- Promotion of lipid storage rather than of thermogenic competence by fetal versus newborn calf serum in primary cultures of brown adipocytes. [Journal Article]
- AAdipocyte 2018 Jun 18
- Much current understanding of brown adipocyte development comes from in-vitro cell models. Serum type may affect the behavior of cultured cells and thus conclusions drawn. Here, we investigate effect...
Much current understanding of brown adipocyte development comes from in-vitro cell models. Serum type may affect the behavior of cultured cells and thus conclusions drawn. Here, we investigate effects of serum type ("fetal bovine" versus "newborn calf") on responses to differentiation inducers (the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone or the neurotransmitter norepinephrine) in cultured primary brown adipocytes. Lipid storage was enhanced by fetal versus newborn serum. However, molecular adipose conversion (Pparg2 and Fabp4 expression) was not affected by serum type. Rosiglitazone-induced (7-days) expression of thermogenic genes (i.e. Ucp1, Pgc1a, Dio2 and Elovl3) was not systematically affected by serum type. However, importantly, acute (2 h) norepinephrine-induced thermogenic gene expression was overall markedly higher (and adipose genes somewhat lower) in cells cultured in newborn serum. Thus, newborn serum promotes thermogenic competence, and the use of fetal serum in brown adipocyte cultures (as is often routine) counteracts adequate differentiation. Agents that counteract this inhibition may therefore confoundingly be ascribed genuine thermogenic competence-inducing properties.
- Rosiglitazone and a β3-Adrenoceptor Agonist Are Both Required for Functional Browning of White Adipocytes in Culture. [Journal Article]
- FEFront Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018; 9:249
- The recruitment of brite (or beige) adipocytes has been advocated as a means to combat obesity, due to their ability to phenotypically resemble brown adipocytes (BA). Lineage studies indicate that br...
The recruitment of brite (or beige) adipocytes has been advocated as a means to combat obesity, due to their ability to phenotypically resemble brown adipocytes (BA). Lineage studies indicate that brite adipocytes are formed by differentiation of precursor cells or by direct conversion of existing white adipocytes, depending on the adipose depot examined. We have systematically compared the gene expression profile and a functional output (oxygen consumption) in mouse adipocytes cultured from two contrasting depots, namely interscapular brown adipose tissue, and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), following treatment with a known browning agent, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) activator rosiglitazone. Prototypical BA readily express uncoupling protein (UCP)1, and upstream regulators including the β3-adrenoceptor and transcription factors involved in energy homeostasis. Adipocytes from inguinal WAT display maximal UCP1 expression and mitochondrial uncoupling only when treated with a combination of the PPARγ activator rosiglitazone and a β3-adrenoceptor agonist. In conclusion, brite adipocytes are fully activated only when a browning agent (rosiglitazone) and a thermogenic agent (β3-adrenoceptor agonist) are added in combination. The presence of rosiglitazone throughout the 7-day culture period partially masks the effects of β3-adrenoceptor signaling in inguinal white adipocyte cultures, whereas including rosiglitazone only for the first 3 days promotes robust β3-adrenoceptor expression and provides an improved window for detection of β3-adrenoceptor responses.
- PPAR-gamma pathways attenuate pulmonary granuloma formation in a carbon nanotube induced murine model of sarcoidosis. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Jun 15
- Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a ligand activated nuclear transcription factor, is constitutively expressed in alveolar macrophages of healthy individuals. PPARγ deficienci...
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a ligand activated nuclear transcription factor, is constitutively expressed in alveolar macrophages of healthy individuals. PPARγ deficiencies have been noted in several lung diseases including the alveolar macrophages of pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. We have previously described a murine model of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) induced pulmonary granulomatous inflammation which bears striking similarities to pulmonary sarcoidosis, including the deficiency of alveolar macrophage PPARγ. Further studies demonstrate alveolar macrophage PPARγ deficiency exacerbates MWCNT-induced pulmonary granulomas. Based on these observations we hypothesized that activation of PPARγ via administration of the PPARγ-specific ligand rosiglitazone would limit MWCNT-induced granuloma formation and promote PPARγ-dependent pathways. Results presented here show that rosiglitazone significantly limits the frequency and severity of MWCNT-induced pulmonary granulomas. Furthermore, rosiglitazone attenuates alveolar macrophage NF-κB activity and downregulates the expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators, CCL2 and osteopontin. PPARγ activation via rosiglitazone also prevents the MWCNT-induced deficiency of PPARγ-regulated ATP-binding cassette lipid transporter-G1 (ABCG1) expression. ABCG1 is crucial to pulmonary lipid homeostasis. ABCG1 deficiency results in lipid accumulation which promotes pro-inflammatory macrophage activation. Our results indicate that restoration of homeostatic ABCG1 levels by rosiglitazone correlates with both reduced pulmonary lipid accumulation, and decreased alveolar macrophage activation. These data confirm and further support our previous observations that PPARγ pathways are critical in regulating MWCNT-induced pulmonary granulomatous inflammation.
- Joint Contracture is Reduced by Intra-articular Implantation of Rosiglitazone-Loaded Hydrogels in a Rabbit Model of Arthrofibrosis. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Orthop Res 2018 Jun 14
- Trauma, surgery, and other inflammatory conditions can lead to debilitating joint contractures. Adjunct pharmacologic modalities may permit clinical prevention and treatment of recalcitrant joint con...
Trauma, surgery, and other inflammatory conditions can lead to debilitating joint contractures. Adjunct pharmacologic modalities may permit clinical prevention and treatment of recalcitrant joint contractures. We investigated the therapeutic potential of rosiglitazone by intra-articular delivery via oligo[poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate] (OPF) hydrogels in an established rabbit model of arthrofibrosis. OPF hydrogels loaded with rosiglitazone were characterized for drug elution properties upon soaking in minimum essential media (MEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum and measurements of drug concentrations via High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Drug-loaded scaffolds were surgically implanted into 24 skeletally mature female New Zealand White rabbits that were divided into equal groups receiving OPF hydrogels loaded with rosiglitazone (1.67 mg), or vehicle control (10 µL DMSO). After 8 weeks of joint immobilization, rabbits were allowed unrestricted cage activity for 16 weeks. Contracture angles of rabbit limbs treated with rosiglitazone showed statistically significant improvements in flexion compared to control animals (mean angles, respectively, 64.4° vs. 53.3°, p < 0.03). At time of sacrifice (week 24), animals in the rosiglitazone group continued to exhibit less joint contracture than controls (119.0° vs. 99.5°, p = 0.014). The intra-articular delivery of rosiglitazone using implanted OPF hydrogels decreases flexion contractures in a rabbit model of arthrofibrosis without causing adverse effects (e.g., gross inflammation or arthritis). Statement of Clinical Significance: Post-traumatic joint contractures are common and debilitating, with limited available treatment options. Pharmacologic interventions can potentially prevent and treat such contractures. This study is translational in that a commercially approved medication has been repurposed through a novel delivery device. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation promotes intestinal barrier function by improving mucus and tight junctions in a mouse colitis model. [Journal Article]
- DLDig Liver Dis 2018 Apr 27
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that activated PPARγ could effectively promote intestinal mucus integrity by increasing the number of goblet cells, the glycosylation of mucins, and tight junctions via an MLCK-dependent mechanism.
- PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone ameliorates peritoneal deterioration in peritoneal dialysis rats with LPS-induced peritonitis through upregulation of AQP-1 and ZO-1. [Journal Article]
- BRBiosci Rep 2018 Jun 05
- Peritonitis is still a major cause of the death in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients despite the significant decline of the peritonitis rates in recent years. This study is designed to evaluate the t...
Peritonitis is still a major cause of the death in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients despite the significant decline of the peritonitis rates in recent years. This study is designed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, on the structure and function of the peritoneum in a peritoneal dialysis (PD) rat accompanied with peritonitis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that the peritoneal membrane in the LPS-only group showed increased peritoneal thickness, vessel density and hypercellularity compared with the PD-only group. Rosiglitazone administration significantly inhibited increase of the three indicators in PD rats with LPS treatment. In line with this, rosiglitazone improved function of the peritoneum in LPS-induced PD rats receiving rosiglitazone, which was reflected by decreased D/P Urea and D/P albumin. Mechanistically, rosiglitazone-mediated improvements in the damaged structure and function of the peritoneum in PD rats with LPS treatment were associated with reduced inflammation and preserving mesothelial cell monolayer resulted from upregulation of AQP-1 and ZO-1. Our findings thus suggest that PPAR-γ activation might be a reasonable strategy to prevent and ameliorate peritoneal deterioration in PD patients, especially with peritonitis.
- Rosiglitazone inhibits PM2.5-induced cytotoxicity in human lung epithelial A549 cells. [Journal Article]
- ATAnn Transl Med 2018; 6(8):152
- CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data suggested that rosiglitazone protects against PM2.5-induced ROS production and cell apoptosis and represses activation of ERK1/2 and STAT3 signaling in A549 cells. Our results indicated that rosiglitazone is a potential therapeutic agent for PM2.5-induced lung diseases.
- Expression of GPR43 in Brown Adipogenesis Is Enhanced by Rosiglitazone and Controlled by PPARγ/RXR Heterodimerization. [Journal Article]
- PRPPAR Res 2018; 2018:1051074
- GPR43, a G-protein coupled receptor recognizing short-chain fatty acids, has been reported to participate in many biological functions of white adipocytes, such as adipogenesis and lipolysis. However...
GPR43, a G-protein coupled receptor recognizing short-chain fatty acids, has been reported to participate in many biological functions of white adipocytes, such as adipogenesis and lipolysis. However, the functional role of GPR43 in brown adipocytes is still not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone on GPR43 expression in brown adipogenesis. The results demonstrated that GPR43 was expressed during the late phase of brown adipocyte differentiation, which could be further augmented by adipogenic agent rosiglitazone treatment. The PPARγ/RXR heterodimerization was found to be the key transcription factor for this enhancing effect of rosiglitazone on GPR43 expression. Taken together, these results suggested GPR43 levels might be regulated by PPARγ-activated events during brown adipocytes differentiation and reflect the adipogenesis status of brown adipocytes.
- Retinoid X receptor activation during adipogenesis of female mesenchymal stem cells programs a dysfunctional adipocyte. [Journal Article]
- EEndocrinology 2018 May 31
- Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is an emerging risk factor for the development of obesity and diabetes later in life. We previously showed that prenatal exposure to the E...
Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is an emerging risk factor for the development of obesity and diabetes later in life. We previously showed that prenatal exposure to the EDC tributyltin (TBT) results in increased adiposity in the offspring. These effects linger into adulthood and are propagated through successive generations. TBT activates two nuclear receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its heterodimeric partner retinoid X receptor (RXR), that promote adipogenesis in vivo and in vitro. We recently employed a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) model to show that TBT promotes adipose lineage commitment by activating RXR, not PPARγ. This led us to consider the functional consequences of PPARγ versus RXR activation in developing adipocytes. We used a transcriptomal approach to characterize genome-wide differences in MSCs differentiated with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (ROSI) or TBT. Pathway analysis suggested functional deficits in TBT-treated cells. We then compared adipocytes differentiated with ROSI, TBT, or a pure RXR agonist IRX4204 (4204). Our data show that RXR activators ('rexinoids', 4204 and TBT) attenuate glucose uptake, blunt expression of the anti-diabetic hormone adiponectin, and fail to down-regulate pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic transcripts as does ROSI. Finally, 4204 and TBT treatment results in an inability to induce markers of adipocyte browning, in part due to sustained interferon signaling. Taken together, these data implicate rexinoids in the development of dysfunctional white adipose tissue that could potentially exacerbate obesity and/or diabetes risk in vivo. These data warrant further screening and characterization of EDCs that activate RXR.
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- The effect of antidiabetic medications on the cardiovascular system: a critical appraisal of current data. [Review]
- HHormones (Athens) 2018; 17(1):83-95
- Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. This risk seems to be reduced by achievement of euglycemia. However, after the withdrawal o...
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. This risk seems to be reduced by achievement of euglycemia. However, after the withdrawal of rosiglitazone from the market, the question arose as to whether this risk concerns simply a matter of euglycemia or the distinct role played by each antidiabetic drug with respect to its effect on CVD risk. To address this issue, many studies have been published during the last decade involving old and new antidiabetic agents, which however yielded contradictory results. Briefly, metformin is still considered safe and confers a beneficial effect on CVD risk. Conflicting data exist as concerns sulfonylureas, although the second and third generation representatives are regarded as relatively safe. Pioglitazone use seems to be associated with a reduction in CVD risk, whereas the dipeptidyl-dipeptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), lixisenatide and exenatide-LAR [from the category of glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists], confer a neutral effect. Two other GLP-1R agonists, liraglutide and semaglutide, as well as the sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2)-inhibitors, empagliflozin and cangliflozin, have shown an additional effect on CVD risk reduction, although their safety is in doubt. Insulin analogues and newer long-acting compounds are also safe for the cadiovascular system. The aim of this narrative review is to present and critically analyse the current data for each antidiabetic drug category with regard to their effect on CVD risk.