- Chronic lead exposure enhances the sympathoexcitatory response associated with P2X4 receptor in rat stellate ganglia. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Toxicol 2018 Feb 19
- Chronic lead exposure causes peripheral sympathetic nerve stimulation, including increased blood pressure and heart rate. Purinergic receptors are involved in the sympathoexcitatory response induced ...
Chronic lead exposure causes peripheral sympathetic nerve stimulation, including increased blood pressure and heart rate. Purinergic receptors are involved in the sympathoexcitatory response induced by myocardial ischemia injury. However, whether P2X4 receptor participates in sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure and the possible mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the change of the sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure via the P2X4 receptor in the stellate ganglion (SG). Rats were given lead acetate through drinking water freely at doses of 0 g/L (control group), 0.5 g/L (low lead group), and 2 g/L (high lead group) for 1 year. Our results demonstrated that lead exposure caused autonomic nervous dysfunction, including blood pressure and heart rate increased and heart rate variability (HRV) decreased. Western blotting results indicated that after lead exposure, the protein expression levels in the SG of P2X4 receptor, IL-1β and Cx43 were up-regulated, the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was activated. Real-time PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of P2X4 receptor in the SG was higher in lead exposure group than that in the control group. Double-labeled immunofluorescence results showed that P2X4 receptor was co-expressed with glutamine synthetase (GS), the marker of satellite glial cells (SGCs). These changes were positively correlated with the dose of lead exposure. The up-regulated expression of P2X4 receptor in SGCs of the SG maybe enhance the sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure.
- Interrelationship between diabetes mellitus and heart failure: the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in left ventricle performance. [Review]
- HFHeart Fail Rev 2018 Feb 17
- Heart failure (HF) is a common cardiac syndrome, whose pathophysiology involves complex mechanisms, some of which remain unknown. Diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes not only a glucose metabolic disor...
Heart failure (HF) is a common cardiac syndrome, whose pathophysiology involves complex mechanisms, some of which remain unknown. Diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes not only a glucose metabolic disorder accompanied by insulin resistance but also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and HF. During the last years though emerging data set up, a bidirectional interrelationship between these two entities. In the case of DM impaired calcium homeostasis, free fatty acid metabolism, redox state, and advance glycation end products may accelerate cardiac dysfunction. On the other hand, when HF exists, hypoperfusion of the liver and pancreas, b-blocker and diuretic treatment, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction may cause impairment of glucose metabolism. These molecular pathways may be used as therapeutic targets for novel antidiabetic agents. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) not only improve insulin resistance and glucose and lipid metabolism but also manifest a diversity of actions directly or indirectly associated with systolic or diastolic performance of left ventricle and symptoms of HF. Interestingly, they may beneficially affect remodeling of the left ventricle, fibrosis, and diastolic performance but they may cause impaired water handing, sodium retention, and decompensation of HF which should be taken into consideration in the management of patients with DM. In this review article, we present the pathophysiological data linking HF with DM and we focus on the molecular mechanisms of PPARs agonists in left ventricle systolic and diastolic performance providing useful insights in the molecular mechanism of this class of metabolically active regiments.
- Serum apolipoprotein A-1 concentrations and the prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diabetes Complications 2018 Jan 31
- CONCLUSIONS: Serum apoA-I levels are inversely associated with the prevalence of CAN in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Our data also suggest that a putatively increased risk of CAN associated with decreased apoA-I levels might be mediated by correlated increases in the levels of inflammatory markers.
- [Orthostatic hypotension in elderly patients]. [Journal Article]
- NTNed Tijdschr Geneeskd 2018; 162(0):D1943
- - Orthostatic hypotension is a condition in which there is insufficient recovery of the blood pressure drop which occurs after getting up, which causes a temporary reduction of cerebral perfusion. Th...
- Orthostatic hypotension is a condition in which there is insufficient recovery of the blood pressure drop which occurs after getting up, which causes a temporary reduction of cerebral perfusion. This increases the risk of falls resulting in injuries.- Orthostatic hypotension is most common in the elderly. The cause is usually multifactorial (including reduced circulating volume, reduced peripheral resistance and limited heart rate increase). Orthostatic hypotension caused by autonomic dysfunction is called neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.- The most important groups of drugs that may elicit orthostatic hypotension are: diuretics (but only if they lead to hypovolaemia), antidepressants (mainly tricyclic antidepressants), sympatholytics (alpha-blockers as well as beta-blockers) and vasodilators (for example, nitrates).- Treatment of the elderly with orthostatic hypotension starts with lifestyle advice (getting up slowly) and possible medication adjustments.
- A clinical approach to arrhythmias revisited in 2018 : From ECG over noninvasive and invasive electrophysiology to advanced imaging. [Review]
- NHNeth Heart J 2018 Feb 15
- Understanding arrhythmias and their treatment is not always easy. The current straightforward approach with catheter ablation and device therapy is an amazing achievement, but does not make managemen...
Understanding arrhythmias and their treatment is not always easy. The current straightforward approach with catheter ablation and device therapy is an amazing achievement, but does not make management of underlying or other cardiac disease and pharmacological therapy unnecessary. The goal of this paper is to describe how much of the knowledge of the 1980s and early 1990s can and should still be applied in the modern treatment of patients with arrhythmias. After an introduction, this review will focus on paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and a prototype of 'idiopathic' ventricular arrhythmias, two diseases with a striking similarity, and will discuss the arrhythmogenesis. The ECG continues to play an important role in diagnostics. Both diseases are associated with a structurally normal heart; the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in triggering arrhythmias at both the atrial and ventricular level.
- Use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in adolescents with SCI: a case series. [Journal Article]
- SCSpinal Cord Ser Cases 2017; 3:17095
- Due the impact of maturation on cardiovascular hemodynamics the degree of cardiovascular dysfunction, attributable to spinal cord injury (SCI), in the pediatric and adolescent population remains uncl...
Due the impact of maturation on cardiovascular hemodynamics the degree of cardiovascular dysfunction, attributable to spinal cord injury (SCI), in the pediatric and adolescent population remains unclear. While few studies have begun to assess this, there is still a void in the literature regarding the prevalence of cardiovascular dysfunction and how best to identify and treat it in this population.
- Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: An Update of Mechanisms Contributing to This Clinical Entity. [Review]
- CircRCirc Res 2018 Feb 16; 122(4):624-638
- Heart failure and related morbidity and mortality are increasing at an alarming rate, in large part, because of increases in aging, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The clinical outcomes associated wi...
Heart failure and related morbidity and mortality are increasing at an alarming rate, in large part, because of increases in aging, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The clinical outcomes associated with heart failure are considerably worse for patients with diabetes mellitus than for those without diabetes mellitus. In people with diabetes mellitus, the presence of myocardial dysfunction in the absence of overt clinical coronary artery disease, valvular disease, and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia, has led to the descriptive terminology, diabetic cardiomyopathy. The prevalence of diabetic cardiomyopathy is increasing in parallel with the increase in diabetes mellitus. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is initially characterized by myocardial fibrosis, dysfunctional remodeling, and associated diastolic dysfunction, later by systolic dysfunction, and eventually by clinical heart failure. Impaired cardiac insulin metabolic signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, increases in oxidative stress, reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, elevations in advanced glycation end products and collagen-based cardiomyocyte and extracellular matrix stiffness, impaired mitochondrial and cardiomyocyte calcium handling, inflammation, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, cardiac autonomic neuropathy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, microvascular dysfunction, and a myriad of cardiac metabolic abnormalities have all been implicated in the development and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Molecular mechanisms linked to the underlying pathophysiological changes include abnormalities in AMP-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine, protein kinase C, microRNA, and exosome pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary view of these instigators of diabetic cardiomyopathy, as well as mechanistically based strategies for the prevention and treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
- Is neuropathic pain associated with cardiac sympathovagal activity changes in patients with breast cancer? [Journal Article]
- NRNeurol Res 2018 Feb 15; :1-6
- Objective Heart rate variability (HRV) is a good indicator of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. A few studies have been conducted recently and have shown a relationship between reduced HRV...
Objective Heart rate variability (HRV) is a good indicator of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. A few studies have been conducted recently and have shown a relationship between reduced HRV and conditions that lead to neuropathic pain (NP). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether NP is associated with changes in cardiac sympathovagal activity in patients with breast cancer (BC). Methods We used the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) questionnaire to evaluate NP in 70 patients with BC. The patients were subjected to a 24-h Holter ECG monitorization to determine heart rate variability (HRV). Standard deviation (SD) of the normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN), SD of the mean of the RR intervals (SDAAN), mean of the SD of the NN interval (SDNN Index), low-frequency component/high-frequency component ratio (LF/HF), and the mean heart rate of the patients were recorded. Results According to the LANSS questionnaire, 18 (25.7%) of the patients were classified as NP (+). The SDNN (P = 0.001), SDAAN (P = 0.003), and SDDN index (P = 0.007) were significantly lower in patients with NP than in patients without NP, whereas LF/HF ratio (P = 0.000) and mean heart rate were found to be significantly higher in patients with NP (P = 0.006). Conclusion According to our findings, NP (+) patients with BC had increased cardiac sympathetic activity, which was suggested to be associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
- Neural Mechanisms of Autonomic Dysfunction in Neurological Diseases. [Editorial]
- NPNeural Plast 2017; 2017:2050191
New Search Next
- Autonomic components of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) are favourably affected by Electrical Twitch-Obtaining Intramuscular Stimulation (ETOIMS): effects on blood pressure and heart rate. [Journal Article]
- BIBMJ Innov 2017; 3(3):176-187
- CONCLUSIONS: Measuring BP and pulse/heart rate is clinically practical for alerting ANS dysfunction maintained CRPS. SDPPP index (≥26) and pulse/heart rate (≥8) reductions with almost every ETOIMS treatment, plus inability to evoke autonomous twitches due to pain-induced muscle hypertonicity, are pathognomonic of this problem.