- Lateral inhibition in the autism spectrum: an SSVEP study of visual cortical lateral interactions. [Journal Article]
- NNeuropsychologia 2018 Feb 16
- Circuit level brain dysfunction has been suggested as a common mechanism through which diverse genetic risk factors and neurobiological sequelae lead to the core features of autism spectrum disorder ...
Circuit level brain dysfunction has been suggested as a common mechanism through which diverse genetic risk factors and neurobiological sequelae lead to the core features of autism spectrum disorder (Geschwind 2009; Port et al. 2014). An important mediator of circuit level brain activity is lateral inhibition, and a number of authors have suggested that lateral inhibition may be atypical in ASD. However, evidence regarding putative atypical lateral connections in ASD is mixed. Here we employed a steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm to further investigate lateral connections within a group of high functioning adults with ASD. At a group level, we found no evidence of altered lateral interactions in ASD. Exploratory analyses reveal that greater ASD symptom severity (increased ADOS score) is associated with increased short range lateral inhibition. These results suggest that lateral interactions are not altered in ASD at a group-level, but that subtle alterations in such neurobiological processes may underlie the heterogeneity seen in the autism spectrum in terms of sensory perception and behavioural phenotype.
- Further Evaluation of a Practitioner Model for Increasing Eye Contact in Children With Autism. [Journal Article]
- BMBehav Modif 2018 Feb 01; :145445518758595
- Cook et al. recently described a progressive model for teaching children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to provide eye contact with an instructor following a name call. The model included the fo...
Cook et al. recently described a progressive model for teaching children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to provide eye contact with an instructor following a name call. The model included the following phases: contingent praise only, contingent edibles plus praise, stimulus prompts plus contingent edibles and praise, contingent video and praise, schedule thinning, generalization assessments, and maintenance evaluations. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which modifications to the model were needed to train 15 children with ASD to engage in eye contact. Results show that 11 of 15 participants acquired eye contact with the progressive model; however, eight participants required one or more procedural modifications to the model to acquire eye contact. In addition, the four participants who did not acquire eye contact received one or more modifications. Results also show that participants who acquired eye contact with or without modifications continued to display high levels of the behavior during follow-up probes. We discuss directions for future research with and limitations of this progressive model.
- Sparse Multi-view Task-Centralized Learning for ASD Diagnosis. [Journal Article]
- MLMach Learn Med Imaging 2017; 10541:159-167
- It is challenging to derive early diagnosis from neuroimaging data for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this work, we propose a novel sparse multi-view task-centralized (Sparse-MVTC) classification...
It is challenging to derive early diagnosis from neuroimaging data for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this work, we propose a novel sparse multi-view task-centralized (Sparse-MVTC) classification method for computer-assisted diagnosis of ASD. In particular, since ASD is known to be age- and sex-related, we partition all subjects into different groups of age/sex, each of which can be treated as a classification task to learn. Meanwhile, we extract multi-view features from functional magnetic resonance imaging to describe the brain connectivity of each subject. This formulates a multi-view multi-task sparse learning problem and it is solved by a novel Sparse-MVTC method. Specifically, we treat each task as a central task and other tasks as the auxiliary ones. We then consider the task-task and view-view relations between the central task and each auxiliary task. We can use this task-centralized strategy for a highly efficient solution. The comprehensive experiments on the ABIDE database demonstrate that our proposed Sparse-MVTC method can significantly outperform the existing classification methods in ASD diagnosis.
- Impairment of social behaviors inArhgef10knockout mice. [Journal Article]
- MAMol Autism 2018; 9:11
- CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest thatARHGEF10is a candidate risk gene for ASD and that theArhgef10knockout model could be a tool for studying the mechanisms of neurotransmission in ASD.
- Role of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Conferring Protection in Children At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results from a Sibling Case-control Study. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosci Rural Pract 2018 Jan-Mar; 9(1):132-136
- CONCLUSIONS: Children with ASD are suboptimally breastfed compared to their typically developing siblings. Exclusive breastfeeding may confer protection in vulnerable children. Further studies on larger prospective sample are required to establish the association.
- Differential Attention to Faces in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Associations with Later Social and Language Ability. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Behav Dev 2018; 42(1):83-92
- A growing body of literature has begun to explore social attention in infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with hopes of identifying early differences that are associated w...
A growing body of literature has begun to explore social attention in infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with hopes of identifying early differences that are associated with later ASD or other aspects of development. The present study used eye-tracking to familiar (mother) and unfamiliar (stranger) faces in two groups of 6-month-old infants: infants with no family history of ASD (low-risk controls; LRC), and infants at high risk for ASD (HRA), by virtue of having an older sibling with ASD. HRA infants were further characterized based on autism classification at 24 months or older as HRA- (HRA without an ASD outcome) or HRA+ (HRA with an ASD outcome). For time scanning faces overall, HRA+ and LRC showed similar patterns of attention, and this was significantly greater than in HRA-. When examining duration of time spent on eyes and mouth, all infants spent more time on eyes than mouth, but HRA+ showed the greatest amount of time looking at these regions, followed by LRC, then HRA-. LRC showed a positive association between 6-month attention to eyes and 18-month social-communicative behavior, while HRA- showed a negative association between attention to eyes at 6 months and expressive language at 18 months (all correlations controlled for non-verbal IQ; HRA- correlations held with and without the inclusion of the small sample of HRA+). Differences found in face scanning at 6 months, as well as associations with social communication at 18 months, point to potential variation in the developmental significance of early social attention in children at low and high risk for ASD.
- Employment status is related to sleep problems in adults with autism spectrum disorder and no comorbid intellectual impairment. [Journal Article]
- AAutism 2018 Feb 01; :1362361317745857
- Both sleep problems and unemployment are common in adults with autism spectrum disorder; however, little research has explored this relationship in this population. This study aimed to explore factor...
Both sleep problems and unemployment are common in adults with autism spectrum disorder; however, little research has explored this relationship in this population. This study aimed to explore factors that may be associated with the presence of an International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition defined sleep disorder in adults with autism spectrum disorder (IQ > 80). A total of 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder and 36 controls were included in the study. Participants completed a 14-day actigraphy assessment and questionnaire battery. Overall, 20 adults with autism spectrum disorder met the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition criteria for insomnia and/or a circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder, while only 4 controls met criteria for these disorders. Adults with autism spectrum disorder and an International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition sleep disorder had higher scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and were more likely to be unemployed compared to adults with autism spectrum disorder and no sleep disorder. The findings demonstrate, for the first time, that sleep problems are associated with unemployment in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Further research exploring the direction of this effect is required; sleep problems that have developed during adolescence make attainment of employment for those with autism spectrum disorder difficult, or unemployment results in less restrictions required for optimal and appropriate sleep timing.
- Predicting Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Domain-Adaptive Cross-Site Evaluation. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroinformatics 2018 Feb 17
- The advances in neuroimaging methods reveal that resting-state functional fMRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent data s...
The advances in neuroimaging methods reveal that resting-state functional fMRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent data sharing projects help us replicating the robustness of these biomarkers in different acquisition conditions or preprocessing steps across larger numbers of individuals or sites. It is necessary to validate the previous results by using data from multiple sites by diminishing the site variations. We investigated partial least square regression (PLS), a domain adaptive method to adjust the effects of multicenter acquisition. A sparse Multivariate Pattern Analysis (MVVPA) framework in a leave one site out cross validation (LOSOCV) setting has been proposed to discriminate ASD from healthy controls using data from six sites in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Classification features were obtained using 42 bilateral Brodmann areas without presupposing any prior hypothesis. Our results showed that using PLS, SVM showed poorer accuracies with highest accuracy achieved (62%) than without PLS but not significantly. The regions occurred in two or more informative connections are Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, Somatosensory Association Cortex, Primary Auditory Cortex, Inferior Temporal Gyrus and Temporopolar area. These interrupted regions are involved in executive function, speech, visual perception, sense and language which are associated with ASD. Our findings may support early clinical diagnosis or risk determination by identifying neurobiological markers to distinguish between ASD and healthy controls.
- From child autistic symptoms to parental affective symptoms: A family process model. [Journal Article]
- RDRes Dev Disabil 2018 Feb 15; 75:22-31
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed the potential pathways through which child autism symptomatology may adversely affect parental mental health. Our findings also highlighted the importance of designing multipronged intervention programs for families raising children with ASD in order to improve relevant family processes and reduce parental affective symptoms.
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- Indices of repetitive behaviour are correlated with patterns of intrinsic functional connectivity in youth with autism spectrum disorder. [Journal Article]
- BRBrain Res 2018 Feb 14
- The purpose of the current study was to examine how repetitive behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is related to intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in a number of large-scale, neural ...
The purpose of the current study was to examine how repetitive behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is related to intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in a number of large-scale, neural networks. Resting-state fMRI scans from thirty subjects with ASD and thirty-two age-matched, typically developing control subjects were analysed. Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI functional connectivity analyses were used to examine resting-state connectivity in a number of cortical and subcortical neural networks. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between repetitive behaviour scores from the Repetitive Behaviour Scale - Revised and intrinsic functional connectivity in ASD subjects. Compared to control subjects, ASD subjects displayed marked over-connectivity of the thalamus with several cortical sensory processing areas, as well as over-connectivity of the basal ganglia with somatosensory and motor cortices. Within the ASD group, significant correlations were found between functional connectivity patterns and total RBS-R scores as well as one principal component analysis-derived score from the RBS-R. These results suggest that thalamocortical resting-state connectivity is altered in individuals with ASD, and that resting-state functional connectivity is associated with ASD symptomatology.