- Design and validation of a universal influenza virus enrichment probe set and its utility in deep sequence analysis of primary cloacal swab surveillance samples of wild birds. [Journal Article]
- VVirology 2018 Sep 10; 524:182-191
- Influenza virus infections in humans and animals are major public health concerns. In the current study, a set of universal influenza enrichment probes was developed to increase the sensitivity of se...
Influenza virus infections in humans and animals are major public health concerns. In the current study, a set of universal influenza enrichment probes was developed to increase the sensitivity of sequence-based virus detection and characterization for all influenza viruses. This universal influenza enrichment probe set contains 46,953 120nt RNA biotin-labeled probes designed based on all available influenza viral sequences and it can be used to enrich for influenza sequences without prior knowledge of type or subtype. Marked enrichment was demonstrated in influenza A/H1N1, influenza B, and H1-to-H16 hemagglutinin plasmids spiked into human DNA and in cultured influenza A/H2N1 virus. Furthermore, enrichment effects and mixed influenza A virus infections were revealed in wild bird cloacal swab samples. Therefore, this universal influenza virus enrichment probe system can capture and enrich influenza viral sequences selectively and effectively in different samples, especially ones with degraded RNA or containing low amount of influenza RNA.
- Social network analysis for poultry HPAI transmission. [Journal Article]
- TETransbound Emerg Dis 2018 Sep 08
- In this survey study, the networks among poultry farms and related poultry enterprises in two counties in China (Feixi County in Anhui Province and Beizhen city in Liaoning Province) were analysed an...
In this survey study, the networks among poultry farms and related poultry enterprises in two counties in China (Feixi County in Anhui Province and Beizhen city in Liaoning Province) were analysed and evaluated focusing on the connectivity of contacts, movements, and potential pathogen transmission. The Feixi County poultry production network exhibited greater connectivity, which incorporated approximately 94% of the farms interviewed in a major component (a set of connected farms not linked with each other), mainly due to linkages of backyard farms through local produce stores and individual agents, whilst the Beizhen City network was more fragmented owing to independent in-house operations (from breed, raise, to slaughter and process) of a few large companies, with multiple smaller components. A range of factors influencing the contacts/movements among farms (act as bridges) were identified in this study. Ability to predict the pathway with the network characteristics on the basis of the factors, such as entity type and geographic location, is useful for developing risk-based approaches for disease prevention, surveillance, early detection, and effective controlling.
- Sequential DNA immunization of chickens with bivalent heterologous vaccines induce highly reactive and cross-specific antibodies against influenza hemagglutinin. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Aug 31
- Vaccines against avian influenza are mostly based on hemagglutinin (HA), which is the main antigen of this virus and a target for neutralizing antibodies. Traditional vaccines are known to be poorly ...
Vaccines against avian influenza are mostly based on hemagglutinin (HA), which is the main antigen of this virus and a target for neutralizing antibodies. Traditional vaccines are known to be poorly efficient against newly emerging strains, which is an increasing worldwide problem for human health and for the poultry industry. As demonstrated by research and clinical data, sequential exposure to divergent influenza HAs can boost induction of universal antibodies which recognize conserved epitopes. In this work, we have performed sequential immunization of laying hens using monovalent or bivalent compositions of DNA vaccines encoding HAs from distant groups 1 and 2 (H5, H1, and H3 subtypes, respectively). This strategy gave promising results, as it led to induction of polyclonal antibodies against HAs from both groups. These polyclonal antibodies showed cross-reactivity between different HA strains in ELISA, especially when bivalent formulations were used for immunization of birds. However, cross-reactivity of antibodies induced against H3 and H5 HA subtypes was rather limited against each other after homologous immunization. Using a cocktail of HA sequences and/or sequential DNA vaccination with different strains presents a good strategy to overcome the limited effectiveness of vaccines and induce broader immunity against avian influenza. Such a strategy could be adapted for vaccinating laying hens or parental flocks of different groups of poultry.
- Early bird gets the flu. What should be done about waning intraseasonal immunity against seasonal influenza? [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Aug 30
- Recently published studies highlight the growing evidence for waning immunity within a single influenza season among vaccinated individuals. However, the public health efforts to increase vaccination...
Recently published studies highlight the growing evidence for waning immunity within a single influenza season among vaccinated individuals. However, the public health efforts to increase vaccination coverage has resulted in earlier administration of vaccines. We find this approach to be suboptimal, as the benefits of early vaccination could be lost during peak months of influenza activity. Immunity generated by influenza vaccines is a complex scientific issue with many contributing factors. We advocate for a nuanced approach to the seasonal vaccine program- one that considers duration of immunity as much as it considers coverage. As we strive for higher rates of vaccination, we must also improve the efficacy of the vaccine and the public health programs that are responsible for distributing and administering the vaccine.
- The Drivers of Pathology in Zoonotic Avian Influenza: The Interplay Between Host and Pathogen. [Review]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:1812
- The emergence of zoonotic strains of avian influenza (AI) that cause high rates of mortality in people has caused significant global concern, with a looming threat that one of these strains may devel...
The emergence of zoonotic strains of avian influenza (AI) that cause high rates of mortality in people has caused significant global concern, with a looming threat that one of these strains may develop sustained human-to-human transmission and cause a pandemic outbreak. Most notable of these viral strains are the H5N1 highly pathogenic AI and the H7N9 low pathogenicity AI viruses, both of which have mortality rates above 30%. Understanding of their mechanisms of infection and pathobiology is key to our preparation for these and future viral strains of high consequence. AI viruses typically circulate in wild bird populations, commonly infecting waterfowl and also regularly entering commercial poultry flocks. Live poultry markets provide an ideal environment for the spread AI and potentially the selection of mutants with a greater propensity for infecting humans because of the potential for spill over from birds to humans. Pathology from these AI virus infections is associated with a dysregulated immune response, which is characterized by systemic spread of the virus, lymphopenia, and hypercytokinemia. It has been well documented that host/pathogen interactions, particularly molecules of the immune system, play a significant role in both disease susceptibility as well as disease outcome. Here, we review the immune/virus interactions in both avian and mammalian species, and provide an overview or our understanding of how immune dysregulation is driven. Understanding these susceptibility factors is critical for the development of new vaccines and therapeutics to combat the next pandemic influenza.
- Attenuation of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses in Indonesia following the reassortment and acquisition of genes from low pathogenicity avian influenza A virus progenitors. [Journal Article]
- EMEmerg Microbes Infect 2018 Aug 22; 7(1):147
- The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus is endemic in Indonesian poultry and has caused sporadic human infection in Indonesia since 2005. Surveillance of H5N1 viruses in live bird ...
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus is endemic in Indonesian poultry and has caused sporadic human infection in Indonesia since 2005. Surveillance of H5N1 viruses in live bird markets (LBMs) during 2012 and 2013 was carried out to provide epidemiologic and virologic information regarding viral circulation and the risk of human exposure. Real-time RT-PCR of avian cloacal swabs and environmental samples revealed influenza A-positive specimens, which were then subjected to virus isolation and genomic sequencing. Genetic analysis of specimens collected at multiple LBMs in Indonesia identified both low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A(H3N8) and HPAI A(H5N1) viruses belonging to clade 184.108.40.206a. Comparison of internal gene segments among the LPAI and HPAI viruses revealed that the latter had acquired the PB2, PB1, and NS genes from LPAI progenitors and other viruses containing a wild type (wt) genomic constellation. Comparison of murine infectivity of the LPAI A(H3N8), wt HPAI A(H5N1) and reassortant HPAI A(H5N1) viruses showed that the acquisition of LPAI internal genes attenuated the reassortant HPAI virus, producing a mouse infectivity/virulence phenotype comparable to that of the LPAI virus. Comparison of molecular markers in each viral gene segment suggested that mutations in PB2 and NS1 may facilitate attenuation. The discovery of an attenuated HPAI A(H5N1) virus in mice that resulted from reassortment may have implications for the capability of these viruses to transmit and cause disease. In addition, surveillance suggests that LBMs in Indonesia may play a role in the generation of reassortant A(H5) viruses and should be monitored.
- Characterization of avian influenza virus attachment patterns to human and pig tissues. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Aug 15; 8(1):12215
- Wild birds of Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are natural reservoirs of influenza A viruses (IAVs). Occasionally, IAVs transmit and adapt to mammalian hosts, and are maintained as epidemic strains i...
Wild birds of Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are natural reservoirs of influenza A viruses (IAVs). Occasionally, IAVs transmit and adapt to mammalian hosts, and are maintained as epidemic strains in their new hosts. Viral adaptions to mammalian hosts include altered receptor preference of host epithelial sialylated oligosaccharides from terminal α2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) towards α2,6-linked SA. However, α2,3-linked SA has been found in human respiratory tract epithelium, and human infections by avian IAVs (AIVs) have been reported. To further explore the attachment properties of AIVs, four AIVs of different subtypes were investigated on human and pig tissues using virus histochemistry. Additionally, glycan array analysis was performed for further characterization of IAVs' receptor structure tropism. Generally, AIV attachment was more abundant to human tissues than to pig tissues. The attachment pattern was very strong to human conjunctiva and upper respiratory tract, but variable to the lower respiratory tract. AIVs mainly attached to α2,3-linked SA, but also to combinations of α2,3- and α2,6-linked SA. The low attachment of these AIV isolates to pig tissues, but high attachment to human tissues, addresses the question whether AIVs in general require passage through pigs to obtain adaptions towards mammalian receptor structures.
- Heterosubtypic Protections against Human-Infecting Avian Influenza Viruses Correlate to Biased Cross-T-Cell Responses. [Journal Article]
- MBIOMBio 2018 Aug 07; 9(4)
- Against a backdrop of seasonal influenza virus epidemics, emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) occasionally jump from birds to humans, posing a public health risk, especially with the recent sharp...
Against a backdrop of seasonal influenza virus epidemics, emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) occasionally jump from birds to humans, posing a public health risk, especially with the recent sharp increase in H7N9 infections. Evaluations of cross-reactive T-cell immunity to seasonal influenza viruses and human-infecting AIVs have been reported previously. However, the roles of influenza A virus-derived epitopes in the cross-reactive T-cell responses and heterosubtypic protections are not well understood; understanding those roles is important for preventing and controlling new emerging AIVs. Here, among the members of a healthy population presumed to have previously been infected by pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1), we found that pH1N1-specific T cells showed cross- but biased reactivity to human-infecting AIVs, i.e., H5N1, H6N1, H7N9, and H9N2, which correlates with distinct protections. Through a T-cell epitope-based phylogenetic analysis, the cellular immunogenic clustering expanded the relevant conclusions to a broader range of virus strains. We defined the potential key conserved epitopes required for cross-protection and revealed the molecular basis for the immunogenic variations. Our study elucidated an overall profile of cross-reactivity to AIVs and provided useful recommendations for broad-spectrum vaccine development.IMPORTANCE We revealed preexisting but biased T-cell reactivity of pH1N1 influenza virus to human-infecting AIVs, which provided distinct protections. The cross-reactive T-cell recognition had a regular pattern that depended on the T-cell epitope matrix revealed via bioinformatics analysis. Our study elucidated an overall profile of cross-reactivity to AIVs and provided useful recommendations for broad-spectrum vaccine development.
- Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza A Virus Spreads Efficiently in Human Primary Monocyte-Derived Macrophages and Dendritic Cells. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:1664
- Influenza A viruses cause recurrent epidemics and occasional global pandemics. Wild birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A virus from where the virus can be transmitted to poultry or to mamma...
Influenza A viruses cause recurrent epidemics and occasional global pandemics. Wild birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A virus from where the virus can be transmitted to poultry or to mammals including humans. Mortality among humans in the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infection is even 60%. Despite intense research, there are still open questions in the pathogenicity of the H5N1 virus in humans. To characterize the H5N1 virus infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸs) and dendritic cells (DCs), we used human isolates of highly pathogenic H5N1/2004 and H5N1/1997 and low pathogenic H7N9/2013 avian influenza viruses in comparison with a seasonal H3N2/1989 virus. We noticed that the H5N1 viruses have an overwhelming ability to replicate and spread in primary human immune cell cultures, and even the addition of trypsin did not equalize the infectivity of H7N9 or H3N2 viruses to the level seen with H5N1 virus. H5N1 virus stocks contained more often propagation-competent viruses than the H7N9 or H3N2 viruses. The data also showed that human DCs and Mɸs maintain 1,000- and 10,000-fold increase in the production of infectious H5N1 virus, respectively. Both analyzed highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses showed multi-cycle infection in primary human DCs and Mɸs, whereas the H3N2 and H7N9 viruses were incapable of spreading in immune cells. Interestingly, H5N1 virus was able to spread extremely efficiently despite the strong induction of antiviral interferon gene expression, which may in part explain the high pathogenicity of H5N1 virus infection in humans.
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- MicroRNA hsa-miR-324-5p Suppresses H5N1 Virus Replication by Targeting the Viral PB1 and Host CUEDC2. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2018 Jul 25
- MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are crucial post-transcriptional regulator for host mRNAs. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs may modulate host response during RNA viruses infectio...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are crucial post-transcriptional regulator for host mRNAs. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs may modulate host response during RNA viruses infection. However, the role of miRNAs in immune response against H5N1 infection is not clearly understood. In this study, we show that expression of cellular miRNA, miR-324-5p was downregulated in A549 cells in response to infection with RNA viruses, H5N1, A/PR8/H1N1, and NDV and transfection with polyI:C. We found that miR-324-5p inhibited H5N1 replication by targeting the PB1 viral RNA of H5N1 in host cells. In addition, transcriptome analysis revealed that miR-324-5p enhanced the expression of Type-I, Type-III interferons, and interferons-inducible genes (ISGs) by targeting CUEDC2, the negative regulator of JAK1-STAT3 pathway. Altogether, these findings highlights that the miR-324-5p plays a crucial role in host defense against H5N1 by targeting viral PB1 and host CUEDC2 to inhibit H5N1 replication.IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic influenza A virus (HPAIV) continues to pose a pandemic threat globally. From 2003-2017, H5N1 HPAI has caused 453 human deaths with a high mortality rate of 52.74%. This work shows that miR-324-5p suppresses the H5N1 HPAI viral replication by directly targeting viral genome (thereby inhibits viral gene expression) and cellular CUEDC2 gene, the negative regulator of interferon pathway (thereby enhance anti-viral genes). Our study enhance the knowledge of role of microRNAs in cellular response to viral infection. Also, the study provides help in understanding how the host cells utilizes small RNAs in controlling the viral burden.