- Bone and plasma citrate is reduced in osteoporosis. [Journal Article]
- BONEBone 2018 Jun 18
- High concentration of citrate exists in bone of humans and all osteo-vertebrates, and citrate incorporation imparts important biomechanical and other functional properties to bone. However, which cel...
High concentration of citrate exists in bone of humans and all osteo-vertebrates, and citrate incorporation imparts important biomechanical and other functional properties to bone. However, which cells are responsible for citrate production in bone remains unclear and whether the citrate component changes with bone loss during osteoporosis is also not known. Here, we show that the citrate content is markedly reduced in the bone of mice or rats with age-related, ovariectomy-induced or retinoic acid-induced bone loss. Plasmic citrate is also downregulated in osteoporotic animals. Importantly, the plasmic citrate level of aged osteoporotic males is significantly lower than that of young healthy males and positively correlates with human lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and total hip BMD. Furthermore, citrate production increases with in vitro osteoblastic differentiation, accompanied by upregulation of proteins involved in citrate secretion, suggesting that osteoblasts are highly specialized cells that produce citrate in bone. Our findings establish a novel relationship between citrate content and bone loss-related diseases such as osteoporosis, suggesting a critical role of bone citrate in the maintenance of the citrate balance in the circulation. Serum citrate level may thus represent a novel marker for osteoporosis.
- Proteomic characterization of six Taiwanese snake venoms: Identification of species-specific proteins and development of a SISCAPA-MRM assay for cobra venom factors. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Proteomics 2018 Jun 18
- Deinagkistrodon acutus, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, Daboia russelii siamensis, Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra are the six medically important venomous snake species in...
Deinagkistrodon acutus, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, Daboia russelii siamensis, Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra are the six medically important venomous snake species in Taiwan. In this study, we characterized and compared their venom protein profiles using proteomic approaches. The major snake venom proteins were identified by GeLC-MS/MS and the total venom proteome was characterized by in-solution digestion coupled with LC-MS/MS. A total of 27-52 proteins, categorized into 23 protein families, were identified in each snake's venom. The major venom components found in Viperidae species (D. acutus, T. stejnegeri, P. mucrosquamatus and D. russelii) were C-type lectin, snake venom serine proteinase, venom metalloproteinase and phospholipase A2, whereas three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 were the major components detected in the venom of Elapidae snakes (B. multicinctus and N. atra). This study also provided the first demonstration of some low-abundance proteins in these six snake venoms, including 5'-nucleotidase, glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase and phosphodiesterase, among others. Furthermore, we found that cobra venom factor (CVF) is a cobra-specific protein. We produced anti-peptide antibodies against CVF and used it to develop a highly sensitive SISCAPA-MRM assay for quantifying CVF. The limit of detection and lower limit of quantification were 3.2 and 9.6 attomoles, respectively. This assay was used to precisely quantify CVF in 1 μg crude venom proteins from three Naja species and king cobra. The amount of CVF varied from 0.9 to 54.36 femtomoles (equivalent to 0.16-10.03 mg/g of venom protein).
- Evaluation of common housekeeping proteins under ischemic conditions and/or rt-PA treatment in bEnd.3 cells. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Proteomics 2018 Jun 18
- CONCLUSIONS: We reported altered levels of β-Actin, α-Tubulin, GAPDH and HPRT housekeeping proteins in bEnd.3 endothelial cell line after an ischemic insult. Therefore, we demonstrated that these proteins are not suitable as loading controls for Western Blot analysis in our experimental conditions and we recommended the use of Stain-Free gels as an alternative to traditional housekeeping proteins normalization.
- Integration of Sensors in Gastrointestinal Organoid Culture for Biological Analysis. [Review]
- CMCell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 6(1):123-131.e1
- The gastrointestinal (GI) tract regulates physiologic responses in complex ways beyond facilitating nutrient entry into the circulatory system. Because of the anatomic location of the GI tract, study...
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract regulates physiologic responses in complex ways beyond facilitating nutrient entry into the circulatory system. Because of the anatomic location of the GI tract, studying in vivo physiology of the human gut, including host cell interaction with the microbiota, is limited. GI organoids derived from human stem cells are gaining interest as they recapitulate in vivo cellular phenotypes and functions. An underdeveloped capability that would further enhance the utility of these miniature models of the GI tract is to use sensors to quantitatively characterize the organoid systems with high spatiotemporal resolution. In this review, we first discuss tools to capture changes in the fluid milieu of organoid cultures both in the organoid exterior as well as the luminal side of the organoids. The subsequent section describes approaches to characterize barrier functions across the epithelial layer of the GI organoids directly or after transferring the epithelial cells to a 2-dimensional culture format in Transwells or compartmentalized microchannel devices. The final section introduces recently developed bioengineered bacterial sensors that sense intestinal inflammation-related small molecules in the lumen using lambda cI/Cro genetic elements or fluorescence as readouts. Considering the small size and cystic shape of GI organoids, sensors used in conventional macroscopic intestinal models are often not suitable, particularly for time-lapse monitoring. Unmet needs for GI organoid analysis provides many opportunities for the development of noninvasive and miniaturized biosensors.
- Cholecystokinin Receptor-Targeted Polyplex Nanoparticle Inhibits Growth and Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer. [Journal Article]
- CMCell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 6(1):17-32
- CONCLUSIONS: Our polyplex nanoparticle platform establishes both a strong foundation for the development of receptor-targeted therapeutics and a unique approach for the delivery of siRNA in vivo, thus warranting further exploration of this approach in other types of cancers.
- Nrf2 Is a Key Regulator on Puerarin Preventing Cardiac Fibrosis and Upregulating Metabolic Enzymes UGT1A1 in Rats. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:540
- Puerarin is an isoflavone isolated from Radix puerariae. Emerging evidence shown that puerarin possesses therapeutic benefits that aid in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we ...
Puerarin is an isoflavone isolated from Radix puerariae. Emerging evidence shown that puerarin possesses therapeutic benefits that aid in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of puerarin on oxidative stress and cardiac fibrosis induced by abdominal aortic banding (AB) and angiotensin II (AngII). We also investigated the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The results of histopathological analysis, as well as measurements of collagen expression and cardiac fibroblast proliferation indicated that puerarin administration significantly inhibited cardiac fibrosis induced by AB and AngII. These effects of puerarin may reflect activation of Nrf2/ROS pathway. This hypothesis is supported by observed decreases of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreases Keap 1, increases Nrf2 expression and nuclear translocation, and decreases of collagen expressions in cardiac fibroblasts treated with a combination of puerarin and AngII. Inhibition of Nrf2 with specific Nrf2 siRNA or Nrf2 inhibitor brusatol attenuated anti-fibrotic and anti-oxidant effects of puerarin. The metabolic effects of puerarin were mediated by Nrf2 through upregulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1. The Nrf2 agonist tBHQ upregulated protein expression of UGT1A1 over time in cardiac fibroblasts. Treatment with Nrf2 siRNA or brusatol dramatically decreased UGT1A1 expression in puerarin-treated fibroblasts. The results of chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR further confirmed that puerarin significantly increased binding of Nrf2 to the promoter region of Ugt1a1. Western blot analysis showed that puerarin significantly inhibited AngII-induced phosphorylation of p38-MAPK. A specific inhibitor of p38-MAPK, SB203580, decreased collagen expression, and ROS generation induced by AngII in cardiac fibroblast. Together, these results suggest that puerarin prevents cardiac fibrosis via activation of Nrf2 and inactivation of p38-MAPK. Nrf2 is the key regulator of anti-fibrotic effects and upregulates metabolic enzymes UGT1A1. Autoregulatory circuits between puerarin and Nrf2-regulated UGT1A1 attenuates side effects associated with treatment, but it does not weaken puerarin's pharmacological effects.
- Pharmacokinetic evaluation of D-ribose after oral and intravenous administration to healthy rabbits. [Journal Article]
- CPClin Pharmacol 2018; 10:73-78
- CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, D-ribose showed a dose-dependent kinetic profile, where parameters change according to dosing levels. D-ribose clearance seems to follow first-order kinetics at low dose. Thereafter, elimination systems are saturated, and elimination continues in a fast manner. Urine recovery was partial, which could be attributed to the several metabolic pathways that pentose can undergo.
- Prion replication environment defines the fate of prion strain adaptation. [Journal Article]
- PPPLoS Pathog 2018; 14(6):e1007093
- The main risk of emergence of prion diseases in humans is associated with a cross-species transmission of prions of zoonotic origin. Prion transmission between species is regulated by a species barri...
The main risk of emergence of prion diseases in humans is associated with a cross-species transmission of prions of zoonotic origin. Prion transmission between species is regulated by a species barrier. Successful cross-species transmission is often accompanied by strain adaptation and result in stable changes of strain-specific disease phenotype. Amino acid sequences of host PrPC and donor PrPSc as well as strain-specific structure of PrPSc are believed to be the main factors that control species barrier and strain adaptation. Yet, despite our knowledge of the primary structures of mammalian prions, predicting the fate of prion strain adaptation is very difficult if possible at all. The current study asked the question whether changes in cofactor environment affect the fate of prions adaptation. To address this question, hamster strain 263K was propagated under normal or RNA-depleted conditions using serial Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) conducted first in mouse and then hamster substrates. We found that 263K propagated under normal conditions in mouse and then hamster substrates induced the disease phenotype similar to the original 263K. Surprisingly, 263K that propagated first in RNA-depleted mouse substrate and then normal hamster substrate produced a new disease phenotype upon serial transmission. Moreover, 263K that propagated in RNA-depleted mouse and then RNA-depleted hamster substrates failed to induce clinical diseases for three serial passages despite a gradual increase of PrPSc in animals. To summarize, depletion of RNA in prion replication reactions changed the rate of strain adaptation and the disease phenotype upon subsequent serial passaging of PMCA-derived materials in animals. The current studies suggest that replication environment plays an important role in determining the fate of prion strain adaptation.
- The long-term costs for treating multiple sclerosis in a 16-year retrospective cohort study in Brazil. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0199446
- CONCLUSIONS: In the public health system of Brazil, disease modifying therapies currently represent almost all of the total direct costs of multiple sclerosis treatment. Around the world, new and emerging health technologies to treat of MS impose a challenge to health budgets, highlighting the need for cost-effectiveness studies comparing these technologies to those already available. Our regression model may help in this process, and calls attention to the need to access the real world performance of new therapies available in SUS, with the potential for disinvestment and/ or price reductions if needed.
New Search Next
- Elevated galanin receptor type 2 primarily contributes to mechanical hypersensitivity after median nerve injury. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0199512
- In this study, we investigated temporal changes in galanin receptor type 2 (GalR2) expression in NF200-, galanin-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-like immunoreactive...
In this study, we investigated temporal changes in galanin receptor type 2 (GalR2) expression in NF200-, galanin-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-like immunoreactive (LI) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI), and the effects of GalR2 on c-Fos expression in the cuneate nucleus (CN). Double immunofluorescence labeling methods were used to appraise changes in GalR2 expression in NF200-LI, galanin-LI, NPY-LI, and nNOS-LI DRG neurons after CCI. The von Frey assay was used to assess the efficiency of intraplantar administration of saline, M871 (a GalR2 antagonist), or AR-M1896 (a GalR2 agonist) on neuropathic signs of rats with CCI. The effects of alterations in c-Fos expression were assessed in all treatments. The percentage of GalR2-LI neurons in lesioned DRGs increased and peaked at 1 week after CCI. We further detected that percentages of GalR2-LI neurons labeled for NF200, galanin, NPY, and nNOS significantly increased following CCI. Furthermore, M871 remarkably attenuated tactile allodynia, but the sensation was slightly aggravated by AR-M1896 after CCI. Consequentially, after electrical stimulation of the CCI-treated median nerve, the number of c-Fos-LI neurons in the cuneate nucleus (CN) was significantly reduced in the M871 group, whereas it increased in the AR-M1896 group. These results suggest that activation of GalR2, probably through NPY or nitric oxide, induces c-Fos expression in the CN and transmits mechanical allodynia sensations to the thalamus.