- Closure of live bird markets leads to the spread of H7N9 influenza in China. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(12):e0208884
- Following the emergence of H7N9 influenza in March 2013, local animal and public health authorities in China have been closing live bird markets as a measure to try to control the H7N9 influenza epid...
Following the emergence of H7N9 influenza in March 2013, local animal and public health authorities in China have been closing live bird markets as a measure to try to control the H7N9 influenza epidemic. The role of live bird market (LBM) closure on the spread of N7N9 influenza following the closure of LBMs during March to May 2013 (the first wave) and October 2013 to March 2014 (the second wave) is described in this paper. Different provinces implemented closure actions at different times, and intensive media reports on H7N9 in different provinces started at different times. Local broiler prices dropped dramatically in places with outbreaks and more live chickens were transported to other LBMs in neighboring areas without human cases from infected areas when live bird markets were being closed. There were six clusters of human infection from March to May 2013 and October 2013 to March 2014 and there may have been intensive poultry transportation among cluster areas. These findings provide evidence that the closure of LBMs in early waves of H7N9 influenza had resulted in expansion of H7N9 infection to uninfected areas. This suggests that provincial authorities in inland provinces should be alert to the risks of sudden changes in movement patterns for live birds after LBM closure or increased publicity about LBM closure.
- Origins of the 1918 Pandemic: Revisiting the Swine "Mixing Vessel" Hypothesis. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 01; 187(12):2498-2502
- How influenza A viruses host-jump from animal reservoir species to humans, which can initiate global pandemics, is a central question in pathogen evolution. The zoonotic and spatial origins of the in...
How influenza A viruses host-jump from animal reservoir species to humans, which can initiate global pandemics, is a central question in pathogen evolution. The zoonotic and spatial origins of the influenza virus associated with the "Spanish flu" pandemic of 1918 have been debated for decades. Outbreaks of respiratory disease in US swine occurred concurrently with disease in humans, raising the possibility that the 1918 virus originated in pigs. Swine also were proposed as "mixing vessel" intermediary hosts between birds and humans during the 1957 Asian and 1968 Hong Kong pandemics. Swine have presented an attractive explanation for how avian viruses overcome the substantial evolutionary barriers presented by different cellular environments in humans and birds. However, key assumptions underpinning the swine mixing-vessel model of pandemic emergence have been challenged in light of new evidence. Increased surveillance in swine has revealed that human-to-swine transmission actually occurs far more frequently than the reverse, and there is no empirical evidence that swine played a role in the emergence of human influenza in 1918, 1957, or 1968. Swine-to-human transmission occurs periodically and can trigger pandemics, as in 2009. But swine are not necessary to mediate the establishment of avian viruses in humans, which invites new perspectives on the evolutionary processes underlying pandemic emergence.
- Recent approaches for control of E. coli and respiratory complex in Middle East. [Journal Article]
- SJSaudi J Biol Sci 2018; 25(7):1302-1307
- This study was conducted on 100 one-day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of Poulvac E. coli vaccine in reduction of clinical signs and complications after concurrent infectious bronchitis vi...
This study was conducted on 100 one-day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of Poulvac E. coli vaccine in reduction of clinical signs and complications after concurrent infectious bronchitis virus (variant 02) and virulent E. coli O78 challenges. The birds were evaluated for clinical signs, mortality for 7 days post-infection, PM lesion score, average body weight and serological evaluation. Re-isolation and RT-PCR for the challenging infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant 02 were conducted thereafter. The results showed that the Poulvac E. coli at one-day old chicks in the presence of co-infection with virulent E. coli and IBV variant 02 provides better body weight gain at 35 days than the other groups. The challenge with IBV variant 02 alone in non-vaccinated birds doesn't give any mortality; this indicated that the severity of IBV variant 02 increased by the presence of co-infection with Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEc). The mortality percentage associated with both E. coli and IBV variant 02 infections in the none vaccinated group by Poulvac E. coli was 25% while this percentage was 10% of the vaccinated group. The Poulvac E. coli is not negatively affecting the immune response against different concurrent viral vaccines like Infectious bursal disease (IBD), and moreover, it improves the immune response against some others like Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Avian Influenza (AI) H5 and IBV.
- Phylogenetic variations of highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Izumi plain, Japan during the 2016/17 winter season. [Journal Article]
- TETransbound Emerg Dis 2018 Nov 30
- During the 2016/2017 winter season, we isolated 33 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5N6 subtype and three low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) from debilitated or dea...
During the 2016/2017 winter season, we isolated 33 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5N6 subtype and three low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) from debilitated or dead wild birds, duck feces, and environmental water samples collected in the Izumi plain, an overwintering site for migratory birds in Japan. Genetic analyses of the H5N6 HPAIV isolates revealed previously unreported phylogenetic variations in the PB2, PB1, PA, and NS gene segments and allowed us to propose two novel genotypes for the contemporary H5N6 HPAIVs. In addition, analysis of the four gene segments identified close phylogenetic relationships between our three LPAIV isolates and the contemporary H5N6 HPAIV isolates. Our results implied the co-circulation and co-evolution of HPAIVs and LPAIVs within the same wild bird populations, thereby highlighting the importance of avian influenza surveillance targeting not only for HPAIVs, but also for LPAIVs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Host and viral determinants of influenza A virus species specificity. [Review]
- NRNat Rev Microbiol 2018 Nov 28
- Influenza A viruses cause pandemics when they cross between species and an antigenically novel virus acquires the ability to infect and transmit between these new hosts. The timing of pandemics is cu...
Influenza A viruses cause pandemics when they cross between species and an antigenically novel virus acquires the ability to infect and transmit between these new hosts. The timing of pandemics is currently unpredictable but depends on ecological and virological factors. The host range of an influenza A virus is determined by species-specific interactions between virus and host cell factors. These include the ability to bind and enter cells, to replicate the viral RNA genome within the host cell nucleus, to evade host restriction factors and innate immune responses and to transmit between individuals. In this Review, we examine the host barriers that influenza A viruses of animals, especially birds, must overcome to initiate a pandemic in humans and describe how, on crossing the species barrier, the virus mutates to establish new interactions with the human host. This knowledge is used to inform risk assessments for future pandemics and to identify virus-host interactions that could be targeted by novel intervention strategies.
- Evidence of a fixed internal gene constellation in influenza A viruses isolated from wild birds in Argentina (2006-2016). [Journal Article]
- EMEmerg Microbes Infect 2018 Nov 28; 7(1):194
- Wild aquatic birds are the major reservoir of influenza A virus. Cloacal swabs and feces samples (n = 6595) were collected from 62 bird species in Argentina from 2006 to 2016 and screened for influen...
Wild aquatic birds are the major reservoir of influenza A virus. Cloacal swabs and feces samples (n = 6595) were collected from 62 bird species in Argentina from 2006 to 2016 and screened for influenza A virus. Full genome sequencing of 15 influenza isolates from 6 waterfowl species revealed subtypes combinations that were previously described in South America (H1N1, H4N2, H4N6 (n = 3), H5N3, H6N2 (n = 4), and H10N7 (n = 2)), and new ones not previously identified in the region (H4N8, H7N7 and H7N9). Notably, the internal gene segments of all 15 Argentine isolates belonged to the South American lineage, showing a divergent evolution of these viruses in the Southern Hemisphere. Time-scaled phylogenies indicated that South American gene segments diverged between ~ 30 and ~ 140 years ago from the most closely related influenza lineages, which include the avian North American (PB1, HA, NA, MP, and NS-B) and Eurasian lineage (PB2), and the equine H3N8 lineage (PA, NP, and NS-A). Phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene segments of the H4, H6, and N8 subtypes revealed recent introductions and reassortment between viruses from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres in the Americas. Remarkably and despite evidence of recent hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtype introductions, the phylogenetic composition of internal gene constellation of these influenza A viruses has remained unchanged. Considering the extended time and the number of sampled species of the current study, and the paucity of previously available data, our results contribute to a better understanding of the ecology and evolution of influenza virus in South America.
- Molecular evolutionary and antigenic characteristics of newly isolated H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Guangdong province, China. [Journal Article]
- AVArch Virol 2018 Nov 24
- Four new H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from domestic birds in Guangdong between December 2015 and April 2016. Nucleotide sequence comparisons indicated that most of the internal g...
Four new H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from domestic birds in Guangdong between December 2015 and April 2016. Nucleotide sequence comparisons indicated that most of the internal genes of these four strains were highly similar to those of human H7N9 viruses. Amino acid substitutions and deletions found in the HA and NA proteins indicated that all four of these new isolates may have an enhanced ability to infect humans and other mammals. A cross-hemagglutinin-inhibition assay, conducted with two vaccine strains that are broadly used in China, suggested that antisera against vaccine candidates could not provide complete inhibition of the new isolates.
- Genetic compatibility of reassortants between avian H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses with higher pathogenicity in mammals. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2018 Nov 21
- The co-circulation of H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses in birds in Egypt provides reassortment opportunities between these two viruses. However, little is known about the emergence potential of ...
The co-circulation of H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses in birds in Egypt provides reassortment opportunities between these two viruses. However, little is known about the emergence potential of reassortants derived from Egyptian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses and about the biological properties of such reassortants. To evaluate the potential public health risk of reassortants of these viruses, we used reverse genetics to generate the 63 possible reassortants derived from contemporary Egyptian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses, containing the H5N1 surface gene segments and combinations of the H5N1 and H9N2 internal gene segments, and analyzed their genetic compatibility, replication ability and virulence in mice. Genes in the reassortants showed remarkably high compatibility. Replication of most reassortants was higher than the parental H5N1 virus in human cells. Six reassortants were thought to emerge in birds under neutral or positive selective pressure, and four of them had higher pathogenicity in vivo than the parental H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. Our results indicated that H5N1-H9N2 reassortants could be transmitted efficiently to mammals with significant public health risk if they emerge in Egypt, although the viruses might not emerge frequently in birds.IMPORTANCEClose interaction between avian influenza (AI) viruses and humans in Egypt appears to have resulted in many of the worldwide cases of human infections by both H5N1 and H9N2 AI viruses. Egypt is regarded as a hot spot of AI virus evolution. Although no natural reassortant of H5N1 and H9N2 AI viruses has been reported so far, their co-circulation in Egypt may allow emergence of reassortants that may present a significant public health risk. Using reverse genetics, we report here the first comprehensive data showing that H5N1-N9N2 reassortants have fairly high genetic compatibility and possibly higher pathogenicity in mammals, including humans, than the parental viruses. Our results provide insight into the emergence potential of avian H5N1-H9N2 reassortants that may pose a high public health risk.
- Resource-Effective Serosurveillance for the Detection of West Nile Virus in Switzerland Using Abattoir Samples of Free-Range Laying Hens. [Journal Article]
- VBVector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Nov 20
- West Nile virus (WNV) is an important zoonotic pathogen maintained in a natural transmission cycle between mosquitoes and birds as reservoir hosts. In dead-end hosts, such as humans, infection may re...
West Nile virus (WNV) is an important zoonotic pathogen maintained in a natural transmission cycle between mosquitoes and birds as reservoir hosts. In dead-end hosts, such as humans, infection may result in fatal neurologic disease translating into disease and death-related suffering and increased health care costs. In humans, WNV may also be transmitted through blood transfusions and organ transplants. WNV is not present in Switzerland yet, but competent vector species (especially Culex pipiens and Aedes japonicus) are prevalent and an introduction of the virus, likely through wild birds, is expected at any time. Therefore, it is important for Switzerland to be prepared and establish a surveillance system for WNV to initiate increased prevention activities, such as the screening of blood and organ donations and public education activities in case virus circulation is detected. The long-term goal of these surveillance measures would be a reduced infection rate in humans resulting in less suffering and reduced health care costs. To provide the basis for a pragmatic and resource-effective WNV surveillance program, this study used aliquots of serum samples of free-range laying hens taken at the abattoir and collected in the frame of the ongoing Swiss Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease monitoring program for a 2-year period. All 961 aliquots were analyzed using a commercial competitive WNV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study allowed to set up sampling and laboratory routines as a basis for future WNV surveillance activities. At this stage there is no evidence for circulation of WNV in Switzerland.
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- Prevalence of Avian Influenza A(H5) and A(H9) Viruses in Live Bird Markets, Bangladesh. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2018; 24(12):2309-2316
- We conducted a cross-sectional study in live bird markets (LBMs) in Dhaka and Chittagong, Bangladesh, to estimate the prevalence of avian influenza A(H5) and A(H9) viruses in different types of poult...
We conducted a cross-sectional study in live bird markets (LBMs) in Dhaka and Chittagong, Bangladesh, to estimate the prevalence of avian influenza A(H5) and A(H9) viruses in different types of poultry and environmental areas by using Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression models. We detected these viruses in nearly all LBMs. Prevalence of A(H5) virus was higher in waterfowl than in chickens, whereas prevalence of A(H9) virus was higher in chickens than in waterfowl and, among chicken types, in industrial broilers than in cross-breeds and indigenous breeds. LBMs with >1 wholesaler were more frequently contaminated by A(H5) virus than retail-only LBMs. Prevalence of A(H9) virus in poultry and level of environmental contamination were also higher in LBMs with >1 wholesaler. We found a high level of circulation of both avian influenza viruses in surveyed LBMs. Prevalence was influenced by type of poultry, environmental site, and trading.