- Role of inflammation in epilepsy and neurobehavioral comorbidities: Implication for therapy. [Review]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2018 Aug 17
- Epilepsy is a devastating condition affecting around 70 million people worldwide. Moreover, the quality of life of people with epilepsy (PWE) is worsened by a series of comorbidities. The neurobehavi...
Epilepsy is a devastating condition affecting around 70 million people worldwide. Moreover, the quality of life of people with epilepsy (PWE) is worsened by a series of comorbidities. The neurobehavioral comorbidities discussed herein share a reciprocal and complex relationship with epilepsy, which ultimately complicates the treatment process in PWE. Understanding the mechanistic pathway by which these comorbidities are associated with epilepsy might be instrumental in developing therapeutic interventions. Inflammatory cytokine signaling in the brain regulates important brain functions including neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic transmission, the kynurenine pathway, and affects neurogenesis as well as the neural circuitry of moods. In this review, we hypothesize that the complex relationship between epilepsy and its related comorbidities (cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, autism, and schizophrenia) can be unraveled through the inflammatory mechanism that plays a prominent role in all these individual conditions. An ample amount of evidence is available reporting the role of inflammation in epilepsy and all individual comorbid condition but their complex relationship with epilepsy has not yet been explored through the prospective of inflammatory pathway. Our review suggests that epilepsy and its neurobehavioral comorbidities are associated with elevated levels of several key inflammatory markers. This review also sheds light on the mechanistic association between epilepsy and its neurobehavioral comorbidities. Moreover, we analyzed several anti-inflammatory therapies available for epilepsy and its neurobehavioral comorbidities. We suggest, these anti-inflammatory therapies might be a possible intervention and could be a promising strategy for preventing epileptogenesis and its related neurobehavioral comorbidities.
- Managing disruptive behaviour in autism-spectrum disorder with guanfacine. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Psychiatry Neurosci 2018; 43(5):359-360
- Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation in the Modulation of Human Diseases. [Journal Article]
- ARAnnu Rev Pathol 2018 Aug 20
- This review focuses primarily on the beneficial effects for human health of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). UVR stimulates anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive pathways in skin that modul...
This review focuses primarily on the beneficial effects for human health of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). UVR stimulates anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive pathways in skin that modulate psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and vitiligo; suppresses cutaneous lesions of graft-versus-host disease; and regulates some infection and vaccination outcomes. While polymorphic light eruption and the cutaneous photosensitivity of systemic lupus erythematosus are triggered by UVR, polymorphic light eruption also frequently benefits from UVR-induced immunomodulation. For systemic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, asthma, schizophrenia, autism, and cardiovascular disease, any positive consequences of UVR exposure are more speculative, but could occur through the actions of UVR-induced regulatory cells and mediators, including 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, interleukin-10, and nitric oxide. Reduced UVR exposure is a risk factor for the development of several inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune conditions, including diseases initiated in early life. This suggests that UVR-induced molecules can regulate cell maturation in developing organs. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease Volume 14 is January 24, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
- An Autism-Related, Nonsense Foxp1 Mutant Induces Autophagy and Delays Radial Migration of the Cortical Neurons. [Journal Article]
- CCCereb Cortex 2018 Aug 15
- Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic component. Disruptions of FOXP1, a transcription factor expressed in the developing cerebral cortex, ...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic component. Disruptions of FOXP1, a transcription factor expressed in the developing cerebral cortex, were associated with ASD. FOXP1(R525X) is a de novo heterozygous mutation found in patients with autism and severe mental retardation. To explore the neuronal basis of FOXP1(R525X) in ASD, we created Foxp1(R521X), a mouse homolog of the human variant. Ectopic expression of Foxp1(R521X) led to cytoplasmic aggregates and activated macroautophagy in neuroblastoma N2a cells and the developing neuronal cells. Cortical neurons expressing Foxp1(R521X) exhibited delayed migration and altered dendritic morphology. As a control, mutant Y435X that was expressed diffusively in the cytoplasm did not induce autophagy and migration delay in the cortex. The embryonic cortical cells had a minimal activity of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) as assayed by a splicing-dependent NMD reporter. We hypothesize that the developing neuronal cells use autophagy but not NMD as a safeguard mechanism against nonsense mutant aggregates, resulting in impairment of the cortical development. This study suggests a novel mechanism other than heterozygous loss of FOXP1 for the development of ASD and may advance our understanding of the complex relationships between gene mutation and the related psychiatric disorders.
- Are Motor Control and Regulation Problems Part of the ASD Motor Profile? A Handwriting Study. [Journal Article]
- DNDev Neuropsychol 2018 Aug 20; :1-14
- The primary aim of this study was to kinematically assess how children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plan and control their handwriting actions. Forty-three boys aged between 8 to 12 years were...
The primary aim of this study was to kinematically assess how children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plan and control their handwriting actions. Forty-three boys aged between 8 to 12 years were included in the present analysis; 23 with ASD and 20 typically developing (TD) controls. Sophisticated objective and quantifiable assessment of movement metrics and dynamics was applied across a series of basic cursive handwriting sequences. Children with ASD demonstrated atypical control of handwriting metrics and dynamics, as well as significantly greater neuromotor noise relative to age-matched peers. They also engaged in less regular monitoring and regulation of their movement during the handwriting task. This study provides new insights into the way children with ASD plan and sequence their handwriting movements. Overall, results revealed that even at a basic level, children with ASD appear to have a breakdown in their ability to control and regulate their handwriting movements. This has important implications for the school-aged child who constantly engages in handwriting tasks within the classroom environment and provides insight into possible directions for future intervention.
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in people with Intellectual Disability. [Journal Article]
- IJIr J Psychol Med 2018; 35(3):213-219
- Two case reports of people with severe intellectual disability (ID), Autism and challenging behaviour are discussed here to describe the presentation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD...
Two case reports of people with severe intellectual disability (ID), Autism and challenging behaviour are discussed here to describe the presentation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in people with ID. Both cases highlight how the diagnosis of ADHD can be missed and the behaviours attributed to ID and autism, which could lead to using ineffective treatment strategies. The case reports illustrate the importance of the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in people with ID and how it can make a difference to their clinical presentation and quality of life.
- [Abnormal electroencephalogram features extraction of autistic children based on wavelet transform combined with empirical modal decomposition]. [Journal Article]
- SWSheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2018 Apr 01; 35(4):524-529
- Early detection and timely intervention are very essential for autism. This paper used the wavelet transform and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to extract the features of electroencephalogram (EE...
Early detection and timely intervention are very essential for autism. This paper used the wavelet transform and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to extract the features of electroencephalogram (EEG), to compare the feature differences of EEG between the autistic children and healthy children. The experimental subjects included 25 healthy children (aged 5-10 years old) and 25 children with autism (20 boys and 5 girls aged 5-10 years old) respectively. The alpha, beta, theta and delta rhythm wave spectra of the C3, C4, F3, F4, F7, F8, FP1, FP2, O1, O2, P3, P4, T3, T4, T5 and T6 channels were extracted and decomposed by EMD decomposition to obtain the intrinsic modal functions. Finally the support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to implement assessment of autism and normal classification. The results showed that the accuracy could reach 87% and which was nearly 20% higher than that of the model combining the wavelet transform and sample entropy in the paper. Moreover, the accuracy of delta (1-4 Hz) rhythm wave was the highest among the four kinds of rhythms. And the classification accuracy of the forehead F7 channel, left FP1 channel and T6 channel in the temporal region were all up to 90%, which expressed the characteristics of EEG signals in autistic children better.
- Dravet Syndrome: A Sodium Channel Interneuronopathy. [Journal Article]
- COCurr Opin Physiol 2018; 2:42-50
- Dravet Syndrome is a devastating childhood epilepsy disorder with high incidence of premature death plus comorbidities of ataxia, circadian rhythm disorder, impaired sleep quality, autistic-like soci...
Dravet Syndrome is a devastating childhood epilepsy disorder with high incidence of premature death plus comorbidities of ataxia, circadian rhythm disorder, impaired sleep quality, autistic-like social-interaction deficits and severe cognitive impairment. It is primarily caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the SCN1A gene that encodes brain voltage-gated sodium channel type-1, termed NaV1.1. Here I review experiments on mouse genetic models that implicate specific loss of sodium currents and action potential firing in GABAergic inhibitory interneurons as the fundamental cause of Dravet Syndrome. The resulting imbalance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission in neural circuits causes both epilepsy and co-morbidities. Promising therapeutic approaches involving atypical sodium channel blockers, novel drug combinations, and cannabidiol give hope for improved outcomes for Dravet Syndrome patients.
- Resveratrol ameliorates prenatal progestin exposure-induced autism-like behavior through ERβ activation. [Journal Article]
- MAMol Autism 2018; 9:43
- CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that resveratrol ameliorates prenatal progestin exposure-induced autism-like behavior through ERβ activation. Our data suggest that prenatal progestin exposure is a strong risk factor for autism-like behavior. Many potential clinical progestin applications, including oral contraceptive pills, preterm birth drugs, and progestin-contaminated drinking water or seafood, may be risk factors for ASD. In addition, RSV may be a good candidate for clinically rescuing or preventing ASD symptoms in humans, while high doses of resveratrol used in the animals may be a potential limitation for human application.
New Search Next
- Altered Amygdala Excitation and CB1 Receptor Modulation of Aggressive Behavior in the Neuroligin-3R451C Mouse Model of Autism. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Cell Neurosci 2018; 12:234
- Understanding neuronal mechanisms underlying aggression in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could lead to better treatments and prognosis. The Neuroligin-3 (NL3)R451C mouse model of ASD h...
Understanding neuronal mechanisms underlying aggression in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could lead to better treatments and prognosis. The Neuroligin-3 (NL3)R451C mouse model of ASD has a heightened aggressive phenotype, however the biological mechanisms underlying this behavior are unknown. It is well established that NL3R451C mice have imbalanced excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity in the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex. The amygdala plays a role in modulating aggressive behavior, however potential changes in synaptic activity in this region have not previously been assessed in this model. We investigated whether aggressive behavior is robustly present in mice expressing the R451C mutation, following back-crossing onto a congenic background strain. Endocannabinoids influence social interaction and aggressive behavior, therefore we also studied the effects of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) agonist on NL3R451C mice. We report that NL3R451C mice have increased amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) with a concomitant decrease in the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the basolateral amygdala. Importantly, we demonstrated that NL3R451C mice bred on a C57Bl/6 background strain exhibit an aggressive phenotype. Following non-sedating doses (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN), we observed a significant reduction in aggressive behavior in NL3R451C mice. These findings demonstrate altered synaptic activity in the basolateral amygdala and suggest that the NL3R451C mouse model is a useful preclinical tool to understand the role of CB1 receptor function in aggressive behavior.