- Management of adverse reactions to high-dose moxifloxacin used in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment programmes. [Review]
- RRespirology 2018 Dec 06
- Lefamulin: a promising new pleuromutilin antibiotic in the pipeline. [Journal Article]
- ERExpert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2018 Dec 04
- Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) represents a significant clinical and financial burden within infectious disease. In the advent of increasing resistance from bacteria such as Streptococ...
Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) represents a significant clinical and financial burden within infectious disease. In the advent of increasing resistance from bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae to available antibiotic therapies, there is a need for new drugs with novel mechanisms to treat such infections. Areas covered: Lefamulin, the first semi-synthetic pleuromutilin for systemic administration, is nearing completion of phase III studies for CABP; the manufacturer plans to file for a new drug application (NDA) in fourth-quarter 2018. This paper details available data on the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, in vitro and clinical data of the drug to date, derived from published literature, conference posters and data provided by the manufacturer. Expert commentary: Lefamulin offers a unique spectrum of activity as a potential monotherapy treatment agent for CABP and alternative to fluoroquinolone therapy. The drug displays potent activity against several pathogens common in both acute bacterial skin and skin structure infectious (ABSSSIs) and CABP, and a lack of cross-resistance with other antibiotic classes for S. pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Lefamulin has met predefined noninferiority endpoints of clinical response for CABP compared to moxifloxacin ± linezolid in two phase 3 trials (LEAP 1 and 2) and presents an alternative therapy for CABP.
- In vitro activity of Omadacycline against Chlamydia pneumoniae. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Dec 03
- The in vitro activity of omadacycline, azithromycin, doxycycline, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin, was tested against 15 isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae The minimum inhibitory concentrations at which ...
The in vitro activity of omadacycline, azithromycin, doxycycline, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin, was tested against 15 isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae The minimum inhibitory concentrations at which 90% of the isolates of C. pneumoniae were inhibited (MIC90) by omadacycline were 0.25 μg/ml (range 0.03-0.5 μg/ml).
- Efficacy Versus Hepatotoxicity of High-dose Rifampin, Pyrazinamide, and Moxifloxacin to Shorten Tuberculosis Therapy Duration: There Is Still Fight in the Old Warriors Yet! [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Nov 28; 67(suppl_3):S359-S364
- CONCLUSIONS: The high-dose regimen may moderately shorten therapy without increased hepatotoxicity compared to standard therapy.
- Transformation Morphisms and Time-to-Extinction Analysis That Map Therapy Duration From Preclinical Models to Patients With Tuberculosis: Translating From Apples to Oranges. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Nov 28; 67(suppl_3):S349-S358
- CONCLUSIONS: We developed a method to translate duration of therapy outcomes from preclinical models to tuberculosis patients.
- Levofloxacin Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics, Dosing, Susceptibility Breakpoints, and Artificial Intelligence in the Treatment of Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Nov 28; 67(suppl_3):S293-S302
- CONCLUSIONS: The levofloxacin dose of 25 mg/kg or 1500 mg/day was adequate for replacement of high-dose moxifloxacin in treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
- Multiparameter Responses to Tedizolid Monotherapy and Moxifloxacin Combination Therapy Models of Children With Intracellular Tuberculosis. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Nov 28; 67(suppl_3):S342-S348
- CONCLUSIONS: Tedizolid demonstrated better efficacy than linezolid, without the mitochondrial toxicity gene or cytotoxicity signatures encountered with linezolid. Tedizolid-moxifloxacin combination had a high bacterial elimination rate.
- Medical Tourism and Postoperative Infections: A Systematic Literature Review of Causative Organisms and Empiric Treatment. [Journal Article]
- PRPlast Reconstr Surg 2018; 142(6):1644-1651
- CONCLUSIONS: When encountering a patient with a history of medical tourism and treatment-refractory infection, rapidly growing mycobacteria must be considered. To increase the likelihood of yielding a diagnostic organism, multiple acid-fast bacilli cultures from fluid and débridement content should be performed. There has been reported success in treating rapidly growing mycobacterial infections with a combination of antibiotics including clarithromycin, amikacin, and moxifloxacin.
- BKC and CME: Is benzalkonium chloride hindering our efforts to achieve the desired postoperative visual acuity? [Journal Article]
- IOInt Ophthalmol 2018 Nov 28
- CONCLUSIONS: Neither do BKC-preserved topical medications have any independent role in increasing the central macular thickness after uneventful surgery nor do they have any role in causing pseudophakic CME.
New Search Next
- [Analysis of distribution and drug resistance of pathogens from the wounds of 1 310 thermal burn patients]. [Journal Article]
- ZSZhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2018 Nov 20; 34(11):802-808
- Objective: To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens from the wounds of thermal burn patients, so as to provide reliable basis for the rational use of antibiotics and the effectiv...
Objective: To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens from the wounds of thermal burn patients, so as to provide reliable basis for the rational use of antibiotics and the effective control over nosocomial infection. Methods: Wound samples of 1 310 thermal burn patients admitted into our burn wards from January 2012 to December 2017 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. API bacteria identification panels and automatical bacteria identification equipment were used to identify pathogens. E test was conducted to detect drug resistance of pathogens to vancomycin, tigecycline, and oxacillin. Kirby-Bauer paper disk diffusion method was used to detect drug resistance of pathogens to 31 antibiotics including penicillin G, gentamicin and rifampicin, etc., and drug resistance of fungi to 5 antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole). The WHONET 5.6 software was used to analyze the constituent ratios of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi in each year; the distribution of fungi; the distribution of top 10 bacteria with the highest constituent ratios in each year; the constituent ratios of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA); the drug resistance of top 3 bacteria with the highest constituent ratios to commonly used antibiotics in each year; and the drug resistance of Candida to commonly used antifungal agents. Results: (1) Totally 2 183 strains of pathogens were isolated for the first time, including Gram-negative bacteria 1 194 (54.70%) strains, Gram-positive bacteria 879 (40.27%) strains, and fungi 110 (5.04%) strains. From 2012 to 2016, the constituent ratio of Gram-negative bacteria showed a decreasing trend, while that of Gram-positive bacteria showed an increasing trend year by year; and the constituent ratio of fungi was with a significantly increasing trend from 2016 to 2017. (2) Among all the fungi, the constituent ratio of Candida parapsilosis ranked the first, Aflatoxin ranked the second, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis both ranked the third. (3) From 2012 to 2017, top 10 bacteria with the highest constituent ratios, from high to low, were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia respectively. The constituent ratio of Staphylococcus aureus ranked the first in each year. The constituent ratio of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was fluctuating but showed a rising trend comprehensively. The constituent ratio of Acinetobacter baumannii went up after decreasing. (4) Among all the Staphylococcus aureus, constituent ratio of MRSA was above 65.00%, while that of MSSA was below 31.00% in each year. (5) From 2012 to 2017, Staphylococcus aureus resistant to vancomycin, linezolid, or teicoplanin was not detected; the drug-resistant rates of MRSA to penicillin G, oxacillin, gentamicin, rifampicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin were above or equal to 80.0% in each year; the drug-resistant rates of Staphylococcus aureus to clindamycin and erythrocin showed an obviously increasing trend, the drug-resistant rates of Staphylococcus aureus to moxifloxacin and queenoputin/daputin in 2017 were higher than those in 2016, while the drug-resistant rates of Staphylococcus aureus to the other 14 antibiotics showed no significant change in trend. From 2012 to 2017, Acinetobacter baumannii was sensitive to polymyxin B and tigecycline; the drug-resistant rate of Acinetobacter baumannii to ceftriaxone was relatively high; the drug-resistant rates of Acinetobacter baumannii to levofloxacin, minocycline, and tetracycline were decreasing while those to the other 14 antibiotics went up after decreasing. From 2012 to 2017, Pseudomonas aeruginosa wasn't resistant to polymyxin B, and its drug-resistant rates to the other 14 antibiotics showed decreasing trends. (6) The drug-resistant rates of Candida albicans to voriconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole were all zero. The drug-resistant rates of non-Candida albicans to voriconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole were higher than those of Candida albicans. Conclusions: Among the pathogens from the wounds of thermal burn patients, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii had the top 3 constituent ratios; the constituent ratio of non-Candida albicans was obviously higher than that of Candida albicans. The high drug resistance rates of Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumanni require more attention from clinicians and the local hospital's infection control department.