- Citrobacter freundii fitness during bloodstream infection. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Aug 07; 8(1):11792
- Sepsis resulting from microbial colonization of the bloodstream is a serious health concern associated with high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to define the physiologic requirement...
Sepsis resulting from microbial colonization of the bloodstream is a serious health concern associated with high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to define the physiologic requirements of Citrobacter freundii in the bloodstream as a model for bacteremia caused by opportunistic Gram-negative pathogens. A genetic screen in a murine host identified 177 genes that contributed significantly to fitness, the majority of which were broadly classified as having metabolic or cellular maintenance functions. Among the pathways examined, the Tat protein secretion system conferred the single largest fitness contribution during competition infections and a putative Tat-secreted protein, SufI, was also identified as a fitness factor. Additional work was focused on identifying relevant metabolic pathways for bacteria in the bloodstream environment. Mutations that eliminated the use of glucose or mannitol as carbon sources in vitro resulted in loss of fitness in the murine model and similar results were obtained upon disruption of the cysteine biosynthetic pathway. Finally, the conservation of identified fitness factors was compared within a cohort of Citrobacter bloodstream isolates and between Citrobacter and Serratia marcescens, the results of which suggest the presence of conserved strategies for bacterial survival and replication in the bloodstream environment.
- Mecillinam for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis and bacteremia caused by Enterobacteriaceae: a literature review. [Review]
- IDInfect Drug Resist 2018; 11:761-771
- CONCLUSIONS: IV MEC or oral P-MEC for 14 days may be suitable for the treatment of AUP and pediatric pyelonephritis. Randomized controlled trials using a single standardized dose of P-MEC compared to other current recommendations are warranted. Similarly, more evidence is required before MEC should be recommended for bacteremia or sepsis due to Enterobacteriaceae.
- Metformin alleviated endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury via restoring AMPK-dependent suppression of mTOR. [Journal Article]
- CBChem Biol Interact 2018 Aug 01; 291:1-6
- Inflammation requires intensive metabolic support and modulation of the metabolic pathways might become a novel strategy to limit inflammatory injury. Recent studies have revealed the anti-inflammato...
Inflammation requires intensive metabolic support and modulation of the metabolic pathways might become a novel strategy to limit inflammatory injury. Recent studies have revealed the anti-inflammatory effects of the anti-diabetic reagent metformin, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the potential effects of metformin on endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and their relationship with the representative metabolic regulator, including AMPK, sirtuin 1 and mTOR, were investigated. The results indicated that treatment with metformin suppressed LPS-induced upregulation of IL-6 and TNF-α, alleviated pulmonary histological abnormalities, improved the survival rate of LPS-challenged mice. Treatment with metformin reversed LPS-induced decline of AMPK phosphorylation. Co-administration of the AMPK inhibitor compound C abolished the stimulatory effects of metformin on AMPK phosphorylation, the suppressive effects of metformin on IL-6 induction and pulmonary lesions. In addition, co-administration of the mTOR activator 3BDO but not the sirtuin 1 inhibitor EX-527 abolished the effects of metformin on IL-6 induction and pulmonary lesions. Finally, treatment with metformin suppressed LPS-induced p70S6K1 phosphorylation, which was abolished by the AMPK inhibitor. These data suggest that metformin might provide anti-inflammatory benefits in endotoxemia-induced inflammatory lung injury via restoring AMPK-dependent suppression of mTOR.
- Cereblon deficiency confers resistance against polymicrobial sepsis by the activation of AMP activated protein kinase and heme-oxygenase-1. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 01 01; 495(1):976-981
- Cereblon (CRBN) has a pleiotropic role in important cellular processes and is a potential therapeutic target in several diseases, including mental retardation, cancer, and metabolic disorders. The ro...
Cereblon (CRBN) has a pleiotropic role in important cellular processes and is a potential therapeutic target in several diseases, including mental retardation, cancer, and metabolic disorders. The role of CRBN in polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was investigated using CRBN-deficient (KO) mice. Survival following CLP was significantly higher in KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) controls (50% vs 0% at day 6 after CLP). The improved survival of KO mice was accompanied by reduced peripheral blood bacterial load and lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) concentrations were significantly lower in KO mice than in WT mice. Peritoneal macrophages from KO mice with CLP-induced septic mouse had higher levels of activation of AMPK and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Forced expression of CRBN in macrophage of KO mice suppressed activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and HO-1 and augmented expression of TNF-α and HMGB1 as inhibition of AMPK by compound C. These studies demonstrate the contribution of CRBN expression to the pathogenesis of CLP-induced sepsis and peritoneal macrophage responses and suggest a novel therapeutic modality for polymicrobial sepsis.
- Sepsis induced by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) alters nucleotidase activities in platelets of rats. [Journal Article]
- MPMicrob Pathog 2017; 111:345-351
- Sepsis is a potentially lethal condition, and it is associated with platelet alterations. The present study sought to investigate the activity of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NT...
Sepsis is a potentially lethal condition, and it is associated with platelet alterations. The present study sought to investigate the activity of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), E-5'-nucleotidase, and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) in the platelets of rats that were induced with sepsis. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten animals each: a negative control group (normal; NC); a group that underwent surgical procedures (sham); and a group that underwent cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). The induction of sepsis was confirmed by bacteremia, and the causative pathogen identified was Escherichia coli. Hematological parameters showed leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia in animals in the septic group. The results also revealed that there were significant (p < 0.05) increases in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) hydrolyses, and in the deamination of adenosine in the CLP group compared to the sham and control groups. Conversely, ADP hydrolysis was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the CLP group compared to the sham and control groups. Purine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in serum samples from control, sham, and CLP groups. Increased concentrations of ATP, adenosine, and inosine were found in the CLP group compared to the sham and control groups. Conversely, the concentrations of ADP and AMP in the CPL group were not significantly altered. We suggest that alterations in hematological parameters, nucleotide hydrolysis in platelets, and nucleotide concentrations in serum samples of rats with induced sepsis may be related to thromboembolic events.
- The endotoxemia cardiac dysfunction is attenuated by AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway regulating autophagy. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Oct 21; 492(3):520-527
- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis, modulates myocardial signaling in the heart. Myocardial dysfunction is a common complication of sepsis...
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis, modulates myocardial signaling in the heart. Myocardial dysfunction is a common complication of sepsis. Autophagy is involved in the aging related cardiac dysfunction. However, the role of AMPK in sepsis-induced cardiotoxicity has yet to be clarified, especially in aging. In this study, we explored the role of AMPK in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial dysfunction and elucidated the potential mechanisms of AMPK/mTOR pathway regulating autophagy in young and aged mice. We harvested cardiac tissues by intraperitoneal injection of LPS treatment. The results by echocardiography, pathology, contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) property as well as western blot analysis revealed that LPS induced remarkable cardiac dysfunction and cardiotoxicity in mice hearts and cardiomyocytes, which were more seriously in the aged mice. Western blot analysis indicated that the underlying mechanisms included inhibition autophagy mediated by AMPK/mTOR activation. LPS overtly promoted the expression of AMPK upstream regulator PP2A and PP2Cα. Pharmacological activation of AMPK improved cardiac function and upregulated cardiac autophagy induced by LPS in the aged mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that upregulation of autophagy by administration of AMPK could attenuate LPS-induced cardiotoxicity, which enhances our knowledge to explore new drugs and strategies for combating cardiac dysfunction induced by sepsis.
- Liver Kinase B1/AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Activation Attenuated the Progression of Endotoxemia in the Diabetic Mice. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2017; 42(2):761-779
- CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway activation improved the survival of diabetic mice complicated with endotoxemia. Thus, LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway may serve as a potentially useful therapeutic target for severe infection in diabetic patients.
- Evening primrose oil or forskolin ameliorates celecoxib-enhanced upregulation of tissue factor expression in mice subjected to lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia. [Journal Article]
- NSNaunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2017; 390(5):483-492
- Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, produces thrombotic events in patients predisposed to cardiovascular risk factors. One theory reported an increase in endothelial expression of tiss...
Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, produces thrombotic events in patients predisposed to cardiovascular risk factors. One theory reported an increase in endothelial expression of tissue factor (TF) as a predisposing factor. This work explored the effect of evening primrose oil (EPO), a source of prostaglandin E1, and forskolin (a cyclic adenosine monophosphate stimulator) against the prothrombotic effect of celecoxib in mice. Lipopolysaccharide mouse model of endotoxemia was used to induce an upregulation of TF activity. Male mice received celecoxib (25 mg/kg), celecoxib plus EPO, or celecoxib plus forskolin for 4 weeks and then subjected to a prothrombotic challenge in the form of an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. Results showed an increase in plasma TF activity, endothelial TF expression, and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) but lower antithrombin III (ATIII) level in mice that received celecoxib in comparison to those that received the vehicle. Adding EPO or forskolin to celecoxib regimen significantly decreased the prothrombotic effect of celecoxib. A positive correlation (r = 0.8501) was found between TF activity and TAT. Co-administration of EPO or forskolin decreased the activity of TF and mitigated the prothrombotic effect of celecoxib. Therefore, these combinations may have the utility to abrogate the prothrombotic adverse effect of celecoxib in clinical setting.
- The citrus flavonoid naringenin confers protection in a murine endotoxaemia model through AMPK-ATF3-dependent negative regulation of the TLR4 signalling pathway. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2016 12 22; 6:39735
- Excessive activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway is critical for inflammation-associated disorders, while negative regulators play key roles in restraining TLR4 from over-activation. Naringenin is...
Excessive activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway is critical for inflammation-associated disorders, while negative regulators play key roles in restraining TLR4 from over-activation. Naringenin is a citrus flavonoid with remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, but the mechanisms underlying its inhibition of LPS/TLR4 signalling are less clear. This study investigated the molecular targets and therapeutic effects of naringenin in vitro and in vivo. In LPS-stimulated murine macrophages, naringenin suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, TLR4, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) and NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2). Naringenin also inhibited NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. However, it did not affect the IRF3 signalling pathway or interferon production, which upregulate activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), an inducible negative regulator of TLR4 signalling. Naringenin was demonstrated to directly increase ATF3 expression. Inhibition of AMPK and its upstream calcium-dependent signalling reduced ATF3 expression and dampened the anti-inflammatory activity of naringenin. In murine endotoxaemia models, naringenin ameliorated pro-inflammatory reactions and improved survival. Furthermore, it induced AMPK activation in lung tissues, which was required for ATF3 upregulation and the enhanced anti-inflammatory activity. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism of naringenin through AMPK-ATF3-dependent negative regulation of the LPS/TLR4 signalling pathway, which thereby confers protection against murine endotoxaemia.
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- 13-Ethylberberine reduces HMGB1 release through AMPK activation in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells and protects endotoxemic mice from organ damage. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2017; 86:48-56
- High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved non-histone DNA-binding protein, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Previously, the authors reported 13-ethylberberine (13-EB...
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved non-histone DNA-binding protein, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Previously, the authors reported 13-ethylberberine (13-EBR) has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. However, the effect of 13-EBR on HMGB1 release was not investigated. In the present study, it was hypothesized 13-EBR might reduce HMGB1 release by activating AMPK under septic conditions. The results obtained showed 13-EBR significantly reduced HMGB1 release from LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells, and that this reduction was reversed by silencing p38, or AMPK, or by co-treating cells with p38 MAPKinase inhibitor. 13-EBR increased the phosphorylations of p38 and AMPK, and the phosphorylation of p38 by 13-EBR was inhibited by AMPK-siRNA, indicating AMPK acted upstream of p38. In the lung tissues of LPS-treated mice, 13-EBR administration significantly increased p-AMPK but reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein levels. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed 13-EBR significantly reduced LPS-induced lung and liver damage. In addition, 13-EBR inhibited NF-kB in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells, and in LPS-treated mice, 13-EBR administration significantly increased survival. Furthermore, co-administration of 13-EBR plus LPS prevented LPS-induced aortic rings hypocontractile response to phenylephrine in vitro. Taken together, these results indicate 13-EBR might offer a means of treating sepsis through AMPK activation.