- Cereblon deficiency confers resistance against polymicrobial sepsis by the activation of AMP activated protein kinase and heme-oxygenase-1. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Jan 01; 495(1):976-981
- Cereblon (CRBN) has a pleiotropic role in important cellular processes and is a potential therapeutic target in several diseases, including mental retardation, cancer, and metabolic disorders. The ro...
Cereblon (CRBN) has a pleiotropic role in important cellular processes and is a potential therapeutic target in several diseases, including mental retardation, cancer, and metabolic disorders. The role of CRBN in polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was investigated using CRBN-deficient (KO) mice. Survival following CLP was significantly higher in KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) controls (50% vs 0% at day 6 after CLP). The improved survival of KO mice was accompanied by reduced peripheral blood bacterial load and lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) concentrations were significantly lower in KO mice than in WT mice. Peritoneal macrophages from KO mice with CLP-induced septic mouse had higher levels of activation of AMPK and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Forced expression of CRBN in macrophage of KO mice suppressed activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and HO-1 and augmented expression of TNF-α and HMGB1 as inhibition of AMPK by compound C. These studies demonstrate the contribution of CRBN expression to the pathogenesis of CLP-induced sepsis and peritoneal macrophage responses and suggest a novel therapeutic modality for polymicrobial sepsis.
- Sepsis induced by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) alters nucleotidase activities in platelets of rats. [Journal Article]
- MPMicrob Pathog 2017; 111:345-351
- Sepsis is a potentially lethal condition, and it is associated with platelet alterations. The present study sought to investigate the activity of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NT...
Sepsis is a potentially lethal condition, and it is associated with platelet alterations. The present study sought to investigate the activity of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), E-5'-nucleotidase, and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) in the platelets of rats that were induced with sepsis. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten animals each: a negative control group (normal; NC); a group that underwent surgical procedures (sham); and a group that underwent cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). The induction of sepsis was confirmed by bacteremia, and the causative pathogen identified was Escherichia coli. Hematological parameters showed leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia in animals in the septic group. The results also revealed that there were significant (p < 0.05) increases in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) hydrolyses, and in the deamination of adenosine in the CLP group compared to the sham and control groups. Conversely, ADP hydrolysis was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the CLP group compared to the sham and control groups. Purine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in serum samples from control, sham, and CLP groups. Increased concentrations of ATP, adenosine, and inosine were found in the CLP group compared to the sham and control groups. Conversely, the concentrations of ADP and AMP in the CPL group were not significantly altered. We suggest that alterations in hematological parameters, nucleotide hydrolysis in platelets, and nucleotide concentrations in serum samples of rats with induced sepsis may be related to thromboembolic events.
- The endotoxemia cardiac dysfunction is attenuated by AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway regulating autophagy. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Oct 21; 492(3):520-527
- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis, modulates myocardial signaling in the heart. Myocardial dysfunction is a common complication of sepsis...
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis, modulates myocardial signaling in the heart. Myocardial dysfunction is a common complication of sepsis. Autophagy is involved in the aging related cardiac dysfunction. However, the role of AMPK in sepsis-induced cardiotoxicity has yet to be clarified, especially in aging. In this study, we explored the role of AMPK in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial dysfunction and elucidated the potential mechanisms of AMPK/mTOR pathway regulating autophagy in young and aged mice. We harvested cardiac tissues by intraperitoneal injection of LPS treatment. The results by echocardiography, pathology, contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) property as well as western blot analysis revealed that LPS induced remarkable cardiac dysfunction and cardiotoxicity in mice hearts and cardiomyocytes, which were more seriously in the aged mice. Western blot analysis indicated that the underlying mechanisms included inhibition autophagy mediated by AMPK/mTOR activation. LPS overtly promoted the expression of AMPK upstream regulator PP2A and PP2Cα. Pharmacological activation of AMPK improved cardiac function and upregulated cardiac autophagy induced by LPS in the aged mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that upregulation of autophagy by administration of AMPK could attenuate LPS-induced cardiotoxicity, which enhances our knowledge to explore new drugs and strategies for combating cardiac dysfunction induced by sepsis.
- Liver Kinase B1/AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Activation Attenuated the Progression of Endotoxemia in the Diabetic Mice. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2017; 42(2):761-779
- CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway activation improved the survival of diabetic mice complicated with endotoxemia. Thus, LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway may serve as a potentially useful therapeutic target for severe infection in diabetic patients.
- Evening primrose oil or forskolin ameliorates celecoxib-enhanced upregulation of tissue factor expression in mice subjected to lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia. [Journal Article]
- NSNaunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2017; 390(5):483-492
- Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, produces thrombotic events in patients predisposed to cardiovascular risk factors. One theory reported an increase in endothelial expression of tiss...
Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, produces thrombotic events in patients predisposed to cardiovascular risk factors. One theory reported an increase in endothelial expression of tissue factor (TF) as a predisposing factor. This work explored the effect of evening primrose oil (EPO), a source of prostaglandin E1, and forskolin (a cyclic adenosine monophosphate stimulator) against the prothrombotic effect of celecoxib in mice. Lipopolysaccharide mouse model of endotoxemia was used to induce an upregulation of TF activity. Male mice received celecoxib (25 mg/kg), celecoxib plus EPO, or celecoxib plus forskolin for 4 weeks and then subjected to a prothrombotic challenge in the form of an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. Results showed an increase in plasma TF activity, endothelial TF expression, and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) but lower antithrombin III (ATIII) level in mice that received celecoxib in comparison to those that received the vehicle. Adding EPO or forskolin to celecoxib regimen significantly decreased the prothrombotic effect of celecoxib. A positive correlation (r = 0.8501) was found between TF activity and TAT. Co-administration of EPO or forskolin decreased the activity of TF and mitigated the prothrombotic effect of celecoxib. Therefore, these combinations may have the utility to abrogate the prothrombotic adverse effect of celecoxib in clinical setting.
- 13-Ethylberberine reduces HMGB1 release through AMPK activation in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells and protects endotoxemic mice from organ damage. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2017; 86:48-56
- High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved non-histone DNA-binding protein, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Previously, the authors reported 13-ethylberberine (13-EB...
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved non-histone DNA-binding protein, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Previously, the authors reported 13-ethylberberine (13-EBR) has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. However, the effect of 13-EBR on HMGB1 release was not investigated. In the present study, it was hypothesized 13-EBR might reduce HMGB1 release by activating AMPK under septic conditions. The results obtained showed 13-EBR significantly reduced HMGB1 release from LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells, and that this reduction was reversed by silencing p38, or AMPK, or by co-treating cells with p38 MAPKinase inhibitor. 13-EBR increased the phosphorylations of p38 and AMPK, and the phosphorylation of p38 by 13-EBR was inhibited by AMPK-siRNA, indicating AMPK acted upstream of p38. In the lung tissues of LPS-treated mice, 13-EBR administration significantly increased p-AMPK but reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein levels. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed 13-EBR significantly reduced LPS-induced lung and liver damage. In addition, 13-EBR inhibited NF-kB in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells, and in LPS-treated mice, 13-EBR administration significantly increased survival. Furthermore, co-administration of 13-EBR plus LPS prevented LPS-induced aortic rings hypocontractile response to phenylephrine in vitro. Taken together, these results indicate 13-EBR might offer a means of treating sepsis through AMPK activation.
- Amelioration of energy metabolism by melatonin in skeletal muscle of rats with LPS induced endotoxemia. [Journal Article]
- PRPhysiol Res 2016 Nov 23; 65(5):833-842
- In the literature, few studies have investigated the effects of melatonin on energy metabolism in skeletal muscle in endotoxemia. We investigated the effects of melatonin on tissue structure, energy ...
In the literature, few studies have investigated the effects of melatonin on energy metabolism in skeletal muscle in endotoxemia. We investigated the effects of melatonin on tissue structure, energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, and antioxidant level of rats with endotoxemia. We divided rats into 4 groups, control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (20 mg/kg, i.p., single dose), melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p., three times), and melatonin + LPS. Melatonin was injected i.p. 30 min before and after the 2nd and 4th hours of LPS injection. Antioxidant status was determined by glutathione (GSH) measurement in the blood. Muscle tissue was stained using modified Gomori trichrome (MGT), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), and cytochrome oxidase (COX) and histological scored. Also the sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The stained sections were visualized and photographed. Creatine, creatine phosphate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in muscle tissue. In the Melatonin + LPS group, blood GSH levels were increased compared with the LPS group (P<0.01). Melatonin reduced myopathic changes in the LPS group according to the histopathologic findings. In addition, ATP values were increased compared with the LPS group (P<0.05). Our findings showed melatonin treatment prevented muscle damage by increasing ATP and GSH levels in rats with LPS induced endotoxemia.
- Leucine supplementation stimulates protein synthesis and reduces degradation signal activation in muscle of newborn pigs during acute endotoxemia. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2016 Oct 01; 311(4):E791-E801
- Sepsis disrupts skeletal muscle proteostasis and mitigates the anabolic response to leucine (Leu) in muscle of mature animals. We have shown that Leu stimulates muscle protein synthesis (PS) in healt...
Sepsis disrupts skeletal muscle proteostasis and mitigates the anabolic response to leucine (Leu) in muscle of mature animals. We have shown that Leu stimulates muscle protein synthesis (PS) in healthy neonatal piglets. To determine if supplemental Leu can stimulate PS and reduce protein degradation (PD) signaling in neonatal muscle during endotoxemia, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused for 8 h with LPS or saline while plasma amino acids, glucose, and insulin were maintained at fasting levels during pancreatic-substrate clamps. Leu or saline was infused during the last hour. Markers of PS and PD were determined in skeletal muscle. Compared with controls, Leu increased PS in longissimus dorsi (LD), gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles. LPS decreased PS in these three muscles by 36%, 28%, and 38%, but Leu antagonized that reduction by increasing PS by 84%, 81%, and 83%, respectively, when supplemented to LPS. Leu increased eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)3b-raptor interactions, eIF4E-binding protein-1, and S6 kinase 1 phosphorylation as well as eIF4E·eIF4G complex formation in LD, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles of control and LPS-treated pigs. In LD muscle, LPS increased the light chain (LC)3-II-to-LC3 ratio and muscle-specific RING finger (MuRF-1) abundance but not atrogin-1 abundance or AMP-activated protein kinase-α phosphorylation. Leu supplementation to LPS-treated pigs reduced the LC3-II-to-LC3 ratio, MuRF-1 abundance, and AMP-activated protein kinase-α phosphorylation compared with LPS alone. In conclusion, parenteral Leu supplementation attenuates the LPS-induced reduction in PS by stimulating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1-dependent translation and may reduce PD by attenuating autophagy-lysosome and MuRF-1 signaling in neonatal skeletal muscle.
- Amino acids, independent of insulin, attenuate skeletal muscle autophagy in neonatal pigs during endotoxemia. [Journal Article]
- PRPediatr Res 2016; 80(3):448-51
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that supplementation of AA antagonize autophagy signal activation in skeletal muscle of neonates during endotoxemia.
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- Permissive role of AMPK and autophagy in adiponectin deficiency-accentuated myocardial injury and inflammation in endotoxemia. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mol Cell Cardiol 2016; 93:18-31
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that AMPK and autophagy may play a permissive role in the adiponectin deficiency-exacerbated cardiac dysfunction, apoptosis and inflammation under LPS challenge possibly at the post-TLR4 receptor level.