- Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacterial Uropathogens Isolated from Pediatric Patients at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Microbiol 2018; 2018:8492309
- CONCLUSIONS: This study determined the prevalence of urinary tract infection in pediatric patients and highlighted the major bacterial uropathogens involved in UTI for the first time in the country. Furthermore, bacterial pathogen species and their frequency was consistent with the usually reported pattern, with E. coli being the most common organism isolated in cases of urinary tract infections followed by Klebsiella spp. Most of the bacterial isolates were multidrug resistant, and it is therefore suggested that appropriate antimicrobials should be administered to reduce the risk of multidrug resistant organisms developing and avert ineffectiveness of antibiotics. This condition indicates that antibiotic selection should be based on knowledge of the local prevalence of bacterial organisms and antibiotic sensitivities rather than empirical treatment. The present study indicated that ciprofloxacin (CIP), ceftazidime (CAZ), cefotaxime (CTX), cefuroxime (CXM), clindamycin (DA), and ceftriaxone (CRO) were the best antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial uropathogens, respectively, in the study area relatively.
- Erosive and cariogenic potential of various pediatric liquid medicaments on primary tooth enamel: A SEM study. [Journal Article]
- DMDent Med Probl 2018 Jul-Sep; 55(3):247-254
- CONCLUSIONS: The current results suggest that the pH, sugar content and Ca dissolution ability of PLMs can significantly influence erosion in primary tooth enamel.
- Amoxicillin-clavulanate versus azithromycin for respiratory exacerbations in children with bronchiectasis (BEST-2): a multicentre, double-blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- LctLancet 2018 10 06; 392(10154):1197-1206
- Although amoxicillin-clavulanate is the recommended first-line empirical oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe exacerbations in children with bronchiectasis, azithromycin is also often prescribed ...
Although amoxicillin-clavulanate is the recommended first-line empirical oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe exacerbations in children with bronchiectasis, azithromycin is also often prescribed for its convenient once-daily dosing. No randomised controlled trials involving acute exacerbations in children with bronchiectasis have been published to our knowledge. We hypothesised that azithromycin is non-inferior to amoxicillin-clavulanate for resolving exacerbations in children with bronchiectasis.
- Resistance pattern and maternal knowledge, attitude and practices of suspected Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among children under 5 years of age in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: cross sectional study. [Journal Article]
- ARAntimicrob Resist Infect Control 2018; 7:110
- CONCLUSIONS: In children with suspected diarrheagenic E. coli, we observed a high frequency of multidrug resistant E. coli. Furthermore, study subjects with low awareness about source, cause and symptoms of the disease were more likely to acquire suspected diarrheagenic E. coli infections. Thus, there is a need for more education in addition to continuous surveillance of the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of diarrheal bacterial isolates in hospitals and in the community.
- Does the use of amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in third molar surgery reduce the risk of postoperative infection? A systematic review with meta-analysis. [Review]
- IJInt J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Aug 22
- The objectives of this systematic review were to investigate the efficacy of amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for reducing the risk of postoperative infection after third molar surgery and to ...
The objectives of this systematic review were to investigate the efficacy of amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for reducing the risk of postoperative infection after third molar surgery and to evaluate the adverse outcomes in these patients, as well as in healthy volunteers. A systematic search of four databases was performed on May 26, 2017. Eleven studies qualified for the qualitative analysis and eight were found suitable for meta-analysis. The results suggest that both amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amoxicillin significantly reduce the risk of infection after third molar extraction (overall relative risk (RR) 0.25, P<0.001). However, with the exclusion of randomized controlled trials with a split-mouth design (due to an inadequate crossover period after antibiotic treatment), only amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was found to be effective (RR 0.21, P<0.001). The risk of adverse effects was significantly higher in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid group (RR=4.12, P=0.023) than in the amoxicillin group (RR 1.57, P=0.405). In conclusion, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amoxicillin may significantly reduce the risk of infection after third molar extraction. However, their use in third molar surgery should be viewed with caution, as recent clinical trials on healthy volunteers have shown evidence of the negative impact of amoxicillin use on bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance.
- Ozone therapy in conjunction with oral antibiotics as a successful primary and sole treatment for chronic septic prosthetic joint: review and case report. [Journal Article]
- MGMed Gas Res 2018 Apr-Jun; 8(2):67-71
- The world is facing crisis in management of infectious diseases. The mainstay of treatment has been chemical anti-infectives. These drugs are failing, as superbugs emerge and medicine becomes more so...
The world is facing crisis in management of infectious diseases. The mainstay of treatment has been chemical anti-infectives. These drugs are failing, as superbugs emerge and medicine becomes more sophisticated with treatments such as prosthetic devices, which can harbor bacteria protected by biofilm. This case report describes a 68-year-old woman who received bilateral artificial hips on October 27, 2015. The right hip prosthesis subsequently became septic by June 2016. Three orthopedic surgeons offered her a several month program, which included removal of the prosthesis, implantation of an antibiotic impregnated "spacer" and months of intravenous antibiotics. Instead, she sought and received intravenous ozone therapy, local joint ozone gas injection, and nutritional supplements. She quickly improved. Subsequently, she was given oral Augmentin (875 mg three times daily) beginning at September 19, 2016 for 1 month, when a third culture returned positive for two oral organisms. She experienced even more rapid improvement. By October 12, she reported total resolution of symptoms. A subsequent MRI on November 30, 2016 showed total clearance of infection. This is the first report of a septic prosthetic joint infection completely resolving without some form of surgical intervention, debridement at the least. It is also the first to report such cure without the use of any parenteral antibiotics. This case and world literature suggest that ozone therapy could be considered as a useful adjunctive treatment for hard to treat infection and biofilm.
- Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pancreatitis: case report. [Case Reports]
- BGBMC Gastroenterol 2018 Aug 02; 18(1):122
- CONCLUSIONS: This case describes a patient with DIP after the intake of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and when all other common causes of acute pancreatitis were excluded. Only two other case reports were available through literature review regarding amoxicillin/clavulanic acid- induced pancreatitis. We again stress on the importance of identifying and reporting cases of DIP to raise awareness among physicians and clinicians.
- Antibiotics for prolonged wet cough in children. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 07 31; 7:CD004822
- CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests antibiotics are efficacious for the treatment of children with chronic wet cough (greater than four weeks) with an NNTB of three. However, antibiotics have adverse effects and this review reported only uncertainty as to the risk of increased adverse effects when they were used in this setting. The inclusion of a more robust study strengthened the previous Cochrane review and its results.
- Urinary Tract Infections among Bladder Outlet Obstruction Patients in Accra, Ghana: Aetiology, Antibiotic Resistance, and Risk Factors. [Journal Article]
- DDiseases 2018 Jul 19; 6(3)
- The aim of this study was to investigate urinary tract infections among patients with Bladder Outlet Obstruction (BOO) at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) in Accra, Ghana, including the prevalen...
The aim of this study was to investigate urinary tract infections among patients with Bladder Outlet Obstruction (BOO) at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) in Accra, Ghana, including the prevalence, risk factors, aetiological agents and their antibiogram. Urine specimens were collected from 188 male patients presenting with BOO and cultured for bacteria. The bacterial isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods and tested against a spectrum of antimicrobial agents using the Kirby Bauer method. Demographic information and the clinical history of study participants were also recorded. The prevalence of urinary tract infection among the BOO patients was 76.6% and the main risk factor identified was catheterization (p < 0.0001). A wide range of bacterial organisms was isolated from urine specimens and they were predominantly, Enterobacteriaceae; Escherichia coli was the most frequent cause of bacteriuria (33.3%), followed by Klebsiella (17.3%). Bacterial isolates were most resistant to Augmentin (97.8%) followed by tetracycline (85.8%), nalidixic acid (82.8%) and ciprofloxacin (75%) while 93.6% were multi-drug resistant. The highest susceptibility was observed with amikacin, which had a resistance prevalence of 4.4% resistance. These findings have important implications in the treatment of urinary tract infections among the BOO patients in Ghana.
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- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Library of Medicine (US): Bethesda (MD)
- Limited information indicates that adverse reactions in infants are uncommon during the use of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid during nursing, with restlessness, diarrhea and rash occurring occasionally....
Limited information indicates that adverse reactions in infants are uncommon during the use of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid during nursing, with restlessness, diarrhea and rash occurring occasionally. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is acceptable in nursing mothers.