- Relapsing paralytic ileus in multiple sclerosis requiring surgery: a video case report. [Letter]
- CAClin Auton Res 2018 Nov 10
- Integrated treatment for autonomic paraneoplastic syndrome improves performance status in a patient with small lung cell carcinoma: a case report. [Journal Article]
- BNBMC Neurol 2018 Nov 10; 18(1):189
- CONCLUSIONS: Integrated treatment for autonomic PNS may improve autonomic symptoms and ECOG performance status of patients with cancer.
- The renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular autonomic control: recent developments and clinical implications. [Review]
- CAClin Auton Res 2018 Nov 09
- Complex and bidirectional interactions between the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and autonomic nervous system have been well established for cardiovascular regulation under both physiological and pa...
Complex and bidirectional interactions between the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and autonomic nervous system have been well established for cardiovascular regulation under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Most research to date has focused on deleterious effects of components of the vasoconstrictor arm of the RAS on cardiovascular autonomic control, such as renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone. The recent discovery of prorenin and the prorenin receptor have further increased our understanding of RAS interactions in autonomic brain regions. Therapies targeting these RAS components, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, are commonly used for treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, with blood pressure-lowering effects attributed in part to sympathetic inhibition and parasympathetic facilitation. In addition, a vasodilatory arm of the RAS has emerged that includes angiotensin-(1-7), ACE2, and alamandine, and promotes beneficial effects on blood pressure in part by reducing sympathetic activity and improving arterial baroreceptor reflex function in animal models. The role of the vasodilatory arm of the RAS in cardiovascular autonomic regulation in clinical populations, however, has yet to be determined. This review will summarize recent developments in autonomic mechanisms involved in the effects of the RAS on cardiovascular regulation, with a focus on newly discovered pathways and therapeutic targets for this hormone system.
- High-Saturated Fat High-Sugar Diet Accelerates Left-Ventricular Dysfunction Faster than High-Saturated Fat Diet Alone via Increasing Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Obese-Insulin Resistant Rats. [Journal Article]
- MNMol Nutr Food Res 2018 Nov 09; :e1800729
- CONCLUSIONS: Both HFD and HFHS caused cardiometabolic dysfunction. HFHS caused more severe metabolic disturbance, oxidative stress, and apoptosis than HFD, which led to an accelerated LV dysfunction in HFHS rats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Short sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: from pathophysiology to clinical evidence. [Review]
- NRNat Rev Cardiol 2018 Nov 08
- Short sleep duration has a substantial influence on the overall health of an individual. Short sleep time can be a consequence of lifestyle habits, environmental factors, or the presence of a sleep d...
Short sleep duration has a substantial influence on the overall health of an individual. Short sleep time can be a consequence of lifestyle habits, environmental factors, or the presence of a sleep disorder, such as insomnia or sleep-disordered breathing. Short sleep time is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, mainly from cardiovascular disorders (including coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and hypertension). Several biological mechanisms have been proposed as a possible link between short sleep duration and these diseases, such as involvement of the autonomic nervous system, endothelial function, metabolic regulation, inflammation, and the coagulation system. In this Review, we provide an overview on the effects of short sleep duration on cardiovascular health and diseases and discuss the main pathophysiological mechanisms involved, taking into account both experimental data and clinical evidence.
- Salivary cortisone, as a biomarker for psychosocial stress, is associated with state anxiety and heart rate. [Journal Article]
- PPsychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Oct 28; 101:35-41
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study found salivary cortisone to be a stress biomarker with high discriminatory power and significant correlations with subjective and autonomic stress measures. Our results can inform future stress studies of sampling time for different laboratory parameters.
- Attenuation of Spontaneous Baroreceptor Sensitivity following Concussion. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci Sports Exerc 2018 Nov 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Reduced BRS is a post-concussive consequence of CV-ANS dysfunction during the first post-injury week. Because SBP was similar between groups, it may be speculated that reduced BRS was not afferent in origin, but represents a post-injury consequence of the central nervous system after injury.
- Digital Delivery of Meditative Movement Training Improved Health of Cigarette-Smoke-Exposed Subjects. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Public Health 2018; 6:282
- Many FA who flew prior to the ban on smoking in commercial aircraft exhibit an unusual pattern of long-term pulmonary dysfunction. This randomized controlled study tested the hypothesis that digitall...
Many FA who flew prior to the ban on smoking in commercial aircraft exhibit an unusual pattern of long-term pulmonary dysfunction. This randomized controlled study tested the hypothesis that digitally delivered meditative movement (MM) training improves chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related symptoms in flight attendants (FA) who were exposed to second-hand cigarette smoke (SHCS) while flying. Phase I of this two-phase clinical trial was a single-arm non-randomized pilot study that developed and tested methods for MM intervention; we now report on Phase II, a randomized controlled trial comparing MM to a control group of similar FA receiving health education (HE) videos. Primary outcomes were the 6-min walk test and blood levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Pulmonary, cardiovascular, autonomic and affective measures were also taken. There were significant improvements in the 6-min walk test, the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) score, and the COPD Assessment Test. Non-significant trends were observed for increased dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels, decreased anxiety scores and reduced blood hs-CRP levels, and increased peak expiratory flow (PEF). In a Survey Monkey questionnaire, 81% of participants who completed pre and post-testing expressed mild to strong positive opinions of the study contents, delivery, or impact, while 16% expressed mild negative opinions. Over the course of the year including the study, participant adoption of the MM practices showed a significant and moderately large correlation with overall health improvement; Pearson's R = 0.62, p < 0.005. These results support the hypothesized benefits of video-based MM training for this population. No adverse effects were reported. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02612389.
- Depression, Anxiety, and Cognitive Impairment : Comorbid Mental Health Disorders in Heart Failure. [Review]
- CHCurr Heart Fail Rep 2018 Nov 06
- Depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment constitute established risk markers for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and are associated with impaired life expectancy and quality of life and hi...
Depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment constitute established risk markers for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and are associated with impaired life expectancy and quality of life and high hospitalization rates and healthcare expenditure. This review summarizes current knowledge about mental health disorders in patients with CVD and heart failure (HF).
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- Impaired nocturnal blood pressure dipping in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- HRHypertens Res 2018 Nov 06
- Hypertension is a common comorbidity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Both conditions are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, which is reduced by tight blood pressure (BP) and glycem...
Hypertension is a common comorbidity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Both conditions are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, which is reduced by tight blood pressure (BP) and glycemic control. However, nondipping BP status continues to be an enduring cardiovascular risk factor in T2DM. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction have been proposed as potential mechanisms. This study tested the hypothesis that microvascular disease rather than cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy interferes with the physiological nocturnal BP reduction. Cardiovascular autonomic function and baroreflex sensitivity were determined in 22 type 2 diabetic patients with (DM+) and 23 diabetic patients without (DM-) manifest microvascular disease. BP dipping status was assessed from 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements. Sixteen nondiabetic subjects served as controls (CTRL). Cardiovascular autonomic function was normal in all subjects. Baroreflex sensitivity was lower in DM- compared with CTRL (7.7 ± 3.3 vs. 12.3 ± 8.3 ms·mm Hg-1; P < 0.05) and was further reduced in DM + (4.6 ± 2.0 ms·mm Hg-1; P < 0.01 vs. DM- and CTRL). The nocturnal decline in systolic and diastolic BP was blunted in DM- (12% and 14% vs. 17% and 19% in CTRL; P < 0.05) and even more so in DM+ (8% and 11%; P < 0.05 vs. DM- and P < 0.001 vs. CTRL). A nocturnal reduction in pulse pressure was observed in CTRL and DM- but not in DM+ (P < 0.05 vs. DM- and P < 0.01 vs. CTRL). In T2DM, progression of microvascular disease interferes with the normal nocturnal BP decline and coincides with a persistently increased pulse pressure and reduced baroreflex sensitivity, contributing to their increased cardiovascular risk.