- Neurodevelopment at 2 years corrected age among Vietnamese preterm infants. [Journal Article]
- ADArch Dis Child 2019 Jul 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Vietnamese preterm infants in need of neonatal intensive care showed poor neurodevelopment at 2 years. Higher maternal education was positively associated with infant neurodevelopment. Standard follow-up programmes for preterm infants should be considered in low-resource settings.
- Delayed childhood neurodevelopment and neurosensory alterations in the second year of life in a prospective cohort of ZIKV-exposed children. [Journal Article]
- NMedNat Med 2019 Jul 08
- We report neurodevelopmental outcomes in 216 infants followed since the time of PCR-confirmed maternal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnancy during the Rio de Janeiro epidemic of 2015-2016 (refs. …
We report neurodevelopmental outcomes in 216 infants followed since the time of PCR-confirmed maternal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnancy during the Rio de Janeiro epidemic of 2015-2016 (refs. 1,2). Neurodevelopment was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III; cognitive, language and motor domains) in 146 children and through neurodevelopment questionnaires/neurological examinations in 70 remaining children. Complete eye exams (n = 137) and hearing assessments (n = 114) were also performed. Below-average neurodevelopment and/or abnormal eye or hearing assessments were noted in 31.5% of children between 7 and 32 months of age. Among children assessed by Bayley-III, 12% scored below -2 s.d. (score <70; a score of 100 ± 2 s.d. is the range) in at least one domain; and 28% scored between -1 and -2 s.d. in any domain (scores <85-70). Language function was most affected, with 35% of 146 children below average. Improved neurodevelopmental outcomes were noted in female children, term babies, children with normal eye exams and maternal infection later in pregnancy (P = 0.01). We noted resolution of microcephaly with normal neurodevelopment in two of eight children, development of secondary microcephaly in two other children and autism spectrum disorder in three previously healthy children in the second year of life.
- Neurodevelopmental and behavioural outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children at 2-3 years of age in Cape Town, South Africa. [Journal Article]
- ACAIDS Care 2019 Jul 07; :1-9
- Successful vertical HIV transmission prevention programmes (VTP) have resulted in an expanding population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants whose growth, health and neurodevelopmental outcomes …
Successful vertical HIV transmission prevention programmes (VTP) have resulted in an expanding population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants whose growth, health and neurodevelopmental outcomes could have consequences for future resource allocation. We compared neurodevelopmental and behavioural outcomes in a prospective cohort of 2-3 year old HEU and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HU) children. Women living with and without HIV and their infants were enrolled within three days of birth from a low-risk midwife obstetric unit in Cape Town, South Africa during 2012 and 2013, under WHO Option A VTP guidelines. HIV-uninfected children aged 30-42 months were assessed using the Bayley scales of Infant Development-Third edition (BSID) and Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Thirty-two HEU and 27 HU children (mean birth weight 3048g vs 3096g) were assessed. HEU children performed as well as HU children on BSID cognitive, language and motor domains. Mean scores fell within the low average range. Mothers of HEU children reported fewer conduct problems but stunting was associated with increased total difficulties on the SDQ. HEU and HU children's performance on the BSID was similar. In this low-risk cohort, HIV exposure did not confer additional risk. Stunting was associated with increased behavioural problems irrespective of HIV exposure.
- A case of vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets type 1A caused by 2 novel pathogenic variants in CYP27B1 gene. [Case Reports]
- APAnn Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2019; 24(2):137-141
- Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets type 1A (VDDR1A, OMIM 264700) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder. Pathogenic variants in the CYP27B1 gene lead to loss of 1α-hydroxylase activi…
Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets type 1A (VDDR1A, OMIM 264700) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder. Pathogenic variants in the CYP27B1 gene lead to loss of 1α-hydroxylase activity. We report the case of a 22-month-old toddler who presented with growth retardation and delayed development. The patient exhibited the typical laboratory findings of VDDR1A, including hypocalcemia (calcium: 5.2 mg/dL), elevated serum level of alkaline phosphatase (2,600 U/L), elevated serum level of intact-parathyroid hormone (238 pg/mL), low 1,25(OH)2D3 level (11.2 pg/mL), and normal 25(OH)D3 level (40.7 ng/mL). His height and weight were 76.5 cm and 9.5 kg, respectively (both <3rd percentile). The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development II indicated significantly delayed development (mental development index <50, psychomotor development index <50). The patient was a compound heterozygous for two novel pathogenic variants in the CYP27B1 gene: c.57_69del (p.Glu20Profs*2) and c.171dupG (p.Leu58Alafs*275), inherited from his mother and father, respectively. The patient showed remarkable improvement after treatment with calcitriol and calcium carbonate.
- Prenatal selenium status, neonatal cerebellum measures and child neurodevelopment at the age of 18 months. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2019 Jun 08; 176:108529
- CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first one investigating the association between neonatal brain measures and selenium levels in mother-child pairs. Our results indicate that prenatal selenium intake correlated with cerebellum length and width measured by cranial ultrasonography. Hence, cerebellum may be used as a potential biomarker and a target "organ" for early detection of possible adverse effects of prenatal status to various micronutrients.
- Reaching skills of infants born very preterm predict neurodevelopment at 2.5 years. [Journal Article]
- IBInfant Behav Dev 2019 Jun 22; 57:101333
- The purpose was to investigate associations between quality of reaching for moving objects at 8 months corrected age and neurodevelopment at 2.5 years in children born very preterm (gestational age (…
The purpose was to investigate associations between quality of reaching for moving objects at 8 months corrected age and neurodevelopment at 2.5 years in children born very preterm (gestational age (GA), 24-31 weeks). Thirtysix infants were assessed while reaching for moving objects. The movements were recorded by a 3D motion capture system. Reaching parameters included aiming, relative length of the reach, number of movement units, proportion of bimanual coupled reaches and number of hits. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 2.5 years by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. There were strong associations between infant reaching kinematics and neurodevelopment of cognition and language but the patterns differed: in children born extremely preterm (GA < 28 weeks), planning and control of reaching was strongly related to outcome, while in children born very preterm (GA 28-31 weeks) number of hits and bimanual strategies were of greater relevance. In conclusion, for extremely preterm infants, basic problems on how motion information is incorporated with action planning prevail, while in very preterm infants the coordination of bimanual reaches is more at the focus. We conclude that the results reflect GA related differences in neural vulnerability and that early motor coordination deficits have a cascading effect on neurodevelopment.
- Early childhood development and stunting-findings from MAL-ED birth cohort study in Bangladesh. [Journal Article]
- MCMatern Child Nutr 2019 Jun 25; :e12864
- Information on the association between stunting and child development is limited from low-income settings including Bangladesh where 36% of under-five children are stunted. This study aimed to explor…
Information on the association between stunting and child development is limited from low-income settings including Bangladesh where 36% of under-five children are stunted. This study aimed to explore differences in early childhood development (ECD) between stunted [Length-for-age z score (LAZ) <-2] and non-stunted (LAZ ≥-2) children in Bangladesh. Children (n=265) aged 6-24 months who participated in the MAL-ED birth cohort study were evaluated by trained psychologists at 6, 15, and 24 months of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III; child length and weight were measured using standard procedures. ECD scores (z-scores derived from cognitive, motor, language and socio-emotional skills) were compared between stunted, underweight (Weight-for-Age z-score <-2) and wasted (Weight-for-Length z-score <-2) children, controlling for child age and sex; maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms. Stunted children had significantly lower ECD scores than their non-stunted peers on cognitive (0.049), motor (P<0.001), language (P<0.001) and social-emotional (0.038) scales where boys had significantly lower fine motor skills compared to girls (0.027). Mother's schooling and BMI were significant predictors of ECD. Similar to stunting, underweight children had developmental deficits in all domains (cognitive: 0.001; fine motor: 0.039, and P<0.001 for both gross motor and total motor; expressive communication: 0.032; total language: 0.013; social-emotional development: 0.017). Wasted children had poor motor skills (0.006 for the fine motor; P<0.001 for both gross motor and total motor development) compared to the non-wasted peers. Early childhood stunting and underweight were associated with poor developmental outcomes in Bangladesh.
- Cognitive impairment among extremely low birthweight preterm infants from 1980 to present day. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Perinatol 2019 Jun 24
- CONCLUSIONS: Overall, long-term outcomes of ELBW infants in our cohort showed significant improvement since 1980. Significant impairment decreased in infants with BW ≥ 750 g; and, despite increased survival of smaller (BW < 750 g) and sicker infants, significant impairment in that subgroup did not worsen over time.
- Associations of Neonatal Noncardiac Surgery with Brain Structure and Neurodevelopment: A Prospective Case-Control Study. [Journal Article]
- JPedJ Pediatr 2019 Jun 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Infants requiring neonatal noncardiac surgery have smaller brains with more abnormalities compared with matched controls and have associated neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years of age. Prospective studies with preoperative and postoperative imaging would assist in determining the timing of brain injury.
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- Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Comparing Bevacizumab to Laser for Type 1 ROP. [Journal Article]
- OSOphthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2019 Jun 01; 50(6):337-343
- CONCLUSIONS: Visual outcomes are an important aspect of neurodevelopment. IVB was not associated with severe developmental disabilities and may protect against vision loss in this analysis. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2019;50:337-343.].