- Dermoscopy of a Spark's nevus. [Journal Article]
- DPDermatol Pract Concept 2018; 8(2):126-128
- Spark's nevus is a particular type of melanocytic nevus that on histology shows features of both Spitz's and Clark's nevus. Clinically, it is an asymmetric, irregular, multicolored, pigmented lesion ...
Spark's nevus is a particular type of melanocytic nevus that on histology shows features of both Spitz's and Clark's nevus. Clinically, it is an asymmetric, irregular, multicolored, pigmented lesion that is not clearly distinguishable from melanoma or dysplastic (Clark's) nevus. Dermoscopic features have not been described yet, and one could speculate that they are similar to those of Clark's nevi because the histopathologic architecture of Spark's nevus is similar to that of a Clark's nevus, resembling Spitz's nevi in the epithelioid morphology of melanocytes. We present a 32-year-old woman with a Spark's nevus, who upon dermoscopy showed a pronounced atypical network with accentuation of the blue veil and mostly peripheral dots.
- Role of In Vivo Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in the Analysis of Melanocytic Lesions. [Journal Article]
- ADActa Dermatovenerol Croat 2018; 26(1):64-67
- Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection...
Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection combined with complete surgical excision (2). Since the diagnostic protocol of suspicious lesions includes a complete excision with safety margins (2), the problem of unnecessary scarring is significant. The real challenge in this case is to have a properly formulated diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. Currently available non-invasive techniques are coherence tomography, digital dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy. All these techniques allow for a presumptive diagnosis, but the most promising results are provided by reflectance confocal microscopy. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an optical imaging technique that uses a laser diode as a source of coherent monochromatic light which penetrates the tissue and illuminates a single point. Light from the stimulated section is reflected and passes through a filter, thereby forming the image on the detector. This filter enables selective excitation of a particular point on which focus is achieved and rejects reflection from the out-of-focus area, thus obtaining a "confocal" image. Contrast is the result of differences in the refractive index of the cell organelles and microstructures, resulting in white structures on a black background. This technique allows, as opposed to conventional light microscopy, the analysis of sections obtained at a bi- or tri-dimensional level and controlling the depth of the field, permitting out-of-focus artifacts to be eliminated. In dermatology, this technique is useful for both clinical and research purposes. It is the only technique that allows horizontal viewing of the skin up to the superficial dermis (approximately 300 mm, at a cellular level resolution (0.5-1.0 μm in the lateral dimension and 4.0-5.0 μm in the axial dimension) (3). It allows both in vivo and ex vivo diagnosis, while providing the possibility for long-term monitoring. It has proved to be especially valuable for in vivo examinations of melanocytic lesions, whereas melanin and melanosomes are a powerful source of contrast, allowing the individualization of melanocytic cells (4). We report the case of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman who presented to the Dermatology Department of University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy, for the examination of an atypical lesion, of unknown history, localized in the right preauricular area. The patient's personal and family histories were negative for skin malignancies and for other significant medical history. The clinical presentation was highly indicative of malignancy, as it met all the ABCD clinical criteria: an asymmetric papule composed of two areas, one pigmented and another one hypopigmented, with ill-defined borders and a diameter of approximately 2 cm. The dermatoscopic examination revealed an asymmetric multicomponent pattern with atypical network, structureless areas, peripheral irregular globules, and a blue-white veil. Because clinical and dermatoscopic features pointed towards a suspicious lesion which was situated on the face, where unnecessary scarring is unwanted, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) examination was proposed and performed (VivaScope 3000; MAVIG GmBH, Munich, Germany) (5). It revealed the following features: the epidermis presented a disarranged pattern; the dermo-epidermal junction and superficial dermis presented a meshwork pattern with edged AND non-edged papillae, non-homogenous junctional clusters, dense nests, dense AND sparse nests, and atypical cells in a sparse distribution (Figure 1). Figure 1. (A) Clinical examination of an atypical melanocytic lesion situated at the right preauricular area. (B) Dermatoscopic examination. (C) Confocal examination of dermo-epidermal junction and superficial dermis which reveals a meshwork pattern (yellow circle) with edged AND non-edged papillae, non-homogenous junctional clusters (yellow star), dense nests, dense AND sparse nests (red star) and atypical cells in a sparse distribution (arrow). The clinical and confocal data indicated a malignant melanocytic tumor, so an excisional biopsy with safety margins was performed. The histopathological report indicated superficial spreading melanoma with a Breslow of 0.55 mm and 0 mitosis/mm2. This case illustrates the important role confocal microscopy examination has in the management of melanocytic lesions situated in special areas like the face. Reflectance confocal microscopy is an imaging technique that allows viewing the layers of the skin up to the superficial dermis and therefore turns out to be extremely useful in obtaining a pertinent diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. According to the data available so far, it was established that reflectance confocal microscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy for melanocytic lesions in both pigmented and hypopigmented lesions. In a study conducted by Borsari et al., reflectance confocal microscopy proved to have a sensibility and specificity of 95.3% and 83.9%, respectively (6). By improving the accuracy of clinical and dermatoscopic diagnosis, the reflectance confocal microscopy technique contributes to increasing the confidence of the clinical and dermatoscopic diagnosis (7). In this regard, confocal reflectance microscopy reduces unnecessary excisions, particularly in cases of damage to cosmetically important areas, such as the face or the neck, simultaneously detecting the malignant lesions that require a surgical approach, as seen in the case presented, where confirmation of the diagnosis by confocal microscopy allowed for a safe excision. In fact, the head and neck are the most appropriate body location for reflectance confocal examination, especially because RCM showed a high diagnostic accuracy for lesions located on sun-damaged skin, as these two areas frequently are (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.37-3.30; P=.001) (6). Reflectance confocal microscopy is very helpful in the management of special lesions, like facial lentigo maligna melanoma. This type of lesion is considered to be a real challenge for the dermatologist because of its clinical and morphological features that are similar to other lesions such as solar lentigines and pigmented actinic keratoses. In this case, reflectance confocal excels at specificity of the diagnosis, but also at to the ability to define the margins more accurately, permitting a pre-surgical mapping and for possibility of identifying the optimal site for biopsy (8,9). By improving diagnostic ability, reflectance confocal microscopy technique may contribute to the selection of lesions that may be eligible for non-surgical treatment. Facial pigmented non-melanocytic macules like solar lentigo, flat seborrheic keratosis, lichen planus-like keratosis, and pigmented actinic keratosis can mimic a lentigo maligna, or even a lentigo maligna melanoma, but with the help of the RCM, an accurate diagnosis can be established, sparing the patient can be from unwanted facial scars using a non-surgical approach (laser, cryotherapy, imiquimod) (10,11). Furthermore, reflectance confocal microscopy can be a valuable method for the monitoring of a skin lesion over time, especially melanocytic nevi, reducing unnecessary surgical excision, such as for patients with multiple atypical nevi that undergo multiple biopsies (12,13). Like all other diagnostic methods, RCM has its limitations: palmoplantar lesions (due to thickened epidermis), ulcers or crusts on a large lesion, lesions localized in inaccessible regions such as interdigital space, nasal wing (3). To summarize, reflectance confocal microscopy can improve clinical and dermatoscopic diagnosis of melanocytic lesions, detecting the lesions that need an invasive approach and preventing unnecessary excision. It has proven to be very helpful in the management of lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma, achieving high specificity in the diagnosis and simultaneously allowing an optimal approach. This technique can be a reliable bridge between dermoscopy and histopathology, being able to provide an alternative to histopathological examination. Special mention must be made of the factors that may change the result to a false negative such as hyperkeratosis, ulceration, or bleeding, so any results should be integrated with the rest of the patient's data.
- Plexiform Atypical Spitz Tumor With Rosette-Like Giant Cells. A Histologic and Immunohistochemical Study on a Case Suggesting Ganglioneuroblastic Differentiation. Review of the Literature and Considerations on Histogenesis. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Dermatopathol 2018 May 16
- Spitz nevi, atypical Spitz tumors and Spitzoid melanoma, the three clinicopathologic forms that constitute the spectrum of the Spitz-type melanocytic lesions, share a histologic picture characterized...
Spitz nevi, atypical Spitz tumors and Spitzoid melanoma, the three clinicopathologic forms that constitute the spectrum of the Spitz-type melanocytic lesions, share a histologic picture characterized by large spindle and/or epithelioid ganglion-like cells, with various admixtures of multinucleate bizarre cells. This remarkable cytology has always been interpreted as an unusual, as well as unexplained form of atypia. We report a case of atypical Spitz tumor with Homer Wright-like rosettes, a feature characteristic of ganglioneuroblastic proliferation. Furthermore, the ganglion-like cells of the tumor showed basophilic punctuation in the cytoplasm, reminiscent of Nissl substance, and a few cells, whether spindled or epithelioid, were positive to neuron-specific enolase and glial fibrillary acid protein. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the outstanding similarity of the ganglion-like cells of Spitz tumors to the normal parasympathetic ganglion cells and to the cells of ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma may not be fortuitous. Instead, it may represent the expression of a specific pattern of melanocytic differentiation, analogous to the neurotization of common and cellular blue nevi, although in this case, it would privilege the parasympathetic lineage over the Schwannian, perineural, or endoneural pathway. Our hypothesis is supported by the literature reports of rosette formation and frank ganglioneuroblastic differentiation in Spitz tumors and melanoma and by the demonstration that parasympathetic neurons take origin from the same tracts of the neural crest as other neural and melanocytic cells.
- Gene Expression Analysis Differentiates Melanomas from Spitz Nevi. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Drugs Dermatol 2018 May 01; 17(5):574-576
- CONCLUSIONS: PRAME but not LINC gene expression can be a valuable molecular aid to differentiate melanomas from Spitz nevi, groups of pigmented lesions that can be particularly difficult to assess in children and young adults. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(5):574-576.
- Behavioral Counseling for Skin Cancer Prevention: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [BOOK]
- BOOKAgency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US): Rockville (MD)
- CONCLUSIONS: The body of evidence on the impact of behavioral interventions has increased substantially since the previous review, and generally reaffirms its findings, adding new but limited evidence on intermediate and health outcomes and for behavioral outcomes in children aged 3–10. The current fair-to-good evidence base suggests that behavioral interventions can increase sun protection behavior with few harms in both pediatric and, less consistently, in adult populations; but there is no consistent evidence that interventions are associated with improved sunburn frequency in children or adults. Interventions can increase skin self-exam in adults relative to control conditions, but may also lead to increased skin procedures without detecting additional atypical nevi or skin cancers.
- Evaluation of biodistribution of sulforaphane after administration of oral broccoli sprout extract in melanoma patients with multiple atypical nevi. [Journal Article]
- CPCancer Prev Res (Phila) 2018 Apr 24
- Broccoli sprout extract containing sulforaphane (BSE-SFN) has been shown to inhibit ultraviolet radiation-induced damage and tumor progression in skin. This study evaluated the toxicity and potential...
Broccoli sprout extract containing sulforaphane (BSE-SFN) has been shown to inhibit ultraviolet radiation-induced damage and tumor progression in skin. This study evaluated the toxicity and potential effects of oral BSE-SFN at three dosages. Seventeen patients who each had at least 2 atypical nevi and a prior history of melanoma were randomly allocated to 50, 100, or 200 µmol oral BSE-SFN daily for 28 days. Atypical nevi were photographed on days 1 and 28, and plasma and nevus samples were taken on days 1, 2, and 28. Endpoints assessed were safety, plasma and skin sulforaphane levels, gross and histologic changes, immunohistochemistry for phospho-STAT3(Y705), Ki-67, Bcl-2, HMOX1, and TUNEL, plasma cytokine levels, and tissue proteomics. All 17 patients completed 28 days with no dose-limiting toxicities. Plasma sulforaphane levels pooled for days 1, 2, and 28 showed median post-administration increases of 120 ng/mL for 50 µmol, 206 ng/mL for 100 µmol, and 655 ng/mL for 200 µmol. Median skin sulforaphane levels on day 28 were 0.0 ng/g, 3.1 ng/g, and 34.1 ng/g for 50, 100, and 200 µmol, respectively. Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased from day 1 to 28. The tumor suppressor decorin was increased from day 1 to 28. Oral BSE-SFN is well-tolerated at daily doses up to 200 µmol and achieves dose-dependent levels in plasma and skin. A larger efficacy evaluation of 200 µmol daily for longer intervals is now reasonable to better characterize clinical and biological effects of BSE-SFN as chemoprevention for melanoma.
- Emerging applications of eye-tracking technology in dermatology. [Review]
- JDJ Dermatol Sci 2018 Apr 06
- Eye-tracking technology has been used within a multitude of disciplines to provide data linking eye movements to visual processing of various stimuli (i.e., x-rays, situational positioning, printed i...
Eye-tracking technology has been used within a multitude of disciplines to provide data linking eye movements to visual processing of various stimuli (i.e., x-rays, situational positioning, printed information, and warnings). Despite the benefits provided by eye-tracking in allowing for the identification and quantification of visual attention, the discipline of dermatology has yet to see broad application of the technology. Notwithstanding dermatologists' heavy reliance upon visual patterns and cues to discriminate between benign and atypical nevi, literature that applies eye-tracking to the study of dermatology is sparse; and literature specific to patient-initiated behaviors, such as skin self-examination (SSE), is largely non-existent. The current article provides a review of eye-tracking research in various medical fields, culminating in a discussion of current applications and advantages of eye-tracking for dermatology research.
- Clinical and dermoscopic characteristics of congenital melanocytic naevi. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Apr 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Given that there is much controversy on the management and accurate classification of CN, our findings may provide useful information.
- Behavioral Counseling for Skin Cancer Prevention: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. [Review]
- JAMAJAMA 2018 03 20; 319(11):1143-1157
- CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral interventions can increase sun protection behavior, but there is no consistent evidence that interventions are associated with a reduction in the frequency of sunburn in children or adults and minimal evidence on skin cancer outcomes. Intervention can increase skin self-examination in adults but may lead to increased skin procedures without detecting additional atypical nevi or skin cancers.
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- Biodynamic excisional skin tension lines for surgical excisions: untangling the science. [Journal Article]
- ARAnn R Coll Surg Engl 2018; 100(4):330-337
- Objective There remains confusion between Langer's lines and wrinkle lines with respect to the optimal orientation of elliptical excisions on the trunk. This study sought to determine the directions ...
Objective There remains confusion between Langer's lines and wrinkle lines with respect to the optimal orientation of elliptical excisions on the trunk. This study sought to determine the directions of wound closure that would result in least wound tension after skin lesion excisions. Materials and methods Some 1181 consecutive skin lesion excisions were investigated (age range 13-95 years, median 64 years) using a tensiometer to determine directions of least wound tension. These lines were mapped. Skin tension measurements were taken during the procedure and analysed. The clear majority of excisions were for skin cancer and the others were for cysts or dysplastic naevi. Lesions such as lipomas, which entail incisional rather than excisional surgery (i.e. where overlying skin was not excised) were excluded. All lesions were cut out in a circular fashion following tension measurements. Closure was undertaken in the direction of least tension (biodynamic excisional skin tension line) and this was illustrated. This process was repeated in all cases where body site and direction of closure was mapped. Statistical analyses were undertaken on a series on the scalp and lower limb. Results Biodynamic excisional skin tension lines have a clear directional preference: scalp-coronal direction, limbs--vertical orientation of ellipses and trunk - mostly horizontal except oblique at the shoulder and scapular regions. Discussion Skin cancer excisions often end up with poor cosmetic results, owing to inconsistency in identifying the correct excisional wound closure lines. This has not been helped by the (hitherto) lack of large in vivo biomechanical studies, and because incisional lines and excisional lines have not been considered separately in surgical practice. Orientating ellipses or wound closures using biodynamic excisional skin tension lines offers a guide to reducing wound tension and minimising wound complications or scarring after cutaneous surgery.