- Overview of Pregnancy in Renal Transplant Patients. [Review]
- IJInt J Nephrol 2016; 2016:4539342
- Kidney transplantation offers best hope to women with end-stage renal disease who wish to become pregnant. Pregnancy in a kidney transplant recipient continues to remain challenging due to side effec...
Kidney transplantation offers best hope to women with end-stage renal disease who wish to become pregnant. Pregnancy in a kidney transplant recipient continues to remain challenging due to side effects of immunosuppressive medication, risk of deterioration of allograft function, risk of adverse maternal complications of preeclampsia and hypertension, and risk of adverse fetal outcomes of premature birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. The factors associated with poor pregnancy outcomes include presence of hypertension, serum creatinine greater than 1.4 mg/dL, and proteinuria. The recommended maintenance immunosuppression in pregnant women is calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus/cyclosporine), azathioprine, and low dose prednisone; and it is considered safe. Sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil should be stopped 6 weeks prior to conception. The optimal time to conception continues to remain an area of contention. It is important that counseling for childbearing should start as early as prior to getting a kidney transplant and should be done at every clinic visit after transplant. Breast-feeding is not contraindicated and should not be discouraged. This review will help the physicians in medical optimization and counseling of renal transplant recipients of childbearing age.
- Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Varies Widely: A Need for Further Education. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 2016:6193275
- CONCLUSIONS: Physician management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding varies widely. Relative to other physicians, responses of gastroenterologists more frequently reflected best practices pertaining to medications for control of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding. There is a need for further education regarding the management of IBD during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
- Breastfeeding in mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus. [Journal Article]
- LLupus 2016; 25(9):973-9
- CONCLUSIONS: Half of women with lupus breastfed and most desire to breastfeed. Hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, methotrexate, and prednisone have very limited transfer into breast milk and may be continued while breastfeeding.
- Rheumatoid arthritis medications and lactation. [Review]
- COCurr Opin Rheumatol 2014; 26(3):354-60
- CONCLUSIONS: Many but not all RA medications may be used during lactation with low risk to the nursing infant; this review summarizes the available data for commonly used medications in order to help guide therapy during the postpartum period.
- Update on pregnancy and breastfeeding in the era of biologics. [Review]
- DLDig Liver Dis 2013; 45(10):787-94
- Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic conditions that frequently affect patients during their childbearing years. Considering the characteristics of disease and the medications used to treat it, se...
Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic conditions that frequently affect patients during their childbearing years. Considering the characteristics of disease and the medications used to treat it, several issues arise in the care of these patients when they attempt or achieve conception. We review the most current evidence concerning fertility and pregnancy outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. With the exception of those women who undergo pelvic surgery, patients with inflammatory bowel diseases have no decreased fertility. Sulfasalazine decreases fertility in men. When looking at obstetrical outcomes, active disease at conception is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight. While most medications used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases are low risk, some precautions need to be taken and the risk-to-benefit ratio needs to be considered on an individualized basis. In general, aminosalicylates and thiopurines should be continued, but methotrexate is contraindicated. Anti-tumour necrosis factor agents are considered safe to continue but full monoclonal antibodies do cross the placenta. As a general rule, the it is important to counsel women that conception is optimal when disease is in remission, as adverse obstetrical outcomes are directly associated with disease activity. Clinicians need to educate patients before, during and after conception, emphasizing treatment compliance.
- Rheumatoid arthritis and pregnancy: safety considerations in pharmacological management. [Review]
- DDrugs 2011 Oct 22; 71(15):1973-87
- Pregnancy can pose a challenge to the physician caring for women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While many women with RA experience a spontaneous improvement in joint pain and inflammation during pr...
Pregnancy can pose a challenge to the physician caring for women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While many women with RA experience a spontaneous improvement in joint pain and inflammation during pregnancy, in others it remains active and they continue to need ongoing therapy. It is important to tailor the treatment regimen so that the disease is stabilized prior to conception and to use medications that are safe throughout pregnancy and lactation. The use of immunomodulating medications considered low risk during pregnancy allows for optimal outcomes. NSAIDs should be avoided in the third trimester. Corticosteroids may be used throughout pregnancy in the lowest effective dose. Antimalarial agents, sulfasalazine and azathioprine are safe options, but methotrexate and leflunomide are contraindicated as they are teratogenic and must, therefore, be withdrawn before a planned pregnancy. The risk for some of the newer biological therapies for RA is not necessarily their proven teratogenicity, but the absence of proven safety for the fetus. As such, it is recommended that abatacept, rituximab and tocilizumab be withheld prior to pregnancy; however, tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and anakinra may be continued until conception. In this review, we provide an overview of the RA treatment issues pre-conception, during pregnancy and in the post-partum period with respect to breastfeeding, and we provide guidelines for drugs that may be used relatively safely for RA management in pregnant women. Where available, pre-conception guidelines for men using these medications for RA are also discussed.
- Long-term follow-up of babies exposed to azathioprine in utero and via breastfeeding. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Crohns Colitis 2011; 5(2):95-100
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study which reports the largest number of babies breastfed with exposure to AZA suggests that breastfeeding does not increase the risk of infections.
- [Liver transplantation and pregnancy]. [Journal Article]
- PMPresse Med 2010; 39(11):1143-9
- Patients with liver failure have menstrual cycle irregularities or amenorrhea. Liver transplantation restores menstrual pattern among women with cirrhosis in childbearing years. It is now accepted th...
Patients with liver failure have menstrual cycle irregularities or amenorrhea. Liver transplantation restores menstrual pattern among women with cirrhosis in childbearing years. It is now accepted that a planned pregnancy is possible among liver transplant recipients at least 1 year after liver transplantation, with stable allograft function and under immunosuppressive regimens, to minimize the risks of preterm delivery and pregnancy-induced hypertension. After 1 year, the risk of graft loss decreases and is not related to pregnancy. It is a high-risk pregnancy which requires a specific and regular multidisciplinary joint follow-up (obstetrician, hepatologist, and anaesthesiologist), which leads in most cases to successful outcome for mother and child. But, early prevention and multidisciplinary management of the most common complications (pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction) is essential. The prematurity rate, maternal morbidity and mortality are higher than in the general population. Usual immunosuppressive treatments (corticoids, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil) may require dose adaptation during pregnancy. Immunosuppressive drugs are not teratogenic, but breast feeding is not allowed.
- Safety of immunomodulators and biologics for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy and breast-feeding. [Review]
- IBInflamm Bowel Dis 2010; 16(5):881-95
- The aim of this article is to critically review available data regarding the safety of immunomodulators and biological therapies during pregnancy and breast-feeding in women with inflammatory bowel d...
The aim of this article is to critically review available data regarding the safety of immunomodulators and biological therapies during pregnancy and breast-feeding in women with inflammatory bowel disease. Methotrexate and thalidomide can cause congenital anomalies and are contraindicated during pregnancy (and breast-feeding). Although thiopurines have a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rating D, available data suggest that these drugs are safe and well tolerated during pregnancy. Although traditionally women receiving azathioprine or mercaptopurine have been discouraged from breast-feeding because of theoretical potential risks, it seems that these drugs may be safe in this scenario. Treatment with cyclosporine for steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) during pregnancy can be considered safe and effective, and the use of this drug should be considered in cases of severe UC as a means of avoiding urgent surgery. Breast-feeding is contraindicated for patients receiving cyclosporine. Biological therapies appear to be safe in pregnancy, as no increased risk of malformations has been demonstrated. Therefore, the limited clinical results available suggest that the benefits of infliximab and adalimumab in attaining response and maintaining remission in pregnant patients might outweigh the theoretical risks of drug exposure to the fetus. Stopping therapy in the third trimester may be considered, as it seems that transplacental transfer of infliximab is low prior to this. Certolizumab differs from infliximab and adalimumab in that it is a Fab fragment of an antitumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody, and therefore it may not be necessary to stop certolizumab in the third trimester. The use of infliximab is probably compatible with breast-feeding.
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- Inflammatory bowel diseases and management considerations: fertility and pregnancy. [Review]
- CGCurr Gastroenterol Rep 2009; 11(5):395-9
- Young women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pose a unique set of challenges. These women and their treating physicians must make difficult choices in matters regarding conception, pregnancy, an...
Young women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pose a unique set of challenges. These women and their treating physicians must make difficult choices in matters regarding conception, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. This review highlights recent evidence and management issues that arise when taking care of women with IBD in terms of fertility, outcomes, and medication safety in pregnancy and breastfeeding. Ultimately, treatment must be individualized for each patient based on the available evidence and the woman's preferences.