- Fisher discriminant analysis for classification of autism spectrum disorders based on folate-related metabolism markers. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nutr Biochem 2018 Oct 13; 64:25-31
- Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders with an increasing prevalence but lack reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis. The present study investigated 13 serological metabol...
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders with an increasing prevalence but lack reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis. The present study investigated 13 serological metabolites and 2 genetic variants related to folate metabolism in a total of 89 ASD cases and 89 matched controls. Fisher discriminant analysis was used to establish the classification model to recognize ASD cases and controls. Ten metabolites were significantly different between the groups, of which six metabolites were used as predictors to determine the discriminant prediction model: vitamin B12, 5-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, methonine, the ratio of S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine, methionine synthase and transcobalamin II. The model had statistical significance (lambda=0.520, χ2=113.103, df=6, P<.001) and correctly identified 84.3% of ASD and normal cohorts. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.913, with a sensitivity of 86.5% and a specificity of 85.4%. Overall, the results indicated that folate-related metabolism contributed to predisposition of ASD and the combined detection of folate-related metabolism biomarkers could be effective in distinguishing ASD from healthy controls, and provide new insights for the early diagnosis of ASD in the future.
- mS-11, a mimetic of the mSin3-binding helix in NRSF, ameliorates social interaction deficits in a prenatal valproic acid-induced autism mouse model. [Journal Article]
- PBPharmacol Biochem Behav 2018 Nov 09
- Growing evidence suggests pivotal roles for epigenetic mechanisms in both animal models of and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) binds to neu...
Growing evidence suggests pivotal roles for epigenetic mechanisms in both animal models of and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) binds to neuron-restrictive silencing elements in neuronal genes and recruits co-repressors, such as mSin3, to epigenetically inhibit neuronal gene expression. Because dysregulation of NRSF is related to ASD, here we examined the effects of mS-11, a chemically optimized mimetic of the mSin3-binding helix in NRSF, on the behavioral and morphological abnormalities found in a mouse model of valproic acid (VPA)-induced ASD. Chronic treatment with mS-11 improved prenatal VPA-induced deficits in social interaction. Additionally, we found that NRSF mRNA expression was greater in the somatosensory cortex of VPA-exposed mice than of controls. Agreeing with these behavioral findings, mice that were prenatally exposed to VPA showed lower dendritic spine density in the somatosensory cortex, which was reversed by chronic treatment with mS-11. These findings suggest that mS-11 has the potential for improving ASD-related symptoms through inhibition of mSin3-NRSF binding.
- Neural Correlates of Social Perception in Children with Autism: Local versus Global Preferences. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroscience 2018 Nov 09
- The Weak Central Coherence account of autism spectrum disorders posits that individuals with ASD utilize a detail-oriented information processing bias. While this local bias is helpful in visual sear...
The Weak Central Coherence account of autism spectrum disorders posits that individuals with ASD utilize a detail-oriented information processing bias. While this local bias is helpful in visual search tasks, ASD individuals falter in social cognition tasks where coherence is advantageous. The present study examined the neural correlates of Weak Central Coherence in ASD during visual and social processing. Fifteen ASD and sixteen typically developing children/adolescents completed a social/visual information processing task in an fMRI scanner. The stimuli consisted of human characters, composed of geometrical shapes, displaying different emotions. In the locally-oriented Shape condition, participants indicated whether a given shape was present in a figure. In the Emotion condition, participants identified the emotion conveyed by the character in the figure at the global-level. Whole-brain within-and-between-group activation and seed-to-voxel functional connectivity analyses were conducted in SPM12 and the CONN toolbox. The ASD group was significantly faster in shape identification, but less accurate in emotion identification. The TD group showed significantly increased areas of activity over the ASD group in the Shape task in regions associated with executive control, such as the medial prefrontal cortex and middle frontal gyrus, suggesting increased interference from the global/social information. During the Emotion condition, the ASD group showed decreased connectivity between frontal and posterior regions and between body perception and motor networks, suggesting a possible difference in mirroring. The findings suggest that social cognitive factors, not visual processing biases, underlie the observed behavioral differences.
- Economic evaluation of brief cognitive behavioural therapy for social activation in recent-onset psychosis. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(11):e0206236
- CONCLUSIONS: In the Dutch context where TAU for psychosis is guideline congruent and well implemented there appears no added value for adjunct CBTsa. In other settings where the treatment for the schizophrenia spectrum disorders solely relies on antipsychotics, add-on CBTsa may lead to clinically superior outcomes, but it should still be evaluated if adjunct CBTsa therapy is a cost-effective alternative.
- The Shape Bias in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Potential Sources of Individual Differences. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Speech Lang Hear Res 2018 Nov 08; 61(11):2685-2702
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that no single account sufficiently explains the observed individual differences in shape bias performance in children with ASD. Nonetheless, these findings break new ground in highlighting the role of social communicative interactions as integral to understanding specific language outcomes (i.e., the shape bias) in children with ASD, especially those with low verbal abilities, and point to new hypotheses concerning the linguistic content of these interactions.
- Early Motor and Communicative Development in Infants With an Older Sibling With Autism Spectrum Disorder. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Speech Lang Hear Res 2018 Nov 08; 61(11):2673-2684
- CONCLUSIONS: Advances in communicative and language development are supported by advances in motor skill. When these advances are slowed and/or when new skills are not consolidated and remain challenging for the infant, the enhanced potential for exploration afforded by new abilities and the concomitant increase in opportunities for learning are reduced. Improving our understanding of communicative delays of the sort observed in ASD and developing effective intervention methods requires going beyond the individual to consider the constant, complex interplay between developing communicators and their environments.
- Lexical Development in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): How ASD May Affect Intake From the Input. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Speech Lang Hear Res 2018 Nov 08; 61(11):2659-2672
- CONCLUSIONS: Our review of studies that examine lexical development in children with ASD suggests that innovative intervention approaches that take into account both the social communication and processing demands of the learning situation may be particularly beneficial.
- Executive Function Skills in School-Age Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Association With Language Abilities. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Speech Lang Hear Res 2018 Nov 08; 61(11):2641-2658
- CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for future research to examine the direction of influence between EF and language. It would be beneficial for EF interventions with children with ASD to consider language outcomes and, conversely, to examine whether specific language training facilitates aspects of executive control in children on the autism spectrum.
- SMARTer Approach to Personalizing Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Speech Lang Hear Res 2018 Nov 08; 61(11):2629-2640
- CONCLUSIONS: Bridging the gap between research studies and clinical practice can be advanced by research that attempts to answer questions pertinent to the broad heterogeneity in children with autism spectrum disorder, their response to interventions, and the fact that a single intervention is not effective for all children.
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- Changing Developmental Trajectories of Toddlers With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Strategies for Bridging Research to Community Practice. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Speech Lang Hear Res 2018 Nov 08; 61(11):2615-2628
- CONCLUSIONS: Current health care and education systems are challenged to provide intervention of adequate intensity for toddlers with ASD. The use of innovative technology can increase acceleration of access to evidence-based early intervention for toddlers with ASD that addresses health disparities, enables immediate response as soon as ASD is suspected, and rapidly bridges the research-to-practice gap.