- Borderline personality features and integration of positive and negative thoughts about significant others. [Journal Article]
- PDPersonal Disord 2018 Feb 15
- Taking the bad with the good is a necessity of life, and people who readily integrate thoughts of their loved one's flaws with thoughts of their more positive attributes maintain more stable, satisfy...
Taking the bad with the good is a necessity of life, and people who readily integrate thoughts of their loved one's flaws with thoughts of their more positive attributes maintain more stable, satisfying relationships. Borderline personality disorder, however, is often characterized by interpersonal perceptions that fluctuate between extremes of good and bad. We used a timed judgment task to examine information processing about significant others in individuals high in borderline personality features relative to healthy individuals and those high in avoidant personality features. In Study 1, when judging traits of a liked significant other, same-valence facilitation by negative primes (judging negative traits faster than positive traits after a negative prime) was significantly stronger in the borderline features group than the other two groups, and was inversely associated with self-reports of integrated thoughts about significant others. In contrast, same-valence facilitation by positive primes (judging positive traits faster than negative traits after a positive prime) was significantly stronger in the avoidant features group than the other two groups, and inversely associated with self-esteem. No between-group differences in same-valence facilitation were statistically significant when participants judged traits of disliked significant others, liked foods, and disliked foods. In Study 2, same-valence facilitation by negative primes when judging traits of a liked significant other was significantly associated with less integrated positive/negative thoughts about that person in a 12-day diary. These results identify an implicit information-processing pattern relevant to interpersonal difficulties in borderline personality disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record
- Blood biomarkers of Hikikomori, a severe social withdrawal syndrome. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Feb 13; 8(1):2884
- Hikikomori, a severe form of social withdrawal syndrome, is a growing social issue in Japan and internationally. The pathophysiology of hikikomori has not yet been elucidated and an effective treatme...
Hikikomori, a severe form of social withdrawal syndrome, is a growing social issue in Japan and internationally. The pathophysiology of hikikomori has not yet been elucidated and an effective treatment remains to be established. Recently, we revealed that avoidant personality disorder is the most common comorbidity of hikikomori. Thus, we have postulated that avoidant personality is the personality underpinning hikikomori. First, we herein show relationships between avoidant personality traits, blood biomarkers, hikikomori-related psychological features, and behavioural characteristics assessed by a trust game in non-hikikomori volunteers. Avoidant personality traits were negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and uric acid (UA) in men, and positively associated with fibrin degeneration products (FDP) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in women. Next, we recruited actual individuals with hikikomori, and compared avoidant personality traits, blood biomarkers, and psychological features between individuals with hikikomori and age-matched healthy controls. Individuals with hikikomori had higher avoidant personality scores in both sexes, and showed lower serum UA levels in men and lower HDL-C levels in women compared with healthy controls. This is the first report showing possible blood biomarkers for hikikomori, and opens the door to clarify the underlying biological pathophysiology of hikikomori.
- Eating disorders in children: is avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder a feeding disorder or an eating disorder and what are the implications for treatment? [Review]
- FF1000Res 2018; 7:88
- Avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a current diagnosis in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition) and...
Avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a current diagnosis in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition) and captures a heterogeneous presentation of eating disturbances. In recent years, ARFID has been studied primarily within the context of eating disorders despite having historical roots as a feeding disorder. The following review examines ARFID's similarities with and differences from feeding disorders and eating disorders, focusing on research published within the last three years. Implications of this differentiation for treatment are discussed.
- Behavioral avoidance predicts treatment outcome with exposure and response prevention for obsessive-compulsive disorder. [Journal Article]
- DADepress Anxiety 2018 Feb 02
- CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that avoidance behaviors are an important clinical factor in EX/RP outcomes and indicate that assessing avoidance may provide an efficient method for predicting EX/RP outcomes. Avoidance may be particularly relevant in EX/RP as compared to medication treatment, though future replication of these initial results is required.
- Treatment of co-occurring food avoidance and alcohol use disorder in an adult: Possible avoidant restrictive food intake disorder? [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Eat Disord 2018 Feb 02
- CONCLUSIONS: However, excessive alcohol intake had reoccurred at 3-month follow-up, accompanied by increases in negative affect and impairment due to eating, indicating that longer-term therapy may be required for this group of people.
- The reciprocal relationship between coping mechanisms and lung cancer diagnosis: findings of a prospective study. [Journal Article]
- CMCancer Manag Res 2018; 10:33-40
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that patients who receive the diagnosis for cancer show a significant increase in anxiety and depression intensity. The most adaptive coping style turned out to be the problem-focused one while the least adaptive one was the avoidant style.
- A multidimensional approach to understanding the potential risk factors and covariates of adult picky eating. [Journal Article]
- AAppetite 2018 Jan 29; 125:1-9
- CONCLUSIONS: Early experiences, including parental approaches to feeding, appear to be potential risk factors of PE behavior in adults. A nuanced understanding of adult PE is important for the prevention and treatment of severe PE behaviors, related psychosocial impairment, and ARFID.
- The Influence of Explanatory Images on Risk Perceptions and Treatment Preference. [Journal Article]
- ACArthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2018 Jan 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Adding explanatory images to IAs increases the likelihood to take a medication in patients with low numeracy and a non-compensatory gist risk appraisal. Explanatory images may be a feasible approach to improve willingness to try medication among subjects who are especially risk averse and believe that any risk is unacceptable.
- Rapport Building and Instructional Fading Prior to Discrete Trial Instruction: Moving From Child-Led Play to Intensive Teaching. [Journal Article]
- BMBehav Modif 2018 Jan 01; :145445517751436
- Discrete trial instruction (DTI) is effective for teaching skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although effective, instructional settings can become aversive resulting in avoidant...
Discrete trial instruction (DTI) is effective for teaching skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although effective, instructional settings can become aversive resulting in avoidant and escape-related behaviors. Given the significant social impairments associated with ASD, interventions that promote social approach and reduce avoidance are warranted. Rapport building or "pairing" the therapist and teaching setting with highly preferred activities prior to instruction can reduce problematic behaviors during subsequent instruction. However, the path from child-led play to DTI is not well established. Instructional fading may assist in bridging this gap. Four participants with ASD who were beginning an intensive behavioral intervention program were included in the current study. Participants progressed through nine stages of pairing and instructional fading with minimal problem behavior and high percentages of in-seat and close proximity to the therapist. Guidelines for incorporating rapport building strategies prior to intensive teaching with children with ASD are proposed.
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- Do clinically anxious children cluster according to their expression of factors that maintain child anxiety? [Journal Article]
- JAJ Affect Disord 2018 Mar 15; 229:469-476
- CONCLUSIONS: Some measures may have been influenced by confounding variables (e.g. physical variability in heart rate recovery). Sample characteristics of the group may limit the generalizability of the results.Clinically anxious children appear to fall in to subgroups that might benefit from more targeted treatments that focus on specific maintenance factors. Treatment studies are now required to establish whether this approach would lead to more effective and efficient treatments.