- Guide for health professionals addressing oral care for individuals in oncological treatment based on scientific evidence. [Journal Article]
- SCSupport Care Cancer 2018 Feb 22
- CONCLUSIONS: The guide drafted has the function of assisting health professionals involved in the oral care of patients with cancer, enabling the prevention or treatment of oral complications stemming from oncological treatment.
- Associated conditions in patients with multiple dermatofibromas: Case reports and literature review. [Journal Article]
- DODermatol Online J 2017 Sep 22; 23(9)
- Dermatofibromas are benign, fibrohistiocytic, dermal tumors. Solitary dermatofibromas may be incidental findings, whereas multiple dermatofibromas may be associated with systemic conditions or previo...
Dermatofibromas are benign, fibrohistiocytic, dermal tumors. Solitary dermatofibromas may be incidental findings, whereas multiple dermatofibromas may be associated with systemic conditions or previous therapies. Two women and one man with multiple dermatofibromas and an associated systemic condition, immunosuppression, or both, are described. Nine dermatofibromas developed in a woman with hypothyroidism, optic neuritis, and Arnold Chiari I malformation. Five dermatofibromas developed in a woman with breast cancer who had received several systemic antineoplastic therapies. Eleven dermatofibromas developed in a man with HIV whose systemic therapies included acyclovir, darunavir/cobicistat, dolutegravir, etravirine, and ritonavir. Conditions associated with multiple dermatofibromas include autoimmune diseases, cancer, chromosomal abnormalities, immunodeficiencies, metabolic disturbances, and altered physiologic states such as pregnancy. Medications received by patients with multiple dermatofibromas included immunosuppressive agents, psoriasis therapies, and antineoplastic drugs. Multiple dermatofibromas can be observed in patients with associated medical conditions, systemic therapies, or both. Therefore, in individuals presenting with multiple dermatofibromas, not only evaluation for associated disorders, but also review of prior and current drug therapies, should be considered.
- A case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus affecting the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2018; 9:68-71
- CONCLUSIONS: Chronic hypertrophic herpes simplex virus infection is a rare condition reported in patients with HIV. While there have been few reports of hypertrophic HSV affecting the eyelid, this is the first reported case of hypertrophic HSV affecting the eye, resulting in severe vision loss.
- Fatal fulminant herpes simplex hepatitis following surgery in an adult. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Clin Cases 2018 Feb 16; 6(2):11-19
- We present a case of a healthy 72-year-old man with herpes simplex hepatitis (HSVH) development soon after ordinary surgery for biliary stones. A sudden onset of hepatitis associated with high fever ...
We present a case of a healthy 72-year-old man with herpes simplex hepatitis (HSVH) development soon after ordinary surgery for biliary stones. A sudden onset of hepatitis associated with high fever and leukopenia emerged on postoperative day 5, followed by a rapid and lethal course (died on day 9), despite an acyclovir therapy on day 8. Postmortem liver biopsy revealed positive immunostaining for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1. The serum tests (available after the death) were negative for anti-HSV immunogloblulins, but positive for HSV DNA. A review of 15 cases of postsurgical HSVH along with 42 cases of non-surgical HSH showed that (1): A wide spectrum of surgical procedures was involved; and (2): High mortality (87%) associated with lower rates of ante-mortem diagnosis (20%) and acyclovir treatment (20%). Due to the difficulty in diagnosis and lethal nature, an early clinical suspension and prompt empirical anti-viral intervention are imperative for postsurgical hepatitis with undetermined etiology, characterized by fever and leucopenia.
- Pharyngeal dysphagia due to Varicella zoster virus meningoradiculitis and full recovery: Case report and endoscopic findings. [Journal Article]
- SOSAGE Open Med Case Rep 2018; 6:2050313X18756560
- Varicella zoster virus reactivation is a rare cause of pharyngeal dysphagia with long-term sequelae persisting in most cases. A 76-year-old immunocompetent woman presented with a 4-week history of dy...
Varicella zoster virus reactivation is a rare cause of pharyngeal dysphagia with long-term sequelae persisting in most cases. A 76-year-old immunocompetent woman presented with a 4-week history of dysphagia and dysphonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging displayed a negative finding. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing showed a severe dysphagia leading to a percutaneous gastrostomy eventually. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis and polymerase chain reaction amplified Varicella zoster virus DNA. Eight months after Acyclovir treatment and despite a persisting impairment of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, regular swallowing function was regained and percutaneous gastrostomy could be removed.
- Delay of Alternative Antiviral Therapy and Poor Outcomes of Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Recipients of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant. [Journal Article]
- TITranspl Int 2018 Feb 21
- Acyclovir is commonly used to prevent and treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), and only few reports have been published on acyclovir-resistant HSV ...
Acyclovir is commonly used to prevent and treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), and only few reports have been published on acyclovir-resistant HSV in HCT recipients. We reviewed the medical records of patients with a microbiologic diagnosis of acyclovir-resistant HSV by plaque reduction test who received an HCT from 2002 through 2014. A total of 4028 HCTs were performed during the study period, and 18 of the recipients met the diagnostic criteria for acyclovir-resistant HSV. All cases had undergone allogeneic HCTs. Most patients were in the pre-engraftment period or on systemic corticosteroid therapy for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The median time between diagnosis and susceptibility testing was 15 days, and antiviral therapy was changed at a median of 27 days. Patients required prolonged therapy (~ 80 days), and many had serious complications including renal failure and hospitalization. In conclusion, acyclovir-resistant HSV infection is more likely during the period of profound deficit in T-cell-mediated immunity and is associated with significant morbidities. Higher doses of acyclovir prophylaxis might be needed for patients with history of HSV during pre-engraftment or GVHD treatment. In patients who do not respond or progress after 1-week of acyclovir therapy, testing for drug-resistant HSV and early switch to an alternative antiviral should be considered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [The Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of neonatal herpes simplex infections]. [Journal Article]
- APAn Pediatr (Barc) 2018 Feb 13
- Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are rare, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most newborns acquire herpes simplex virus infection in the peripartum period. For peri...
Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are rare, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most newborns acquire herpes simplex virus infection in the peripartum period. For peripartum transmission to occur, women must be shedding the virus in their genital tracts symptomatically or asymptomatically around the time of delivery. There are evidence-based interventions in pregnancy to prevent the transmission to the newborn. Caesarean section should be performed in the presence of herpetic lesions, and antiviral prophylaxis in the last weeks of pregnancy is recommended to suppress genital tract herpes simplex virus at the time of delivery. The diagnosis and early treatment of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections require a high index of suspicion, especially in the absence of skin lesions. It is recommended to rule out herpes simplex virus infections in those newborns with mucocutaneous lesions, central nervous system involvement, or septic appearance. The prognosis of newborns with skin, eye, and/or mouth disease in the high-dose acyclovir era is very good. Antiviral treatment not only improves mortality rates in disseminated and central nervous system disease, but also improves the rates of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment in the cases of disseminated disease. Interestingly, a 6-month suppressive course of oral acyclovir following the acute infection has improved the neurodevelopmental prognosis in patients with CNS involvement.
- Helicase-primase inhibitor amenamevir for herpesvirus infection: Towards practical application for treating herpes zoster. [Journal Article]
- DTDrugs Today (Barc) 2017; 53(11):573-584
- Valacyclovir and famciclovir enabled successful systemic therapy for treating herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection by their phosphorylation with viral thymidine kinas...
Valacyclovir and famciclovir enabled successful systemic therapy for treating herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection by their phosphorylation with viral thymidine kinase. Helicase-primase inhibitors (HPIs) inhibit the progression of the replication fork, an initial step in DNA synthesis to separate the double strand into two single strands. The HPIs amenamevir and pritelivir have a novel mechanism of action, once-daily administration with nonrenal excretory characteristics, and clinical efficacy for genital herpes. Amenamevir exhibits anti-VZV and anti-HSV activity while pritelivir only has anti-HSV activity. A clinical trial of amenamevir for herpes zoster has been completed, and amenamevir has been licensed and successfully used in 20,000 patients with herpes zoster so far in Japan. We have characterized the features of the antiviral action of amenamevir and, unlike acyclovir, the drug's antiviral activity is not influenced by the viral replication cycle. Amenamevir is opening a new era of antiherpes therapy.
- Modeling of Pharmaceutical Biotransformation by Enriched Nitrifying Culture under Different Metabolic Conditions. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Technol 2018 Feb 22
- Pharmaceutical removal could be significantly enhanced through cometabolism during nitrification processes. To date, pharmaceutical biotransformation models have not considered the formation of trans...
Pharmaceutical removal could be significantly enhanced through cometabolism during nitrification processes. To date, pharmaceutical biotransformation models have not considered the formation of transformation products associated with the metabolic type of microorganisms. Here we report a comprehensive model to describe and evaluate the biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and the formation of their biotransformation products by enriched nitrifying cultures. The biotransformation of parent compounds was linked to the microbial processes via cometabolism induced by ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) growth, metabolism by AOB, cometabolism by heterotrophs (HET) growth, and metabolism by HET in the model framework. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data from pharmaceutical biodegradation experiments at realistic levels, taking two pharmaceuticals as examples, i.e., atenolol and acyclovir. Results demonstrated the good predictive performance of the established biotransformation model under different metabolic conditions, as well as the reliability of the established model in predicting different pharmaceutical biotransformations. The linear positive correlation between ammonia oxidation rate and pharmaceutical degradation rate confirmed the major role of cometabolism induced by AOB in the pharmaceutical removal. Dissolved oxygen was also revealed to be capable of regulating the pharmaceutical biotransformation cometabolically, and the substrate competition between ammonium and pharmaceuticals existed especially at high ammonium concentrations.
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- An off-target effect of BX795 blocks herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of the eye. [Journal Article]
- STSci Transl Med 2018 Feb 14; 10(428)
- Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes recurrent mucocutaneous lesions in the eye that may advance to corneal blindness. Nucleoside analogs exemplified by acyclovir (ACV) form the primary class o...
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes recurrent mucocutaneous lesions in the eye that may advance to corneal blindness. Nucleoside analogs exemplified by acyclovir (ACV) form the primary class of antiherpetic drugs, but this class suffers limitations due to the emergence of viral resistance and other side effects. While studying the molecular basis of ocular HSV-1 infection, we observed that BX795, a commonly used inhibitor of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), strongly suppressed infection by multiple strains of HSV-1 in transformed and primary human cells, cultured human and animal corneas, and a murine model of ocular infection. Our investigations revealed that the antiviral activity of BX795 relies on targeting Akt phosphorylation in infected cells, leading to the blockage of viral protein synthesis. This small-molecule inhibitor, which was also effective against an ACV-resistant HSV-1 strain, shows promise as an alternative to existing drugs and as an effective topical therapy for ocular herpes infection. Collectively, our results obtained using multiple infection models and virus strains establish BX795 as a promising lead compound for broad-spectrum antiviral applications in humans.