- Comparison of efficacy of SHENQI compound and rosiglitazone in the treatment of diabetic vasculopathy analyzing multi-factor mediated disease-causing modules. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(12):e0207683
- Atherosclerosis-predominant vasculopathy is a common complication of diabetes with high morbidity and high mortality, which is ruining the patient's daily life. As is known to all, traditional Chines...
Atherosclerosis-predominant vasculopathy is a common complication of diabetes with high morbidity and high mortality, which is ruining the patient's daily life. As is known to all, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) SHENQI compound and western medicine rosiglitazone play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. In particular, SHENQI compound has a significant inhibitory effect on vascular lesions. Here, to explore and compare the therapeutic mechanism of SHENQI compound and rosiglitazone on diabetic vasculopathy, we first built 7 groups of mouse models. The behavioral, physiological and pathological morphological characteristics of these mice showed that SHENQI compound has a more comprehensive curative effect than rosiglitazone and has a stronger inhibitory effect on vascular lesions. While rosiglitazone has a more effective but no significant effect on hypoglycemic. Further, based on the gene expression of mice in each group, we performed differential expression analysis. The functional enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed the potential pathogenesis and treatment mechanisms of diabetic angiopathy. In addition, we found that SHENQI compound mainly exerts comprehensive effects by regulating MCM8, IRF7, CDK7, NEDD4L by pivot regulator analysis, while rosiglitazone can rapidly lower blood glucose levels by targeting PSMD3, UBA52. Except that, we also identified some pivot TFs and ncRNAs for these potential disease-causing DEG modules, which may the mediators bridging drugs and modules. Finally, similar to pivot regulator analysis, we also identified the regulation of some drugs (e.g. bumetanide, disopyramide and glyburide etc.) which have been shown to have a certain effect on diabetes or diabetic angiopathy, proofing the scientific and objectivity of this study. Overall, this study not only provides an in-depth comparison of the efficacy of SHENQI compound and rosiglitazone in the treatment of diabetic vasculopathy, but also provides clinicians and drug designers with valuable theoretical guidance.
- Impact of elastin-derived VGVAPG peptide on bidirectional interaction between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ) and beta-galactosidase (β-Gal) expression in mouse cortical astrocytes in vitro. [Journal Article]
- NSNaunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2018 Dec 03
- The process of degradation of the elastin-rich extracellular matrix produces elastin-derived peptides (EDPs). Different types of EDPs are detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid in healthy individuals ...
The process of degradation of the elastin-rich extracellular matrix produces elastin-derived peptides (EDPs). Different types of EDPs are detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid in healthy individuals and in patients after ischemic stroke. To date, it has been demonstrated that EDPs can regulate the development of insulin resistance in mice in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ)-dependent manner. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the elastin-derived valine-glycine-valine-alanine-proline-glycine (VGVAPG) peptide on Pparγ and beta-galactosidase (β-Gal) expression in mouse cortical astrocytes in vitro. Primary astrocytes were maintained in DMEM/F12 without phenol red supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The cells were exposed to 50 nM, 1 and 50 μM of the VGVAPG peptide. After 3 and 6 h (for mRNA) and 24 and 48 h (for the protein) of exposition to the peptide, the expression of Pparγ and β-Gal was measured. Moreover, the siRNA gene knockdown method was applied. Our study showed, for the first time, that the VGVAPG peptide affected β-Gal and Pparγ mRNA and protein expression in mouse astrocytes in vitro. Furthermore, we suggested a bidirectional interaction between Pparγ and β-Gal. Both pioglitazone and rosiglitazone increased β-Gal and Pparγ protein expression in mouse astrocytes in vitro, and this effect was reduced by the VGVAPG peptide. However, due to the lack of sufficient data explaining the molecular mechanism of action of the VGVAPG peptide in the nervous system, more studies are necessary in this field.
- Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Agonist Rosiglitazone Protects Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity Following Diffuse Axonal Injury by Decreasing the Levels of Inflammatory Mediators Through a Caveolin-1-Dependent Pathway. [Journal Article]
- IInflammation 2018 Nov 28
- Our early experiments confirmed that rosiglitazone (RSG), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, had therapeutic potential for the treatment of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by...
Our early experiments confirmed that rosiglitazone (RSG), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, had therapeutic potential for the treatment of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by inhibiting the expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein and reducing the loss and abnormal phosphorylation of tau, but the underlying mechanisms were not fully defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate a possible role for PPARγ in the protection of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in a rat model of DAI, and the underlying mechanisms. PPAR agonists and antagonists were intraperitoneally injected after DAI. Treatment with RSG ameliorated axonal injury, cell apoptosis, glia activation, and the release of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. It also increased the expression of tight junction-associated proteins like ZO-1, claudin-5, and occludin-1, whereas the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 had the opposite effects. These effects were also studied in a BBB in vitro model, consisting of a monolayer of human microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Treatment with RSG ameliorated the loss of BBB integrity and the increased permeability induced by OGD by reducing the release of inflammatory factors and maintaining the expression of tight junction-associated proteins. Interestingly, caveolin-1 was found located mainly in endothelial cells, and RSG increased the expression of caveolin-1, which decreased following OGD. In contrast, caveolin-1 siRNA abrogated the protective effects of RSG in the in vitro BBB model. In conclusion, we provide evidence that PPARγ plays an important role in a series of processes associated with DAI, and that the PPARγ agonist RSG can protect BBB integrity by decreasing the levels of inflammatory mediators through a caveolin-1-dependent pathway.
- Rosiglitazone attenuates cell apoptosis through antioxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways in the hippocampi of spontaneously hypertensive rats. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Med 2018 Nov 19
- Oxidative stress serves an important role in hypertensive brain damage. Peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPAR‑γ) agonists possess antioxidative and anti‑apoptotic effects. The present st...
Oxidative stress serves an important role in hypertensive brain damage. Peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPAR‑γ) agonists possess antioxidative and anti‑apoptotic effects. The present study verified the possibility that rosiglitazone serves a neuroprotective role by alleviating oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in the hippocampi of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). SHRs and age‑matched Wistar‑Kyoto (WKY; both 56 weeks old) rats received gavage administration of vehicle or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day) for eight weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by the indirect tail‑cuff method. The expression ratio of activated astrocytes was analyzed by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry. PPAR‑γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), gp47phox, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) and caspase‑3 expression were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus of four groups was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP end‑labeling (TUNEL) method. Compared with the WKY group, the SHR group exhibited decreased Bcl‑2 and PPAR‑γ expression, increased SBP, increased ratio of activated astrocytes and TUNEL‑positive cells, increased expression of iNOS, gp47phox, caspase‑3 and Bax. Rosiglitazone administration increased Bcl‑2 and PPAR‑γ expression, decreased the ratio of activated astrocytes and TUNEL‑positive cells, decreased iNOS, gp47phox, caspase‑3 and Bax expression in the hippocampi of SHRs. However, rosiglitazone did not significantly decreased SBP in the SHR group. Therefore, rosiglitazone exerts neuroprotective effect through antioxidative and anti‑apoptotic pathways, which was independent of blood pressure control.
- Notch1 Inhibits Rosiglitazone-Induced Adipogenic Differentiation in Primary Thymic Stromal Cells. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:1284
- Adipocyte deposition is believed to be a primary characteristic of age-related thymic involution. Herein, we cultured primary thymic stromal cells (TSCs), used rosiglitazone, a potent peroxisome prol...
Adipocyte deposition is believed to be a primary characteristic of age-related thymic involution. Herein, we cultured primary thymic stromal cells (TSCs), used rosiglitazone, a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, to induce adipogenic differentiation, and investigated the differentially expressed genes during adipogenic differentiation by using RNA-sequencing analysis. Furthermore, the effects of Notch1 on rosiglitazone-induced adipogenic differentiation of TSCs as well as the underlying mechanisms were also investigated. As a result, we identified a total of 1737 differentially expressed genes, among which 965 genes were up-regulated and 772 genes were down-regulated in rosiglitazone-treated cells compared with control cells. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that the GO terms were enriched in metabolic process, intracellular, and protein binding. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that a number of pathways, including ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, PPAR signaling pathway, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway were predominantly over-represented. Meanwhile, overexpression of Notch1 suppressed and inhibition of Notch1 promoted rosiglitazone-induced adipogenic differentiation in TSCs, and the pro-adipogenic effects of the Notch inhibitor DAPT were associated with the activation of autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that Notch1 is a key regulator in thymic adipogenesis and may serve as a potential target to hinder thymic adiposity in age-related thymic involution.
- Design and synthesis of rosiglitazone-ferulic acid-nitric oxide donor trihybrids for improving glucose tolerance. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2018 Oct 04; 162:650-665
- Glucose intolerance is associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) while some new therapeutic drugs, such as rosiglitazone (Rosi), for T2DM can cause severe cardiovascular ...
Glucose intolerance is associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) while some new therapeutic drugs, such as rosiglitazone (Rosi), for T2DM can cause severe cardiovascular side effects. Herein we report the synthesis of Rosi-ferulic acid (FA)-nitric oxide (NO) donor trihybrids to improve glucose tolerance and minimize the side effects. In comparison with Rosi, the most active compound 21 exhibited better effects on improving glucose tolerance, which was associated with its NO production, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, 21 displayed relatively high stability in the simulated gastrointestinal environments and human liver microsomes, and released Rosi in plasma. More importantly, 21, unlike Rosi, had little stimulatory effect on the membrane translocation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in kidney collecting duct epithelial cells. These, together with a better safety profile, suggest that the trihybrids, like 21, may be promising candidates for intervention of glucose intolerance-related metabolic syndrome and T2DM.
- Aging and retinoid X receptor agonists on masculinization of female Pomacea canaliculata, with a critical appraisal of imposex evaluation in the Ampullariidae. [Journal Article]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 23; 169:573-582
- Ampullariidae are unique among gastropods in that females normally show a primordium of the copulatory apparatus (CApp). The aims of this study were (a) to quantitatively evaluate the development and...
Ampullariidae are unique among gastropods in that females normally show a primordium of the copulatory apparatus (CApp). The aims of this study were (a) to quantitatively evaluate the development and growth of the female CApp with age; (b) to compare the effects of RXR and PPARγ agonists in adult females of known age and (c) to explore the effect of masculinizing RXR agonists on the expression of RXR in the CApp. It was found that the CApp grows and develops with age. A significant increase in penile sheath length (PsL) and also in a developmental index (DI) was observed in 7-8 months old females, as compared with 4-5 months old ones. A reported endogenous agonist of RXR, 9-cis retinoic acid (9cis-RA), as well as two organotin compounds, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) which have been also reported to bind to RXR, were injected and its masculinizing effects were measured. Also, the effect of a PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone, was studied. All studied RXR agonists, but not the PPARγ agonist, were effective in increasing PsL, penile length (PL) and DI. Finally, the expression of the RXR in the CApp was studied (Western blot) in control, TBT, TPT, and 9cis-RA treated females. A significantly increased expression of RXR was only observed after 9cis-RA treatment. It is concluded that (a) development and growth of the CApp is significantly affected by female age; (b) reported RXR agonists, but not a PPARγ agonist, cause female masculinization of young females. An appraisal of previous studies of female masculinization in the Ampullariidae has also been made and it is emphasized that the masculinizing effect of aging should be considered, particularly when interpreting field data.
- [Rosiglitazone ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammation of the mesenteric adipose tissues]. [Journal Article]
- XBXi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018; 34(9):787-793
- Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect and possible mechanism of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone on 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Methods Twenty male BALB/c m...
Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect and possible mechanism of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone on 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Methods Twenty male BALB/c mice were selected to establish TNBS-induced colitis model and were randomly divided into rosiglitazone treated group and model group with 10 rats in each group. Rosiglitazone group was treated with rosiglitazone(0.2 mL, [20 mg/(kg.d)])and model group with normal saline(0.2 mL/d). After 6 weeks of administration, the mice were sacrificed. Inflammatory bowel disease disease activity index (DAI) and HE staining combined with Spencer colitis histological score were used to evaluate the degree of intestinal inflammation and histological changes in the two groups. ELISA was used to detect the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-α) and IL-10 in the intestinal mucosa, the levels of IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in the mesenteric adipose tissues. The mean diameter of adipocytes in the mesenteric adipose tissues was calculated under light microscope after HE staining.The number of F4/80+ macrophages and the expressions of peripherin, adiponectin and leptin in mesenteric adipose tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The phosphorylation of NF-κBp65, IKK, IκB proteins in the mesenteric adipose tissues was detected by Western blot analysis. Results The DAI score of rosiglitazone group was significantly lower than that of model group at 5 and 6 weeks after rosiglitazone treatment. At the same time, the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in the intestinal mucosa of the treated group were significantly lower than those in the model group, while the IL-10 levels were significantly higher in the treated group than in the model group. Compared with the model group, the mesenteric adipocyte diameter and the perilipin level of adipocyte maturation markers in rosiglitazone treated mice were significantly higher than those in model group. Meanwhile, the number of infiltration of macrophages in mesenteric adipose tissues of mice treated with rosiglitazone and the levels of inflammatory mediators IL-6 and MCP-1 were significantly lower than that of the model group. Rosiglitazone significantly promoted the expression of adiponectin and inhibited the expression of leptin in mesenteric adipocytes. The phosphorylation of NF-κBp65, IKK and IκB proteins in mesenteric adipose tissues of rosiglitazone treated mice was significantly lower than those of model group. Conclusion Rosiglitazone significantly inhibites intestinal inflammation in TNBS-induced colitis in mice, which may be related to the inhibition of NF-κBp65 pathway in mesenteric adipose tissues.
- Upregulation of transient receptor potential melastatin 6 channel expression by rosiglitazone and all-trans-retinoic acid in erlotinib-treated renal tubular epithelial cells. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 21
- Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) drugs including erlotinib cause a side effect of hypomagnesemia. In lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, anticancer agents such as cisplatin and doxorubicin do...
Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) drugs including erlotinib cause a side effect of hypomagnesemia. In lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, anticancer agents such as cisplatin and doxorubicin dose-dependently increased toxicity, but the effects were significantly suppressed by culturing the cells in low Mg2+ -containing media. To obtain the maximum effect in cancer chemotherapy, it should be necessary to prevent the reduction of body Mg 2+ content. Anti-EGFR drugs inhibit EGF-induced elevation of transient receptor potential melastatin 6 (TRPM6) Mg 2+ channel in renal tubular epithelial NRK-52E cells. Here, we found that rosiglitazone, an antidiabetic drug, and all- trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), a vitamin A derivative, increase the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of TRPM6 in the presence of erlotinib. The rosiglitazone- and ATRA-induced elevation of mRNA level, Mg 2+ influx, and promoter activity of TRPM6 were inhibited by GW-9662, a potent antagonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, and LE135, a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonist, respectively. Rosiglitazone increased the phosphorylation and nuclear localization levels of PPARγ, which were inhibited by GW-9662. In contrast, RAR was mainly distributed in the nuclei under control conditions, which was unchanged by ATRA and LE135. The promoter activity of TRPM6 was inhibited by a mutation in the peroxisome proliferator hormone response element (PPRE). A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that PPARγ and RAR bind to the PPRE, which was blocked by GW-9662 and LE135, respectively. These results suggest that rosiglitazone and ATRA reverse the reduction in Mg 2+ reabsorption caused by anti-EGFR drugs.
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- Signaling Mechanisms of Selective PPARγ Modulators in Alzheimer's Disease. [Review]
- PRPPAR Res 2018; 2018:2010675
- Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by abnormal protein accumulation, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. The continuous increase in the incidenc...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by abnormal protein accumulation, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. The continuous increase in the incidence of AD with the aged population and mortality rate indicates the urgent need for establishing novel molecular targets for therapeutic potential. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone reduce amyloid and tau pathologies, inhibit neuroinflammation, and improve memory impairments in several rodent models and in humans with mild-to-moderate AD. However, these agonists display poor blood brain barrier permeability resulting in inadequate bioavailability in the brain and thus requiring high dosing with chronic time frames. Furthermore, these dosing levels are associated with several adverse effects including increased incidence of weight gain, liver abnormalities, and heart failure. Therefore, there is a need for identifying novel compounds which target PPARγ more selectively in the brain and could provide therapeutic benefits without a high incidence of adverse effects. This review focuses on how PPARγ agonists influence various pathologies in AD with emphasis on development of novel selective PPARγ modulators.