- [Liver injury induced by immune checkpoint inhibitor-therapy : Example of an immune-mediated drug side effect]. [Review]
- PPathologe 2018 Oct 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors may lead to potentially fatal immune phenomena in susceptible patients, which may affect liver and/or other organs independently. Other causes of hepatopathy need to be ruled out clinically and/or histologically.
- Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling as a Potential Target for the Treatment of Liver Cirrhosis Using Antifibrotic Drugs. [Review]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Oct 10; 19(10)
- Cirrhosis is a form of liver fibrosis resulting from chronic hepatitis and caused by various liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver damage, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and autoi...
Cirrhosis is a form of liver fibrosis resulting from chronic hepatitis and caused by various liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver damage, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and autoimmune liver disease. Cirrhosis leads to various complications, resulting in poor prognoses; therefore, it is important to develop novel antifibrotic therapies to counter liver cirrhosis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is associated with the development of tissue fibrosis, making it a major therapeutic target for treating liver fibrosis. In this review, we present recent insights into the correlation between Wnt/β-catenin signaling and liver fibrosis and discuss the antifibrotic effects of the cAMP-response element binding protein/β-catenin inhibitor PRI-724.
- Retrospectively Seroprevalence Study on Anti-HEV-IgG antibody in patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis in a Chinese teaching hospital. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Virol 2018 Oct 11
- CONCLUSIONS: We observed that the cirrhosis patients had a significantly higher anti-HEV-IgG positive rate comparing with the CH patients, especially in those with HBV-related, alcohol-related and autoimmune-related cirrhosis (after adjusted for age). Additionally, it seems that the conditions of alcoholic cirrhosis and autoimmune cirrhosis are more susceptible to HEV infection due to the significantly higher positive anti-HEV-IgG rate in these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Treatment strategies for neuromyelitis optica. [Review]
- CJCi Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 Oct-Dec; 30(4):204-208
- Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease with pathogenic autoantibodies that act against the astrocyte water channel protein, i.e. aquaporin-4: the disease is associated with...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease with pathogenic autoantibodies that act against the astrocyte water channel protein, i.e. aquaporin-4: the disease is associated with recurrent episodes of optic neuritis (ON) and transverse myelitis, often resulting in severe disability. The main goals in treatment of NMO include acute symptomatic therapy and long-term stabilization of symptoms by preventing relapse. In recent years, ongoing randomized controlled trials in NMO patients have studied evidence for treatment. Briefly, acute-stage management (with pulse therapy using corticosteroids and/or plasmapheresis) and maintenance therapy (including rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, and azathioprine) have been recommended in some case series and retrospective studies. Because of the high prevalence of liver disease, all NMO patients in Taiwan should be screened for hepatitis B and C before treatment is initiated. Although immunosuppression and plasma exchange are the mainstays of therapy for NMO ON, several selective and potentially therapeutic strategies targeting specific steps in NMO pathogenesis including blockers of NMO-IgG binding and inhibitors of granulocyte function have been evaluated in recent years.
- Acute Kidney Injury Due to Inferior Vena Cava Stenosis After Liver Transplantation: A Case Report About the Importance of Hepatic Vein Doppler Ultrasound and Clinical Assessment. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Kidney Health Dis 2018; 5:2054358118801012
- Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication after liver transplantation. In some patients, prompt intervention targeted at a specific etiology is of paramount importance.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication after liver transplantation. In some patients, prompt intervention targeted at a specific etiology is of paramount importance.
- A Very Rare Complication of Hepatitis A Infection: Acute Myocarditis-A Case Report with Literature Review. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Med 2018; 2018:3625139
- Hepatitis A is a common viral infection with a benign course but in rare cases can progress to acute liver failure. It usually presents with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, anor...
Hepatitis A is a common viral infection with a benign course but in rare cases can progress to acute liver failure. It usually presents with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, anorexia, or asymptomatically, but it can also present atypically with relapsing hepatitis and prolonged cholestasis. In addition, extrahepatic manifestations have been reported, including urticarial and maculopapular rash, acute kidney injury, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, acute pancreatitis, mononeuritis, reactive arthritis, glomerulonephritis, cryoglobulinemia, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and pleural or pericardial effusion. A rare manifestation of hepatitis A is acute myocarditis. We report a case of a young woman who presented with "flu-like symptoms" and was found to have severe elevation of liver enzymes due to acute hepatitis A infection. On her 3rd day of admission, the patient developed chest pain and nonspecific electrocardiographic changes. Her troponins rose to 16.4 ng/mL, and a transthoracic echocardiogram revealed global hypokinesis and a depressed ejection fraction at 30%. A CT angiography showed no evidence of significant coronary artery disease. The patient was managed supportively, and symptoms and laboratory findings slowly improved over the next 7 days. Her chest pain resolved and a follow-up echocardiogram showed improved ejection fraction to 45%.
- De Novo Autoimmune Hepatitis After Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Series of 4 Cases. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Exp Hepatol 2018; 8(3):314-317
- While Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) may recur in patients after liver transplant, an AIH like presentation (positive auto antibodies, raised immunoglobulin G, raised transaminases and histology showing ...
While Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) may recur in patients after liver transplant, an AIH like presentation (positive auto antibodies, raised immunoglobulin G, raised transaminases and histology showing plasma cell rich infiltrate) may also occur in liver transplant recipients who had transplant for some other disease, called De novo Autoimmune Hepatitis (DAIH). A timely diagnosis and treatment can prevent further graft dysfunction. We report 4 cases of DAIH after living donor liver transplantation.
- Cucurbitacin B Induces Hypoglycemic Effect in Diabetic Mice by Regulation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Alpha and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 via Bitter Taste Receptor Signaling. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:1071
- Taste receptors exist in several organs from tongue to colon and have diverse functions dependent on specific cell type. In enteroendocrine L-cells, stimulation of taste receptor signaling induces in...
Taste receptors exist in several organs from tongue to colon and have diverse functions dependent on specific cell type. In enteroendocrine L-cells, stimulation of taste receptor signaling induces incretin hormones. Among incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) induces insulinotropic action by activating GLP-1 receptor of pancreatic β-cells. However, GLP-1 mimetic medicines have reported clinical side effects, such as autoimmune hepatitis, acute kidney injury, pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Here, we hypothesized that if natural components in ethnomedicines can activate agonistic action of taste receptor; they may stimulate GLP-1 and therefore, could be developed as safe and applicable medicines to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with minimal side effects. Cucurbitacin B (CuB) is composed of triterpenoid structure and its structural character, that represents bitterness, can stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. CuB ameliorated hyperglycemia by activating intestinal AMPK levels and by inducing plasma GLP-1 and insulin release in diabetic mice. This hypoglycemic action was decreased in dorsomorphin-injected mice and α-gustducin null mice. Moreover, systemic inhibition study in differentiated NCI-H716 cell line showed that CuB-mediated GLP-1 secretion was involved in activation of AMPK through α-gustducin and Gβγ-signaling of taste receptors. In summary, we conclude that, CuB represents novel hypoglycemic agents by activation of AMPK and stimulation of GLP-1 in differentiated enteroendocrine L-cells. These results suggest that taste receptor signaling-based therapeutic agents within tremendously diverse ethnomedicines, could be applied to developing therapeutics for T2DM patients.
- Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces inverse regulations of major functions in portal myofibroblasts during liver fibrosis progression. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 Oct 04; 1864(12):3688-3696
- Portal myofibroblasts (PMF) form a sub-population of highly proliferative and proangiogenic liver myofibroblasts that derive from portal mesenchymal progenitors. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was...
Portal myofibroblasts (PMF) form a sub-population of highly proliferative and proangiogenic liver myofibroblasts that derive from portal mesenchymal progenitors. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was previously shown to modulate fibrogenesis, notably in the liver. Our aim was to determine if ER stress occurred in PMF and affected their functions. PMF were obtained after their expansion in vivo from bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats and referred to as BDL PMF. Compared to standard PMF obtained from normal rats, BDL PMF were more myofibroblastic, as assessed by higher alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and collagen 1 production. Their proangiogenic properties were also higher, whereas their proliferative and migratory capacities were lower. CHOP expression was detected in the liver of BDL rats, at the leading edge of portal fibrosis where PMF accumulate. BDL PMF displayed ER dilatation and an overexpression of the PERK pathway downstream targets, Chop, Gadd34 and Trb3, in comparison with standard PMF. In vitro, the induction of ER stress by tunicamycin in standard PMF, caused a decrease in their proliferative and migratory activity, and an increase in their proangiogenic activity, without affecting their myofibroblastic differentiation. Conversely, the treatment of BDL PMF with the PERK inhibitor GSK2656157 reduced ER stress, which caused a decrease in their angiogenic properties, and restored their proliferative and migratory capacity. In conclusion, PMF develop ER stress as they expand with the progression of fibrosis, which further increases their proangiogenic activity, but also inhibits their proliferation and migration. This phenotypic switch may restrict PMF expansion while they support angiogenesis.
New Search Next
- Increased Mortality Among Patients With vs Without Cirrhosis and Autoimmune Hepatitis. [Journal Article]
- CGClin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Oct 03
- CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from a large national cohort of patients with AIH, we found increased mortality of patients with cirrhosis, but not of patients without cirrhosis, compared to the general Dutch population. Survival was significantly reduced in patients with AIH and features of concurrent PSC.