- Differential drug susceptibility patterns of Mycobacterium chimaera and other members of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. [Journal Article]
- CMClin Microbiol Infect 2018 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Drug susceptibility patterns of M. chimaera are comparable to those of closely related species. Except for clarithromycin, breakpoints for MAIC should be reevaluated. Statistical determination of the 99.0 % ECOFF may be superior to visual approximation.
- Comparison of automated interval measurements by widely used algorithms in digital electrocardiographs. [Journal Article]
- AHAm Heart J 2018; 200:1-10
- CONCLUSIONS: Among current-generation computer-based electrocardiographs, clinically small but statistically significant differences exist between ECG interval measurements by individual algorithms. Measurement differences between algorithms for QRS duration and for QT interval are larger in long QT interval subjects than in normal subjects. Comparisons of population study norms should be aware of small systematic differences in interval measurements due to different algorithm methodologies, within-individual interval measurement comparisons should use comparable methods, and further attempts to harmonize interval measurement methodologies are warranted.
- Molecular epidemiology of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile strains recovered from clinical trials in the US, Canada and Europe from 2006-2009 to 2012-2015. [Journal Article]
- AAnaerobe 2018 May 26
- The prevalence of C. difficile infection (CDI) and severe CDI are influenced by the prevalence of specific C. difficile strains, which are themselves influenced by antimicrobial susceptibility determ...
The prevalence of C. difficile infection (CDI) and severe CDI are influenced by the prevalence of specific C. difficile strains, which are themselves influenced by antimicrobial susceptibility determinants as well as antimicrobial usage patterns. Restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were used to characterize 1808 C. difficile isolates obtained from patients enrolled in four multicenter, multi-country, randomized CDI treatment trials conducted between 2006 and 2009 and between 2012 and 2015. By 2015, the epidemic REA group BI strain (RT027) had decreased in prevalence in North America (US: 43%-18%, Canada: 39%-24%, P < 0.001), but rates of moxifloxacin resistance remained high. In contrast, REA group Y (RT014/020) and DH (RT106) strains, both of which had low rates of moxifloxacin resistance, increased in prevalence (Y strain - US: 6%-17%, Canada: 11%-23%, P < 0.001; DH strain - US: 1%-11%, Canada: 0%-8%, P < 0.0001). In Europe, the BI strain (RT027) was highly prevalent in Eastern European countries in 2015, but was unchanged in other parts of Europe. As in North America, the Y strain (RT014/020) was prevalent in both time periods, but the DH strain was rarely identified. Continued international molecular surveillance of C. difficile will be important to track prevalence of known epidemic strains and detect emergence of new strains of potential epidemiologic significance.
- Mutations in ParC and GyrA of moxifloxacin-resistant and susceptible Mycoplasma genitalium strains. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0198355
- Macrolide or fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium is spreading worldwide. We aimed to determine the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the quinolone resistance determin...
Macrolide or fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium is spreading worldwide. We aimed to determine the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDR) of parC and gyrA in cultured M. genitalium strains. In addition, we examined the prevalence of macrolide- and fluoroquinolone resistance mediating mutations in specimens collected from Japanese male patients with urethritis in two time-periods between 2005-2009 and 2010-2017, respectively, by sequencing the QRDR of parC and gyrA and domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of moxifloxacin, sitafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, doxycycline, minocycline, azithromycin and clarithromycin were determined in 23 M. genitalium strains. Three cultured strains had elevated MICs for moxifloxacin at 16, 4 and 2 mg/L and had SNPs with the amino-acid change Ser83→Ile in ParC (p<0.001) and 3 kinds of SNPs with amino-acid changes Asp99→Asn, Gly93→Cys and Met95→Ile in GyrA, respectively. Among a total of 148 M. genitalium positive urine specimens, the prevalence of A2058G and A2059G SNPs in the 23S rRNA gene and any SNPs in ParC increased from 4.8% and 22.6% in 2005-2009 to 42.2% and 53.1% in 2010-2017, respectively. If M. genitalium is considered multi-drug resistant in clinical specimens carrying SNPs in the 23S rRNA gene and Ser83→Ile in ParC, the prevalence of multi-drug resistance is 12.5% in 2010-2017 in Japan. In conclusion, the SNP resulting in Ser83→Ile in ParC is closely related to moxifloxacin resistance even though other factors may also affect treatment outcomes by moxifloxacin. The prevalence of circulating multi-drug resistant M. genitalium strains with macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistance is dramatically increasing in Japan.
- Challenges in implementing and obtaining acceptance for J-Tpeak assessment as the clinical component of CiPA. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2018 Jun 04
- CONCLUSIONS: In this limited analysis performed on the IQ-CSRC study waveforms using FDA's automated algorithm, J-Tpeak prolongation was observed on moxifloxacin, but not on dolasetron, despite clinical observations of proarrhythmias with both drugs. Challenges for the implementation of the J-Tpeak interval as a replacement or complement to the QTc interval, include to demonstrate that the proposed clinical algorithm using a J-Tpeak threshold of 10 ms, can be used to categorize drugs with a QT effect up to ~20 ms as having low pro-arrhythmic risk.
- Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis after thoracoabdominal esophagectomy does not reduce the risk of pneumonia in the first 30 days: a retrospective before-and-after analysis. [Journal Article]
- IInfection 2018 Jun 05
- CONCLUSIONS: A preemptive 5-day postoperative course of moxifloxacin does not reduce the incidence of pulmonary infection and does not improve mortality after thoracoabdominal esophagectomy.
- [Identification and drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and Mycobacterium elephantis isolated from a cow with mastitis]. [Journal Article]
- ZLZhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2018 May 10; 39(5):669-672
- Objective: To understand the etiological characteristics and drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and Mycobacterium elephantis isolated from a cow with mastitis and provide evidenc...
Objective: To understand the etiological characteristics and drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and Mycobacterium elephantis isolated from a cow with mastitis and provide evidence for the prevention and control of infectious mastitis in cows. Methods: The milk sample was collected from a cow with mastitis, which was pretreated with 4% NaOH and inoculated with L-J medium for Mycobacterium isolation. The positive cultures were initially identified by acid-fast staining and multi-loci PCR, then Mycobacterium species was identified by the multiple loci sequence analysis (MLSA) with 16S rRNA, hsp65, ITS and SodA genes. The drug sensitivity of the isolates to 27 antibiotics was tested by alamar blue assay. Results: Two anti-acid stain positive strains were isolated from the milk of a cow with mastitis, which were identified as non-tuberculosis mycobacterium by multi-loci PCR, and multi-loci nucleic acid sequence analysis indicated that one strain was Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and another one was Mycobacterium elephantis. The results of the drug susceptibility test showed that the two strains were resistant to most antibiotics, including rifampicin and isoniazid, but they were sensitive to amikacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ethambutol, streptomycin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and linezolid. Conclusions: Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and Mycobacterium elephantis were isolated in a cow with mastitis and the drug susceptibility spectrum of the pathogens were unique. The results of the study can be used as reference for the prevention and control the infection in cows.
- A multicenter survey of antimicrobial susceptibility of Prevotella species as determined by Etest methodology. [Journal Article]
- AAnaerobe 2018 May 17; 52:9-15
- Knowledge about the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of different Prevotella species is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the current antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isola...
Knowledge about the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of different Prevotella species is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the current antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Prevotella species from different parts of Europe, Kuwait and Turkey. Activity of 12 antimicrobials against 508 Prevotella isolates, representing 19 species, were tested according to Etest methodology. EUCAST, CLSI and FDA guidelines were used for susceptibility interpretations. All Prevotella species were susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem, tigecycline and metronidazole. Ampicillin/sulbactam and cefoxitin also showed good activity. Ampicillin, clindamycin, tetracycline and moxifloxacin were less active; 51.2%, 33.7%, 36.8% and 18.3% of isolates were non-susceptible, respectively. A total of 49 (9.6%) isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. Prevotella bivia was the most prevalent species (n = 118) and accounted for most of the multidrug-resistant isolates. In conclusion, the level of non-susceptibility to antimicrobials, which may be used for treatment of infections involving Prevotella species, are a cause of concern. This data emphasizes the need for species level identification of clinical Prevotella isolates and periodic monitoring of their susceptibility to guide empirical treatment.
- The emergence of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 in piglets in the Czech Republic clusters with Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 isolates from Germany, Japan and Taiwan. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Med Microbiol 2018 May 29
- Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen in humans with an increasing incidence in the community. The "one-health" approach of research is needed to investigate possible reservoirs of C. ...
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen in humans with an increasing incidence in the community. The "one-health" approach of research is needed to investigate possible reservoirs of C. difficile and route of its transmission. The objective of this study is to investigate the occurrence of C. difficile in pigs in the Czech Republic with characterisation of the isolates to determine their genetic relatedness to C. difficile isolates from European and Asian pigs. A total of 198 pig faeces samples from 23 farms were investigated and of those 57 samples (55 piglets, 2 sows) from 11 farms were confirmed as C. difficile positive. The majority of C. difficile isolates belonged to the sequence type 11 and clade 5. The predominant ribotypes were 078 (n = 23), 078-variant (n = 5), 033 (n = 10) followed by RTs 150 (n = 7), 011 (n = 5), 045 (n = 4), 126, 014, 002 (n = 1, each). All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, vancomycin and tetracycline. Isolates of RTs 150 and 078-variant were moxifloxacin resistant (MIC≥32 mg/L) and carried the amino acid substitution Thr82Ile in the GyrA. A multi-locus variable number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) revealed a clonal relatedness of isolates within individual farms and in C. difficile RT078 isolates between two Czech farms. Czech C. difficile RT078 isolates clustered with German C. difficile RT078 isolates and Czech C. difficile 078-variant isolates clustered with C. difficile RT078 isolates from Japan and Taiwan. This study found an emergence of C. difficile RT078 in Czech piglets that was related genetically to C. difficile RT078 isolates from Germany, Japan and Taiwan.
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- Boston type I Keratoprosthesis: Antibacterial Resistance and Microbiota Evaluation of Soft Contact Lenses. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ophthalmol 2018 May 29
- CONCLUSIONS: FQ-resistant bacteria were isolated in some patients. Although our prophylactic antibiotic regime has been efficient in preventing bacterial infection, this analysis demonstrated that prophylaxis with PI and low FQ dose might increase resistance to antibiotics. Investigations in this field may help to outline future changes of prophylactic guidelines and therapeutic strategies.