- Complement Regulatory Genetic Mutations in the Setting of Autoimmune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Case Series. [Journal Article]
- MCMayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2018; 2(1):69-73
- CONCLUSIONS: We found eculizumab therapy to be effective in all 3 patients. However, its efficacy was prominent only after clearance of antibodies against ADAMTS13 via therapeutic plasma exchange.
- Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura associated with severe ADAMTS13 deficiency in a 3-year-old boy: a case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Case Rep 2018 Sep 17; 12(1):276
- CONCLUSIONS: At presentation, acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura in a very young child is commonly misdiagnosed as other conditions like idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Evans syndrome, atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome, or malignancy. ADAMTS13 assay should be performed early when thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura is suspected as this condition is associated with dire consequences.
- Disseminated herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus co-infection in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Public Health 2018 Sep 10
- Concomitant disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is a rare event. We describe a case of disseminated HSV and VZV infection in an 80-year-old patient many...
Concomitant disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is a rare event. We describe a case of disseminated HSV and VZV infection in an 80-year-old patient many years after splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). This is the first case of disseminated HSV-1 and VZV infection with molecular evidence of the simultaneous presence of both viruses in two different body sites (the skin and cerebrospinal fluid). This adds to the three reports of patients developing cutaneous disseminated herpes zoster multiple years after splenectomy for ITP.
- Risk factors associated with neonatal thrombocytopenia in pregnant women with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018 Sep 13; :1-201
- CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal thrombocytopenia presented following almost one-tenth of pregnancies with ITP. New pregnancy-onset disease was the only prognostic marker for neonatal thrombocytopenia. This finding could contribute to risk stratification and individualized patient management.
- ADAMTS13: origins, applications, and prospects. [Review]
- TTransfusion 2018 Sep 12
- ADAMTS13 is an enzyme that acts by cleaving prothrombotic von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers from the vasculature in a highly regulated manner. In pathologic states such as thrombotic thrombocytop...
ADAMTS13 is an enzyme that acts by cleaving prothrombotic von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers from the vasculature in a highly regulated manner. In pathologic states such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and other thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs), VWF can bind to the endothelium and form large multimers. As the anchored VWF chains grow, they provide a greater surface area to bind circulating platelets (PLTs), generating unique thrombi that characterize TTP. This results in microvasculature thrombosis, obstruction of blood flow, and ultimately end-organ damage. Initial presentations of TTP usually occur in an acute manner, typically developing due to an autoimmune response toward, or less commonly a congenital deficiency of, ADAMTS13. Triggers for TMAs that can be associated with ADAMTS13 deficiency, including TTP, have been linked to events that place a burden on hemostatic regulation, such as major trauma and pregnancy. The treatment plan for cases of suspected TTP consists of emergent therapeutic plasma exchange that is continued on a daily basis until normalization of PLT counts. However, a subset of these patients does not respond favorably to standard therapies. These patients necessitate a better understanding of their diseases for the advancement of future therapeutic options. Given ADAMTS13's key role in the cleavage of VWF and the prevention of PLT-rich thrombi within the microvasculature, future treatments may include anti-VWF therapeutics, recombinant ADAMTS13 infusions, and ADAMTS13 expression via gene therapy.
- Helicobacter pylori and extragastric diseases. [Review]
- HHelicobacter 2018; 23 Suppl 1:e12520
- Many studies have been performed in the last year concerning the potential role of Helicobacter pylori in different extragastric diseases, reinforcing the idea that specific microorganisms may cause ...
Many studies have been performed in the last year concerning the potential role of Helicobacter pylori in different extragastric diseases, reinforcing the idea that specific microorganisms may cause diseases even far from the primary site of infection. While the role of H. pylori on idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, sideropenic anemia, and vitamin B12 deficiency has been well established, there is a growing interest in other conditions, such as cardiovascular, neurologic, dermatologic, obstetric, immunologic, and metabolic diseases. Concerning neurologic diseases, there is a great interest in cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. The aim of this review was to summarize the results of the most relevant studies published over the last year on this fascinating topic.
- Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia and Acquired Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia Associated With Clonal Expansion of T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocytes in a Patient With Lipopolysaccharide-responsive Beige-like Anchor (LRBA) Protein Deficiency. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Sep 04
- Acquired pure red cell aplasia and acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenic purpura are rare in children. Similarly, clonal expansion of T-cell large granular lymphocytes is infrequently seen in ped...
Acquired pure red cell aplasia and acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenic purpura are rare in children. Similarly, clonal expansion of T-cell large granular lymphocytes is infrequently seen in pediatrics. Lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) protein deficiency is a recently described immunodeficiency syndrome that has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune phenomena such as Evans syndrome. Here, we describe a patient with LRBA deficiency who developed acquired pure red cell aplasia and acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with expansion of clonal T-cell large granular lymphocytes. This has not been described in the literature previously and adds to the knowledge on the spectrum of manifestations of LRBA deficiency.
- Fatal overwhelming postsplenectomy infection due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 10A with atypical polysaccharide capsule in a patient with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A case report. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Chemother 2018 Aug 29
- We report the first case of a teenage patient with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome who died of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI) by Streptococcus pneumoniae despite appropriate preve...
We report the first case of a teenage patient with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome who died of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI) by Streptococcus pneumoniae despite appropriate prevention by pneumococcal vaccine. He had congenital heart disease and underwent several surgeries. Immunodeficiency had not been noticed clinically. Two years prior to death, splenectomy was performed for a drug-resistant idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and he was immunized with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) 4 months after splenectomy. He died suddenly after a mild flu-like symptom. Autopsy was performed and OPSI was diagnosed. Blood culture was positive for S. pneumoniae. This isolated S. pneumoniae strain was serotypically un-typable by polyvalent serum agglutination test. On the contrary, multilocus sequence typing followed by DNA sequencing indicated the molecular serotype as 10A. Additional testing using monovalent and factor-specific sera confirmed the strain as serotype 10A. Ultrastructural observation of this S. pneumoniae strain showed that the polysaccharide capsule was thin and sparse. We speculate that the abnormal morphology of the capsule may have accounted for the polyvalent serum agglutination failure and may possibly be associated with severity of OPSI observed in this case. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is associated with certain immunodeficiency, especially susceptible to S. pneumoniae infections; however, fatal OPSI has not been reported. In addition to vaccination, prophylactic antibiotics may be necessary for these patients who are at risk of immunodeficiency.
- Treatment of Concurrent Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura and Graves' Disease: A Report on Two Cases. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Endocrinol 2018; 2018:5747969
- Graves' disease (GD) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are autoimmune diseases caused by autoantibodies against the TSH receptor (TRAb) and the enzyme ADAMTS13. We here report on two pati...
Graves' disease (GD) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are autoimmune diseases caused by autoantibodies against the TSH receptor (TRAb) and the enzyme ADAMTS13. We here report on two patients with concurrent GD and TTP, who achieved sustained remission of both conditions with the TTP treatment regimen and thiamazole. Both patients suffered from relapsing TTP and were diagnosed with GD concomitantly at the time of relapse. They were treated with steroids, plasma exchange, rituximab, and thiamazole. This therapy induced complete remission of TTP. TRAb levels also decreased rapidly and both patients developed subclinical hypothyroidism three and five weeks later. Our observations suggest that TTP and GD may be concomitant and that GD possibly triggers a relapse of TTP. The combination of thyrostatic treatment and immunosuppression with PE, rituximab, and steroids is able to induce rapid and prolonged remission of GD.
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- H. pylori infection and extra-gastroduodenal diseases. [Review]
- JBJ Biomed Sci 2018 Aug 29; 25(1):65
- Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal cause of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Recent studies have shown that it may inte...
Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal cause of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Recent studies have shown that it may interfere with many biological processes and determine or influence the occurrence of many diseases outside the stomach. Currently, the role of H. pylori in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and iron deficiency anemia is well documented. Emerging evidence suggests that it may also contribute to vitamin B12 deficiency, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic liver disease. Additionally, it may increase the risk of acute coronary syndrome, cerebrovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease and other miscellaneous disorders. Different pathogenic mechanisms have been hypothesized, including the occurrence of molecular mimicry and the induction of a low-grade inflammation. This review summarizes the results of the most relevant studies on the extra-gastroduodenal manifestations of H. pylori infection.