- Rosiglitazone Elicits an Adiponectin-Mediated Insulin-Sensitizing Action at the Adipose Tissue-Liver Axis in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty Rats. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diabetes Res 2018; 2018:4627842
- Rosiglitazone is an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ that is principally associated with insulin action. The exact mechanisms underlying its insulin-sensitizing action...
Rosiglitazone is an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ that is principally associated with insulin action. The exact mechanisms underlying its insulin-sensitizing action are still not fully elucidated. It is well known that adiponectin mostly secreted in adipose tissue is an insulin sensitizer. Here, we found that treatment of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage for 33 weeks) attenuated the increase in fasting plasma insulin concentrations and the index of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance along with the age growth and glucose concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, the increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, concentrations of fasting plasma nonesterified fatty acids and triglyceride, and hepatic triglyceride content was also suppressed. The hepatic protein expression profile revealed that rosiglitazone increased the downregulated total protein expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed the upregulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser307 and IRS-2 at Ser731. The results indicate that rosiglitazone ameliorates hepatic and systemic insulin resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fatty liver. Mechanistically, rosiglitazone suppressed hepatic protein overexpression of both phosphorylated nuclear factor- (NF-) κBp65 and inhibitory-κB kinase-α/β, a transcription factor that primarily regulates chronic inflammatory responses and the upstream NF-κB signal transduction cascades which are necessary for activating NF-κB, respectively. More importantly, rosiglitazone attenuated the decreases in adipose adiponectin mRNA level, plasma adiponectin concentrations, and hepatic protein expression of adiponectin receptor-1 and receptor-2. Thus, we can draw the conclusion that rosiglitazone elicits an adiponectin-mediated insulin-sensitizing action at the adipose tissue-liver axis in obese rats. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of action of rosiglitazone.
- Actions of the National Regulatory Authorities in 10 Low- and Middle-Income Countries Following Stringent Regulatory Authority Safety Alerts on Rosiglitazone. [Journal Article]
- TITher Innov Regul Sci 2015; 49(2):279-283
- On September 23, 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency issued safety alerts for medicines containing rosiglitazone. The authors monitored the actions of national...
On September 23, 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency issued safety alerts for medicines containing rosiglitazone. The authors monitored the actions of national regulatory authorities (NRAs) from 10 low- and middle-income countries to identify the time lag between the issuance of safety alerts by these two stringent regulatory authorities and any actions by these select NRAs. Two NRAs outside Africa took regulatory actions related to safety of rosiglitazone within 2 weeks of stringent regulatory authority safety alerts. For the 7 of the 8 African NRAs where the authors could confirm the date of regulatory action, the median time lag before some regulatory action was 43 days, although there was considerable variability in time to regulatory action. Low- and middle-income countries should create or strengthen systems for timely consideration and management of emerging safety issues for products that they have registered.
- Impairment of bisphenol F on the glucose metabolism of zebrafish larvae. [Journal Article]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Sep 12; 165:386-392
- Bisphenol F (BPF) is a substitute of bisphenol A in the production of epoxy resin and polycarbonate. Its extensive use in consumer products leads to a wide human exposure at high levels. Although the...
Bisphenol F (BPF) is a substitute of bisphenol A in the production of epoxy resin and polycarbonate. Its extensive use in consumer products leads to a wide human exposure at high levels. Although the adverse effects of BPF on animal health are of increasing public concern, its risks on systematic glucose metabolism and blood glucose concentrations still remain largely unknown. Using zebrafish larvae as the model animal, we investigated the disturbance of BPF exposure on glucose metabolism and the underlying mechanisms. Zebrafish larvae at 96 h post fertilization were exposed to 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/L of BPF for 48 h. Compared with the control group, glucose levels of larvae increased significantly in the 10 and 100 μg/L exposure groups, which are associated with enhancement of gluconeogenesis and suppression of glycolysis induced by high doses of BPF. Additionally, both mRNA expressions and protein levels of insulin increased significantly in the 10 and 100 μg/L exposure groups, while transcription levels of genes encoding insulin receptor substrates decreased significantly in these groups, indicating a possibly decreased insulin sensitivity due to impairment of insulin signaling transduction downstream of insulin receptor. Further, compared with BPF alone, co-exposure of larvae to BPF and rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer, significantly attenuates increases in both glucose levels and mRNA expressions of a key gluconeogenesis enzyme. Our data therefore indicate impairing insulin signaling transduction may be the main mechanism through which BPF disrupts glucose metabolism and induces hyperglycemia. Results of the present study inform the health risk assessment of BPF and also suggest the use of zebrafish larvae in large-scale screening of chemicals with possible glucose metabolism disturbing effect.
- Di-n-butyl phthalate modifies PMA-induced macrophage differentiation of THP-1 monocytes via PPARγ. [Journal Article]
- TVToxicol In Vitro 2018 Sep 12
- The present study examined effects of di-butyl phthalate (DBP) on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced macrophage differentiation of THP-1 monocytes, determined by morphological classification and...
The present study examined effects of di-butyl phthalate (DBP) on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced macrophage differentiation of THP-1 monocytes, determined by morphological classification and flow cytometry. Focusing on expression of the surface marker CD36, the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was examined using various PPARγ agonists and antagonists. As the PPARγ ligand-binding domain contains multiple ligand-binding sites (LBS), agonist and antagonists targeting the different sites were used. DBP accelerated PMA-induced morphological changes and increased expression of CD36, although to a lesser degree than the PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2). A proteomics screening revealed that DBP enhanced expression of PPARγ-regulated proteins. During combined exposures, DBP partly attenuated the effect of rosiglitazone, an agonist binding reversibly to PPARγ's canonical LBS. In contrast, DBP increased expression of CD36 in combination with 15d-PGJ2 which binds irreversibly to the canonical LBS. Thus, DBP appears to interact with both the canonical and alternative LBS. In line with this, the antagonist GW9662 binding to the canonical LBS, only partly reduced DBP effects on CD36, while the dual-site PPARγ antagonist SR16832 completely blocked the effects of DBP. Overall, the results show that DBP modifies PMA-induced differentiation of THP-1 cells through interaction with PPARγ.
- Inhibiting role of rosiglitazone in the regulation of inflammatory response and protective effects for severe acute pancreatitis in mice. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Biochem 2018 Sep 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Rosiglitazone could protect mice with SAP from injury by downregulating Socs3 and inhibiting the inflammatory response pathway.
- Identification of the First PPARα/γ Dual Agonist Able To Bind to Canonical and Alternative Sites of PPARγ and To Inhibit Its Cdk5-Mediated Phosphorylation. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Chem 2018 Sep 18
- A new series of derivatives of the PPARα/γ dual agonist 1 allowed us to identify the ligand ( S)-6 as a potent partial agonist of both PPARα and γ subtypes. X-ray studies in PPARγ revealed two differ...
A new series of derivatives of the PPARα/γ dual agonist 1 allowed us to identify the ligand ( S)-6 as a potent partial agonist of both PPARα and γ subtypes. X-ray studies in PPARγ revealed two different binding modes of ( S)-6 to the canonical site. However, ( S)-6 was also able to bind an alternative site as demonstrated by transactivation assay in the presence of a canonical PPARγ antagonist and supported from docking experiments. This compound did not activate the PPARγ-dependent program of adipocyte differentiation inducing a very less severe lipid accumulation compared to rosiglitazone but increased the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Finally, ( S)-6 inhibited the Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARγ at serine 273 that is currently considered the mechanism by which some PPARγ partial agonists exert antidiabetic effects similar to thiazolidinediones, without showing their typical side effects. This is the first PPARα/γ dual agonist reported to show this inhibitory effect representing the potential lead of a new class of drugs for treatment of dyslipidemic type 2 diabetes.
- TET2 facilitates PPARγ agonist-mediated gene regulation and insulin sensitization in adipocytes. [Journal Article]
- MMetabolism 2018 Sep 05
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that TET2 works as an epigenetic regulator of Rosi-mediated insulin sensitization and transcriptional regulation in adipocytes.
- Design of PPAR-γ agonist based on algal metabolites and the endogenous ligand 15-deoxy-Δ12, 14-prostaglandin J2. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2018 Aug 30; 157:1192-1201
- In a previous study, we synthesized endocyclic enone jasmonate derivatives that function as anti-inflammatory and PPAR-γ-activating entities by using key functional moieties of anti-inflammatory alga...
In a previous study, we synthesized endocyclic enone jasmonate derivatives that function as anti-inflammatory and PPAR-γ-activating entities by using key functional moieties of anti-inflammatory algal metabolites. Herein, we designed additional derivatives containing an exocyclic enone moiety that resembles the key structure of the natural PPAR-γ ligand, 15-deoxy-Δ12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15 d-PGJ2). The exocyclic enone moiety of 15 d-PGJ2 is essential for covalent bonding with the Cys285 residue in the PPAR-γ ligand-binding domain (LBD). In silico analysis of the designed compounds indicated that they may form hydrogen bonds with key amino acid residues in the PPAR-γ LBD, and thus, secure a position in the bioactive cavity in a similar fashion as does rosiglitazone and 15 d-PGJ2. By a luciferase reporter assay on rat liver Ac2F cells, the synthesized compounds were evaluated for PPAR-γ transcriptional activity. The differential PPAR-γ transcriptional activities of the geometric and enantiomeric isomers of the selected analog were also evaluated; based on our results, the enantiopure compound (+)-(R,E)-6a1 was suggested as a potential PPAR-γ ligand.
- Dexamethasone decreases the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate-inflammatory axis in adipose tissue: implications for the metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. [Journal Article]
- FJFASEB J 2018 Sep 07; :fj201801226R
- Lysophosphatidate (LPA) signaling through 6 receptors is regulated by the balance of LPA production by autotaxin (ATX) vs. LPA degradation by lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). LPA promotes an infl...
Lysophosphatidate (LPA) signaling through 6 receptors is regulated by the balance of LPA production by autotaxin (ATX) vs. LPA degradation by lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). LPA promotes an inflammatory cycle by increasing the synthesis of cyclooxygenase-2 and multiple inflammatory cytokines that stimulate further ATX production. We aimed to determine whether the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid (GC) dexamethasone (Dex) functions partly by decreasing the ATX-LPA inflammatory cycle in adipose tissue, a major site of ATX secretion. Treatment of human adipose tissue with 10-1000 nM Dex decreased ATX secretion, increased LPP1 expression, and decreased mRNA expressions of IL-6, TNF-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and adiponectin. Cotreatment with rosiglitazone (an insulin sensitizer), insulin, or both abolished Dex-induced decreases in ATX and adiponectin secretion, but did not reverse Dex-induced decreases in secretions of 20 inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Dex-treated mice exhibited lower ATX activity in plasma, brain, and adipose tissue; decreased mRNA levels for LPA and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors in brain; and decreased plasma concentrations of LPA and S1P. Our results establish a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effects of Dex through decreased signaling by the ATX-LPA-inflammatory axis. The GC action in adipose tissue has implications for the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity in metabolic syndrome and breast cancer treatment.-Meng, G., Tang, X., Yang, Z., Zhao, Y., Curtis, J. M., McMullen, T. P. W., Brindley, D. N. Dexamethasone decreases the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate-inflammatory axis in adipose tissue: implications for the metabolic syndrome and breast cancer.
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- Berberine derivative, Q8, stimulates osteogenic differentiation. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Sep 26; 504(1):340-345
- Berberine has been implicated to be involved in maintaining bone health due to its anti-oxidative and osteogenic properties. However, low potency and low bioavailability limit the clinical developmen...
Berberine has been implicated to be involved in maintaining bone health due to its anti-oxidative and osteogenic properties. However, low potency and low bioavailability limit the clinical development of the drug. To overcome these obstacles, we previously synthesized a compound, Q8, which is a structural homolog of berberine. The present study examined the pharmacological functions of Q8 to evaluate its potential use in bone regeneration with respect to osteoblast differentiation. Here, we report that Q8 enhanced BMP4-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and transcription from the ALP promoter. In addition, Q8 suppressed the expression and activity of PPARγ (a known negative regulator of osteogenesis due to its stimulatory effects on adipogenesis and its role as an adipogenic transcription factor), which in turn increases β-catenin expression in the nucleus, and ultimately promotes osteoblast differentiation. Meanwhile, Q8 reversed the inhibitory effects of the PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone, on osteoblast differentiation. This study demonstrated that Q8 promotes osteoblast differentiation via inhibition of PPARγ and the enhancement of osteoblast function by Q8 may contribute to the prevention for osteoporosis.