- Finasteride-Induced Inhibition of 5α-Reductase Type 2 Could Lead to Kidney Damage-Animal, Experimental Study. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2019 May 16; 16(10)
- In the pharmacological treatment of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia finasteride is commonly used. This drug inhibits 5α-reductase type 2, which is why finaster…
In the pharmacological treatment of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia finasteride is commonly used. This drug inhibits 5α-reductase type 2, which is why finasteride affects androgen homeostasis, since testosterone (T) cannot be reduced to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). As studies on sex-related renal injuries suggest a high probability of androgen-induced renal dysfunction, the aim of this study was to determine the potential harmful effects of finasteride on the kidneys of rats. The study was performed on sexually mature male Wistar rats given finasteride. Histological sections of the kidneys were used for immunohistochemical visualization of the androgen receptor (AR), junctional proteins (occluding (Occ); E-cad, N-cad, E-/N-cadherin; β-cat, β-catenin; connexin 43 (Cx43)), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), IL-6, and lymphocyte markers (CD3 for T cell, CD19 for B cell). The TUNEL method was used for cell apoptosis identification, and picro sirius red staining was used to assess collagen fibers thickness. The levels of T, DHT and estradiol (E2) were determined in blood serum. It was shown that finasteride treatment affected steroid hormone homeostasis, altered the expression of AR and intracellular junction proteins, changed the ratio between cell apoptosis and proliferation, and caused lymphocyte infiltration and an increase of IL-6. The thickening of collagen fibers was observed as tubular fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. Summarizing, finasteride-induced hormonal imbalance impaired the morphology (i.e., dysplastic glomeruli, swollen proximal convoluted tubules) and physiology (changed level of detected proteins/markers expression) of the kidneys. Therefore, it is suggested that patients with renal dysfunction or following renal transplantation, with androgen or antiandrogen supplementation, should be under special control and covered by extended diagnostics, because the adverse negative effect of DHT deficiency on the progression of kidney disease cannot be ignored.
- Interpretation of core biopsy of liver mass lesions: A comparison study between cytopathologist and gastrointestinal pathologist. [Journal Article]
- ADAnn Diagn Pathol 2019 May 05; 40:152-160
- CONCLUSIONS: Cytopathologist and gastrointestinal pathologist are highly concordant in the interpretation of neoplastic liver mass CB. Consultation may improve accuracy in certain non-neoplastic biopsies and neuroendocrine neoplasms.
- Current diagnosis and management of erectile dysfunction. [Review]
- MJMed J Aust 2019 May 17
- Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common male sexual dysfunction associated with a reduced quality of life for patients and their partners. ED is associated with increasing age, depression, obesity, lac…
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common male sexual dysfunction associated with a reduced quality of life for patients and their partners. ED is associated with increasing age, depression, obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular disease and lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The evaluation of men with ED requires a full medical and personally and culturally sensitive sexual history, a focused clinical examination, fasting glucose levels, a fasting lipid profile and, in select cases, a total testosterone level and a prostate-specific antigen test. Treatment of ED requires lifestyle modification, reduction of comorbid vascular risk factors, and treatment of organic or psychosexual dysfunction with either pharmacotherapy alone or in combination with psychosexual therapy. Between 60% and 65% of men with ED, including those with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, spinal cord injury and other comorbid medical conditions, can successfully complete intercourse in response to the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil and avanafil. Patient-administered intracorporal injection therapy using vasodilator drugs such as alprostadil is an effective treatment and is useful in men who fail to respond to oral pharmacological agents. Surgical treatment of ED with multicomponent inflatable penile implants is associated with high satisfaction rates. Penile arterial revascularisation and venous ligation surgery are associated with relatively poor outcome results in men with penile atherosclerotic disease or corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction.
- A Review of Oxidative Stress and Urinary Dysfunction Caused by Bladder Outlet Obstruction and Treatments Using Antioxidants. [Review]
- AAntioxidants (Basel) 2019 May 15; 8(5)
- Urinary dysfunction is a common pathological condition that can significantly decrease the quality of life. Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is a major cause of urinary dysfunction, and various lower…
Urinary dysfunction is a common pathological condition that can significantly decrease the quality of life. Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is a major cause of urinary dysfunction, and various lower urinary tract diseases including benign prostatic hyperplasia and urethral stricture disease cause BOO. According to the results of a variety of animal experiments on partial BOO (PBOO), there is a general agreement that ischemic conditions and repeated ischemia/reperfusion of the bladder are closely associated with BOO-induced bladder damage, and that increased oxidative stress by ischemia/reperfusion plays a crucial role in the pathological mechanisms underlying urinary dysfunction. Changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress in PBOO animal models support this association between oxidative stress and urinary dysfunction. Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of pro-oxidants, such as free radicals and reactive species, and their elimination through protective mechanisms of antioxidants. Therefore, organizing the knowledge on the state of oxidative stress, changes in biomarkers, and biological roles of antioxidants in systemic and bladder tissues is essential to understand the detailed pathological characteristics of the urinary dysfunction caused by PBOO. Furthermore, information on drugs and supplements that have antioxidant effects is important for defining treatment strategies for urinary dysfunction with PBOO. In this review, we paid special attention to the following three issues; (1) changes in oxidative stress, including its biomarkers, (2) antioxidant status, and (3) previous reports on treatment strategies involving agents with antioxidative activity for urinary dysfunction caused by BOO. In particular, we provide systematic information on the detailed mechanisms underlying the antioxidative effects of agents used to treat PBOO. In addition, we show present research issues and research limitations, as well as suggest possible future antioxidant treatment strategies for patients with PBOO.
- Genomic analysis of benign prostatic hyperplasia implicates cellular re-landscaping in disease pathogenesis. [Journal Article]
- JIJCI Insight 2019 May 16; 5
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Current treatments target prostate physiology rather than BPH pathophysiology and are only partiall…
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Current treatments target prostate physiology rather than BPH pathophysiology and are only partially effective. Here, we applied next-generation sequencing to gain new insight into BPH. By RNAseq, we uncovered transcriptional heterogeneity among BPH cases, where a 65-gene BPH stromal signature correlated with symptom severity. Stromal signaling molecules BMP5 and CXCL13 were enriched in BPH while estrogen regulated pathways were depleted. Notably, BMP5 addition to cultured prostatic myofibroblasts altered their expression profile towards a BPH profile that included the BPH stromal signature. RNAseq also suggested an altered cellular milieu in BPH, which we verified by immunohistochemistry and single-cell RNAseq. In particular, BPH tissues exhibited enrichment of myofibroblast subsets, whilst depletion of neuroendocrine cells and an estrogen receptor (ESR1)-positive fibroblast cell type residing near epithelium. By whole-exome sequencing, we uncovered somatic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in BPH, of uncertain pathogenic significance but indicative of clonal cell expansions. Thus, genomic characterization of BPH has identified a clinically-relevant stromal signature and new candidate disease pathways (including a likely role for BMP5 signaling), and reveals BPH to be not merely a hyperplasia, but rather a fundamental re-landscaping of cell types.
- MicroRNA-183-5p: A New Potential Marker for Prostate Cancer. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Clin Biochem 2019; 34(2):207-212
- The microRNA (miR)-183-5p is expressed at high level in the majority of cancer. The purpose of present study was to investigate the role of oncogenic miR-183-5p in prostate cancer (PCa) as biomarker.…
The microRNA (miR)-183-5p is expressed at high level in the majority of cancer. The purpose of present study was to investigate the role of oncogenic miR-183-5p in prostate cancer (PCa) as biomarker. We carried out our experiment in 50 prostate cancer patients and 40 patients of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 40 adjacent controls tissue. The expression of miR-183-5p was evaluated through reverse transcription qualitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that the expression of miR-183-5p in PCa tissue was significantly up regulated as compared to BPH patients and adjacent normal tissues as control. Additionally, miR-183 expression was correlated with higher prostate-specific antigen, higher Gleason Score and metastatic condition. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that miR-183-5p distinguished PCa patients from BPH patients and also from control. In conclusion, our data suggest that oncogenic miR-183-5p may be useful as a new tissue specific diagnostic biomarker in prostate cancer.
- Co-expression of TLR-9 and MMP-13 is associated with the degree of tumour differentiation in prostate cancer. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Exp Pathol 2019 May 14
- In vitro experiments demonstrated that stimulation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) by synthetic TLR-9 ligands induces the invasion of TLR-9-expressing prostate cancer cells through matrix metalloprot…
In vitro experiments demonstrated that stimulation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) by synthetic TLR-9 ligands induces the invasion of TLR-9-expressing prostate cancer cells through matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13). However, the clinical value of TLR-9 and MMP-13 co-expression in the pathophysiology of the prostate is unknown. In the study, we evaluated the expression levels and clinical significance of the TLR-9 and MMP-13 in a series of prostate tissues. One hundred and eighty prostate tissues including prostate cancer (PCa) (n = 137), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HPIN) (n = 18) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (n = 25) were immunostained for the TLR-9 and MMP-13 markers. Subsequently, the correlation between the TLR-9 and MMP-13 staining scores and clinicopathological parameters was obtained. Higher expressions of TLR-9 and MMP-13 were found in PCa and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues. Among PCa samples, a positive relationship was revealed between the MMP-13 expression and Gleason score (P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between TLR-9 expression and regional lymph node involvement (P = 0.04). The expression patterns of TLR-9 and MMP-13 markers demonstrated a reciprocal significant correlation between the two markers in the same series of prostate samples (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the Gleason score of TLR-9high /MMP-13high and TLR-9low /MMP-13low phenotypes showed a significant difference (P = 0.002). Higher expressions of TLR-9 and MMP-13 can confer aggressive behaviour to PCa. Therefore, these markers may be used as a valuable target for tailored therapy of PCa.
- Chronic prostatitis alters the prostatic microenvironment and accelerates preneoplastic lesions in C57BL/6 mice. [Journal Article]
- BRBiol Res 2019 May 14; 52(1):30
- CONCLUSIONS: Chronic prostatitis induced by prostate extract protein immunization or E. coli infection caused a reactive prostatic inflammation microenvironment and resulted in tissue damage, aberrant atrophy, hyperplasia, and somatic genome mutation.
- Photoselective vaporization of the prostate: study outcomes as a function of risk of bias, conflicts of interest, and industrial sponsorship. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Urol 2019 May 13
- CONCLUSIONS: COIs and IS seem to be associated with favourable study outcomes in comparative studies on PVP. The transparency of the whole research process from study conception to the dissemination of the results has to be further improved to prevent a harmful effect of COIs and IS on the internal validity of studies.
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- Prostate enlargement and altered urinary function are part of the aging process. [Journal Article]
- AAging (Albany NY) 2019 May 13
- Prostate disease incidence, both benign and malignant, directly correlates with age. Men under 40 years of age are rarely diagnosed with benign or malignant prostate disease, while 90% of men over th…
Prostate disease incidence, both benign and malignant, directly correlates with age. Men under 40 years of age are rarely diagnosed with benign or malignant prostate disease, while 90% of men over the age of 80 have histological evidence of benign disease (benign prostatic hyperplasia; BPH). Although rodent models have been invaluable in the study of disease progression and treatment efficacy, the effect of age is often not considered. In examining aged (24-month-old) mice, we observed changes within the lower urinary tract that is typically associated with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) similar to models of BPH. In this study, we identify LUTD using functional testing as well as various imaging technologies. We also characterize the histological differences within the lower urinary tract between young (2-month-old) and aged mice including proliferation, stromal remodeling, and collagen deposition. Additionally, we examined serum steroid hormone levels, as steroid changes drive LUTD in mice and are known to change with age. We conclude that, with age, changes in prostate function, consistent with LUTD, are a consequence. Therapeutic targeting of endocrine and prostatic factors including smooth muscle function, prostate growth and fibrosis are likely to reestablish normal urinary function.