change. Findings highlight the importance of shared family, neighbourhood, and community experiences on child psychopathology in a collectivistic culture such as the Chinese society.
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among Children Aged 6 to 17 Years Old Living in Girja District, Rural Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- BNBehav Neurol 2019; 2019:1753580
- CONCLUSIONS: The ADHD prevalence rate was found to be similar with global reports. Prevention and early management of maternal complications is important to reduce the prevalence of ADHD among children.
- Visual disorders with psychostimulants: A paediatric case report. [Case Reports]
- PCPaediatr Child Health 2019; 24(3):153-155
- Methylphenidate- and amphetamine-based psychostimulants are the most common medications used to treat the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Ocular side effects includi…
Methylphenidate- and amphetamine-based psychostimulants are the most common medications used to treat the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Ocular side effects including dry eyes, mydriasis, accommodation disturbance, and blurry vision are listed in the product monograph but interestingly, are rarely reported in the paediatric literature. Our patient, a 9-year-old boy, presented a significant decrease in visual acuity secondary to accommodation disorder after being treated with methylphenidate hydrochloride controlled release (Biphentin) and lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse). The unusual acute adverse effect, altered accommodation leading to a decline in visual acuity, emphasizes the importance of considering any change in vision following the introduction of psychostimulant medication as a potential adverse effect. This case highlights the importance of pharmacovigilance especially in paediatrics where data are lacking.
- Traffic Crashes, Violations, and Suspensions Among Young Drivers With ADHD. [Journal Article]
- PedPediatrics 2019 May 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with ADHD are at particularly high crash risk in their initial months of licensure, and engagement in preventable risky driving behaviors may contribute to this elevated risk. Comprehensive preventive approaches that extend beyond current recommendations are critically needed.
- Continued Benefits of Methylphenidate in ADHD After 2 Years in Clinical Practice: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Discontinuation Study. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Psychiatry 2019 May 21; :appiajp201918111296
- CONCLUSIONS: Continued treatment with methylphenidate remains effective after long-term use. Some individual patients may, however, be withdrawn from methylphenidate without deterioration. This finding supports guideline recommendations that patients be assessed periodically to determine whether there is a continued need for methylphenidate treatment.
- Dietary Profiles, Nutritional Biochemistry Status, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Path Analysis for a Case-Control Study. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Med 2019 May 18; 8(5)
- This study aims to investigate dietary and nutritional biochemistry profiles of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to explore their potential relationship by path analysis. We enroll…
This study aims to investigate dietary and nutritional biochemistry profiles of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to explore their potential relationship by path analysis. We enrolled 216 children with ADHD and 216 age-, height- and gender-matched controls from 31 elementary schools in Taiwan. Dietary intake of the participants was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Fasting blood samples were collected to determine the serum levels of multiple nutritional markers. Moreover, we employed a structural equation model (SEM) to link diet, nutritional markers and ADHD. Compared to healthy control, ADHD children had significantly lower serum levels of vitamin B12, folate, vitamin B6, ferritin concentration, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), but higher levels of serum saturated fatty acids (SFA), n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio, and inorganic phosphorous concentration. Children with ADHD had more intake of nutrient-poor foods such as high sugar and high fat foods, and had less intake of vegetable, fruit, protein-rich foods than their counterpart. SEM analysis showed that the poor nutritional biochemistry profiles linked the association between unhealthy dietary patterns and ADHD. In conclusion, an unhealthy dietary pattern may be a predecessor of the poor nutritional biochemistry status, and managing diet and nutrition conditions should be considered to improve ADHD symptoms in children.
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- Current Pattern of Psychiatric Comorbidity and Psychotropic Drug Prescription in Child and Adolescent Patients. [Journal Article]
- MMedicina (Kaunas) 2019 May 17; 55(5)
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that rate of presentation to child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinics is increasing, and rates of diagnosis and initiation of psychiatry drugs are high among the presented children. The prevalence of ADHD shows an increase in males and females in our country, and psychiatric polypharmacy has reached significant rates.