- Avian viral surveillance in Victoria, Australia, and detection of two novel avian herpesviruses. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(3):e0194457
- Viruses in avian hosts can pose threats to avian health and some have zoonotic potential. Hospitals that provide veterinary care for avian patients may serve as a site of exposure of other birds and ...
Viruses in avian hosts can pose threats to avian health and some have zoonotic potential. Hospitals that provide veterinary care for avian patients may serve as a site of exposure of other birds and human staff in the facility to these viruses. They can also provide a useful location to collect samples from avian patients in order to examine the viruses present in wild birds. This study aimed to investigate viruses of biosecurity and/or zoonotic significance in Australian birds by screening samples collected from 409 birds presented to the Australian Wildlife Health Centre at Zoos Victoria's Healesville Sanctuary for veterinary care between December 2014 and December 2015. Samples were tested for avian influenza viruses, herpesviruses, paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses, using genus- or family-wide polymerase chain reaction methods coupled with sequencing and phylogenetic analyses for detection and identification of both known and novel viruses. A very low prevalence of viruses was detected. Columbid alphaherpesvirus 1 was detected from a powerful owl (Ninox strenua) with inclusion body hepatitis, and an avian paramyxovirus most similar to Avian avulavirus 5 was detected from a musk lorikeet (Glossopsitta concinna). Two distinct novel avian alphaherpesviruses were detected in samples from a sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) and a tawny frogmouth (Podargus strigoides). Avian influenza viruses and avian coronaviruses were not detected. The clinical significance of the newly detected viruses remains undetermined. Further studies are needed to assess the host specificity, epidemiology, pathogenicity and host-pathogen relationships of these novel viruses. Further genome characterization is also indicated, and would be required before these viruses can be formally classified taxonomically. The detection of these viruses contributes to our knowledge on avian virodiversity. The low level of avian virus detection, and the absence of any viruses with zoonotic potential, suggests low risk to biosecurity and human health.
- H5N1 influenza A virus PB1-F2 relieves HAX-1-mediated restriction of avian virus polymerase PA in human lung cells. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2018 Mar 21
- Highly pathogenic IAV from avian hosts were first reported to directly infect humans 20 years ago. However, these are rare events and our understanding of factors promoting or restricting zoonotic tr...
Highly pathogenic IAV from avian hosts were first reported to directly infect humans 20 years ago. However, these are rare events and our understanding of factors promoting or restricting zoonotic transmission is still limited. One accessory protein of IAV, PB1-F2, was associated with pathogenicity of pandemic and zoonotic IAV. This 90-amino-acid-short peptide does not harbor an enzymatic function. We thus identified host factors interacting with H5N1 PB1-F2, which could explain its importance for virulence. PB1-F2 binds to HCLS1 associated protein X1 (HAX-1), a recently identified host restriction factor of the PA subunit of IAV polymerase complexes. We demonstrate that the PA of a mammalian adapted H1N1 IAV is resistant to HAX-1 imposed restriction while the PA of an avian origin H5N1 IAV remains sensitive. We also showed HAX-1 sensitivity for PAs of A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 (H1N1) and A/Shanghai/1/2013 (H7N9), two avian origin zoonotic IAV. Inhibition of H5N1 polymerase by HAX-1 can be alleviated by its PB1-F2 through direct competition. Accordingly, replication of PB1-F2 deficient H5N1 IAV is attenuated in presence of high amounts of HAX-1. Mammalian adapted H1N1 and H3N2 viruses do not display this dependence on PB1-F2 for efficient replication in presence of HAX-1. We propose that PB1-F2 plays a key role in zoonotic transmission of avian H5N1 IAV into humans.IMPORTANCEAquatic and shore birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses from which the virus can jump into a variety of bird and mammal host species including humans. H5N1 influenza viruses are a good model for this process. They pose an ongoing threat to human and animal health due to their high mortality rates. However, it is currently unclear, what restricts these inter-species-jumps on the host side or what promotes them on the virus side. Here, we show that a short viral peptide, PB1-F2, helps H5N1 bird influenza viruses to overcome a human restriction factor of the viral polymerase complex, HAX-1. Interestingly, we find that human influenza A virus polymerase complexes are already adapted to HAX-1 and do not require this function of PB1-F2. We thus propose that a functional full length PB1-F2 supports direct transmission of bird viruses into humans.
- Co-circulation of multiple genotypes of influenza A (H7N9) viruses in eastern China, 2016-2017. [Journal Article]
- AVArch Virol 2018 Mar 14
- Five epidemic waves of human infection with influenza A (H7N9) virus have emerged in China since spring 2013. We previously described the epidemiological characterization of the fifth wave in Jiangsu...
Five epidemic waves of human infection with influenza A (H7N9) virus have emerged in China since spring 2013. We previously described the epidemiological characterization of the fifth wave in Jiangsu province. In this study, 41 H7N9 viruses from patients and live-poultry markets were isolated and sequenced to further elucidate the genetic features of viruses of the fifth wave in Jiangsu province. Phylogenetic analysis revealed substantial genetic diversity in the internal genes, and 18 genotypes were identified from the 41 H7N9 virus strains. Furthermore, our data revealed that 41 isolates from Jiangsu contained the G186V and Q226L/I mutations in their haemagglutinin (HA) protein, which may increase the ability of these viruses to bind the human receptor. Four basic amino acid insertions were not observed in the HA cleavage sites of 167 H7N9 viruses from Jiangsu, which revealed that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses did not spread to Jiangsu province in the fifth wave. These findings revealed that multiple genotypes of H7N9 viruses co-circulated in the fifth wave in Jiangsu province, which indicated that the viruses have undergone ongoing evolution with genetic mutation and reassortment. Our study highlights the need to constantly monitor the evolution of H7N9 viruses and reinforce systematic influenza surveillance of humans, birds, and pigs in China.
- Emergence and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) in Europe in 2016-2017. [Journal Article]
- TETransbound Emerg Dis 2018 Mar 14
- Circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses poses a continuous threat to animal and public health. After the 2005-2006 H5N1 and the 2014-2015 H5N8 epidemics, another H5N8 is curre...
Circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses poses a continuous threat to animal and public health. After the 2005-2006 H5N1 and the 2014-2015 H5N8 epidemics, another H5N8 is currently affecting Europe. Up to August 2017, 1,112 outbreaks in domestic and 955 in wild birds in 30 European countries have been reported, the largest epidemic by a HPAI virus in the continent. Here, the main epidemiological findings are described. While some similarities with previous HPAI virus epidemics were observed, for example in the pattern of emergence, significant differences were also patent, in particular the size and extent of the epidemic. Even though no human infections have been reported to date, the fact that A/H5N8 has affected so far 1,112 domestic holdings, increases the risk of exposure of humans and therefore represents a concern. Understanding the epidemiology of HPAI viruses is essential for the planning future surveillance and control activities.
- Comparison of the pathogenic potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6, and H5N8 viruses isolated in South Korea during the 2016-2017 winter season. [Journal Article]
- EMEmerg Microbes Infect 2018 Mar 14; 7(1):29
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N6) and A(H5N8) virus infections resulted in the culling of more than 37 million poultry in the Republic of Korea during the 2016/17 winter season. Here w...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N6) and A(H5N8) virus infections resulted in the culling of more than 37 million poultry in the Republic of Korea during the 2016/17 winter season. Here we characterize two representative viruses, A/Environment/Korea/W541/2016 [Em/W541(H5N6)] and A/Common Teal/Korea/W555/2017 [CT/W555(H5N8)], and evaluate their zoonotic potential in various animal models. Both Em/W541(H5N6) and CT /W555(H5N8) are novel reassortants derived from various gene pools of wild bird viruses present in migratory waterfowl arising from eastern China. Despite strong preferential binding to avian virus-type receptors, the viruses were able to grow in human respiratory tract tissues. Em/W541(H5N6) was found to be highly pathogenic in both chickens and ducks, while CT/W555(H5N8) caused lethal infections in chickens but did not induce remarkable clinical illness in ducks. In mice, both viruses appeared to be moderately pathogenic and displayed limited tissue tropism relative to HPAI H5N1 viruses. Em/W541(H5N6) replicated to moderate levels in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets and was detected in the lungs, brain, spleen, liver, and colon. Unexpectedly, two of three ferrets in direct contact with Em/W541(H5N6)-infected animals shed virus and seroconverted at 14 dpi. CT/W555(H5N8) was less pathogenic than the H5N6 virus in ferrets and no transmission was detected. Given the co-circulation of different, phenotypically distinct, subtypes of HPAI H5Nx viruses for the first time in South Korea, detailed virologic investigations are imperative given the capacity of these viruses to evolve and cause human infections.
- Emergence of novel reassortant H6N2 avian influenza viruses in ducks in India. [Journal Article]
- IGInfect Genet Evol 2018 Mar 09; 61:20-23
- The recent reports of human infection due to H6 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIV), which are prevalent in terrestrial poultry, indicate evolution of the virus to a possible pandemic strain. Here,...
The recent reports of human infection due to H6 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIV), which are prevalent in terrestrial poultry, indicate evolution of the virus to a possible pandemic strain. Here, we report antigenic and genetic characterization of two H6N2 viruses isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in Kerala and Assam, India during 2014 and 2015, respectively. Hemagglutination inhibition assay revealed antigenic divergence between the two isolates, which was corroborated by amino acid differences at 55 positions (15.98%) between their hemagglutinin (HA) 1.The sequence analyses indicated that both the viruses are avian origin with avian receptor specificity, low pathogenic to poultry and sensitive to oseltamivir. However, Kerala14 had V27I mutation marker for amantadine resistance in M2. The Assam15 virus had an additional N-linked glycosylation on HA2 (position 557) compared to Kerala14 virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene revealed that both the viruses belonged to distinct lineages (Eurasian and Asia II). Phylogeny of neuraminidase and internal gene segments revealed that both the viruses are novel reassortants and are genetically distinct with different gene constellations. The results suggest independent introductions of the two H6N2 viruses into India and migratory wild birds in the Central Asian flyway might be the source of H6N2 viruses in ducks in India. Therefore, continued AIV surveillance in poultry and wild birds is essential for early detection of emergence of novel strains with pandemic potential and control of their spread.
- Challenge for One Health: Co-Circulation of Zoonotic H5N1 and H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses in Egypt. [Review]
- VViruses 2018 Mar 09; 10(3)
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy, thus affecting both animal and public health. Subsequent spread of potentially zoonotic low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 in poultry has also hindered efficient control of avian influenza. The H5N1 viruses acquired enhanced bird-to-human transmissibility by (1) altering amino acids in hemagglutinin (HA) that enable binding affinity to human-type receptors, (2) loss of the glycosylation site and 130 loop in the HA protein and (3) mutation of E627K in the PB2 protein to enhance viral replication in mammalian hosts. The receptor binding site of HA of Egyptian H9N2 viruses has been shown to contain the Q234L substitution along with a H191 mutation, which can increase human-like receptor specificity. Therefore, co-circulation of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in poultry farming and live bird markets has increased the risk of human exposure, resulting in complication of the epidemiological situation and raising a concern for potential emergence of a new influenza A virus pandemic. For efficient control of infection and transmission, the efficacy of vaccine and vaccination needs to be improved with a comprehensive control strategy, including enhanced biosecurity, education, surveillance, rapid diagnosis and culling of infected poultry.
- Influence of Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Infection on Migrating Whooper Swans Fecal Microbiota. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Cell Infect Microbiol 2018; 8:46
- The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. Substantial e...
The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. Substantial evidence suggests that altered gut microbial community is implicated in the infection of respiratory influenza virus. However, the influence of H5N1 infection in gut microbiota of migratory birds remains unknown. In January 2015, a novel recombinant H5N1 virus emerged and killed about 100 migratory birds, mainly including whooper swans in Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China. Here, we describe the first fecal microbiome diversity study of H5N1-infected migratory birds. By investigating the influence of H5N1 infection on fecal bacterial communities in infected and uninfected individuals, we found that H5N1 infection shaped the gut microbiota composition by a difference in the dominance of some genera, such asAeromonasandLactobacillus. We also found a decreased α diversity and increased β diversity in infectious individuals. Our results highlight that increases in changes in pathogen-containing gut communities occur when individuals become infected with H5N1. Our study may provide the first evidence that there are statistical association among H5N1 presence and fecal microbiota compositional shifts, and properties of the fecal microbiota may serve as the risk of gut-linked disease in migrates with H5N1 and further aggravate the disease transmission.
- Impact of Mutations in the Hemagglutinin of H10N7 Viruses Isolated from Seals on Virus Replication in Avian and Human Cells. [Journal Article]
- VViruses 2018 Feb 14; 10(2)
- Wild birds are the reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, which are frequently transmitted to domestic birds and occasionally to mammals. In 2014, an H10N7 virus caused severe mortalit...
Wild birds are the reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, which are frequently transmitted to domestic birds and occasionally to mammals. In 2014, an H10N7 virus caused severe mortality in harbor seals in northeastern Europe. Although the hemagglutinin (HA) of this virus was closely related to H10 of avian H10N4 virus, it possessed unique nonsynonymous mutations, particularly in the HA1 subunit in or adjacent to the receptor binding domain and proteolytic cleavage site. Here, the impact of these mutations on virus replication was studied in vitro. Using reverse genetics, an avian H10N4 virus was cloned, and nine recombinant viruses carrying one of eight unique mutations or the complete HA from the seal virus were rescued. Receptor binding affinity, replication in avian and mammalian cell cultures, cell-to-cell spread, and HA cleavability of these recombinant viruses were studied. Results show that wild-type recombinant H10N4 virus has high affinity to avian-type sialic acid receptors and no affinity to mammalian-type receptors. The H10N7 virus exhibits dual receptor binding affinity. Interestingly, Q220L (H10 numbering) in the rim of the receptor binding pocket increased the affinity of the H10N4 virus to mammal-type receptors and completely abolished the affinity to avian-type receptors. No remarkable differences in cell-to-cell spread or HA cleavability were observed. All viruses, including the wild-type H10N7 virus, replicated at higher levels in chicken cells than in human cells. These results indicate that H10N7 acquired adaptive mutations (e.g., Q220L) to enhance replication in mammals and retained replication efficiency in the original avian host.
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- Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N2) virus-Virginia, 2002. [Journal Article]
- IOInfluenza Other Respir Viruses 2018 Feb 11
- CONCLUSIONS: This study documents the earliest evidence of human infection with an H7 influenza virus of the North American lineage.