- Differentiated human airway organoids to assess infectivity of emerging influenza virus. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Jun 11
- Novel reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus and pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus cause human infections, while avian H7N2 and swine H1N1 virus mainly infect birds and pigs, respectively. There is ...
Novel reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus and pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus cause human infections, while avian H7N2 and swine H1N1 virus mainly infect birds and pigs, respectively. There is no robust in vitro model for assessing the infectivity of emerging viruses in humans. Based on a recently established method, we generated long-term expanding 3D human airway organoids which accommodate four types of airway epithelial cells: ciliated, goblet, club, and basal cells. We report differentiation conditions which increase ciliated cell numbers to a nearly physiological level with synchronously beating cilia readily discernible in every organoid. In addition, the differentiation conditions induce elevated levels of serine proteases, which are essential for productive infection of human influenza viruses and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses. We also established improved 2D monolayer culture conditions for the differentiated airway organoids. To demonstrate the ability of differentiated airway organoids to identify human-infective virus, 3D and 2D differentiated airway organoids are applied to evaluate two pairs of viruses with known distinct infectivity in humans, H7N9/Ah versus H7N2 and H1N1pdm versus an H1N1 strain isolated from swine (H1N1sw). The human-infective H7N9/Ah virus replicated more robustly than the poorly human-infective H7N2 virus; the highly human-infective H1N1pdm virus replicated to a higher titer than the counterpart H1N1sw. Collectively, we developed differentiated human airway organoids which can morphologically and functionally simulate human airway epithelium. These differentiated airway organoids can be applied for rapid assessment of the infectivity of emerging respiratory viruses to human.
- [Comparison of epidemiological characteristics of human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in five countries of Asia and Africa]. [Journal Article]
- ZYZhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 Jun 06; 52(6):661-667
- Objective: To understand characteristics of demographic, seasonal and spatial distribution of H5N1 cases in major countries of Asia (Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, China) and Africa (Egypt). Methods:...
Objective: To understand characteristics of demographic, seasonal and spatial distribution of H5N1 cases in major countries of Asia (Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, China) and Africa (Egypt). Methods: Through searching public data resource and published papers, we collected cases information in five countries from May 1st, 1997 to November 6th, 2017, including general characteristics, diagnosis, onset and exposure history, etc. Different characteristics of survived and death cases in different countries were described and χ(2) test was used to compare the differences among death cases and odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI value was used to compare death risk in different countries. Results: A total of 856 cases were reported in five countries with Egypt had the most cases (44.3%). The highest number of cases were reported in 2015 (18.3%). 53% cases were reported from January to March, and 96.1% of cases had the history of poultry exposure. 64.2% (43 cases) cases in China had live poultry market exposure, but the sick/dead poultry exposure was the major exposure for cases in other four countries. 452 death cases were reported in five countries, and the fatality rate was 52.8%. With Egypt as the reference group, the highest death risk was seen in Indonesia (OR (95%CI): 11.52 (7.46-17.77)), followed by Cambodia (OR (95%CI): 4.27(2.37-7.69)) and China (OR (95%CI): 2.87 (1.73-4.74)). The age distribution of death cases among 5 countries was statistically significant, and the highest fatality rate was in 15-54 years group in Egypt (83.6%, 102 cases), while in Cambodia the highest fatality rate was in 0-14 years group (76.9%, 30 cases). The highest number of deaths were reported in 2006, and 48.3% were reported from January to March. There was difference in exposure routes among 5 countries (χ(2)=43.85, P=0.001), 63.2% (24 cases) of the death cases in China had live poultry market exposure. 92.9% (79 cases), 83.3% (40 cases) and 100.0% (38 cases) death cases in Indonesia, Vietnam and Camodia had sick/dead poultry exposure, respectively;and 81.6% (31 cases) of the death cases in Egypt had backyard poultry exposure. Conclusion: The geographical distribution, seasonal age, gender, exposure matter and outcome of H5N1 cases in five countries were different.
- Humoral immunity to influenza in an at-risk population and severe influenza cases in Russia in 2016-2017. [Journal Article]
- AVArch Virol 2018 Jun 05
- This work aimed to analyze the herd immunity to influenza among a Russian population living in regions with an increased risk of emergence of viruses with pandemic potential, and to isolate and inves...
This work aimed to analyze the herd immunity to influenza among a Russian population living in regions with an increased risk of emergence of viruses with pandemic potential, and to isolate and investigate virus strains from severe influenza cases, including fatal cases, during the 2016-2017 epidemic season. In November 2016 - March 2017 highly pathogenic influenza outbreaks were registered in Russia among wild birds and poultry. No cases of human infection were registered. Analysis of 760 sera from people who had contact with infected or perished birds revealed the presence of antibodies to A(H5N1) virus of clade 18.104.22.168c and A(H5N8) virus of clade 22.214.171.124. The 2016-2017 influenza epidemic season in Russia began in weeks 46-47 of 2016 with predominant circulation of influenza A(H3N2) viruses. Strains isolated from severe influenza cases mainly belonged to 3C.2a.2 and 3C.2a.3 genetic groups. Up to the 8th week of 2017 severe influenza cases were often caused by influenza B viruses which belonged to 1A genetic group with antigenic properties similar to B/Brisbane/60/2008. All influenza A and B virus strains isolated in the 2016-2017 epidemic season were sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir.
- Emergence and Evolution of Novel Reassortant Influenza A Viruses in Canines in Southern China. [Journal Article]
- MBIOMBio 2018 Jun 05; 9(3)
- The capacity of influenza A viruses (IAVs) to host jump from animal reservoir species to humans presents an ongoing pandemic threat. Birds and swine are considered major reservoirs of viral genetic d...
The capacity of influenza A viruses (IAVs) to host jump from animal reservoir species to humans presents an ongoing pandemic threat. Birds and swine are considered major reservoirs of viral genetic diversity, whereas equines and canines have historically been restricted to one or two stable IAV lineages with no transmission to humans. Here, by sequencing the complete genomes of 16 IAVs obtained from canines in southern China (Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region [Guangxi]) in 2013 to 2015, we demonstrate that the evolution of canine influenza viruses (CIVs) in Asian dogs is increasingly complex, presenting a potential threat to humans. First, two reassortant H1N1 virus genotypes were introduced independently from swine into canines in Guangxi, including one genotype associated with a zoonotic infection. The genomes contain segments from three lineages that circulate in swine in China: North American triple reassortant H3N2, Eurasian avian-like H1N1, and pandemic H1N1. Furthermore, the swine-origin H1N1 viruses have transmitted onward in canines and reassorted with the CIV-H3N2 viruses that circulate endemically in Asian dogs, producing three novel reassortant CIV genotypes (H1N1r, H1N2r, and H3N2r [r stands for reassortant]). CIVs from this study were collected primarily from pet dogs presenting with respiratory symptoms at veterinary clinics, but dogs in Guangxi are also raised for meat, and street dogs roam freely, creating a more complex ecosystem for CIV transmission. Further surveillance is greatly needed to understand the full genetic diversity of CIV in southern China, the nature of viral emergence and persistence in the region's diverse canine populations, and the zoonotic risk as the viruses continue to evolve.IMPORTANCE Mammals have emerged as critically underrecognized sources of influenza virus diversity, including pigs that were the source of the 2009 pandemic and bats and bovines that harbor highly divergent viral lineages. Here, we identify two reassortant IAVs that recently host switched from swine to canines in southern China, including one virus with known zoonotic potential. Three additional genotypes were generated via reassortment events in canine hosts, demonstrating the capacity of dogs to serve as "mixing vessels." The continued expansion of IAV diversity in canines with high human contact rates requires enhanced surveillance and ongoing evaluation of emerging pandemic threats.
- A Computational Framework for a Digital Surveillance and Response Tool: Application to Avian Influenza. [Journal Article]
- AAAMIA Annu Symp Proc 2017; 2017:1090-1099
- Avian influenza viruses have caused infections and deaths in wild birds, commercial poultry, and humans. It poses an increasing threat of a pandemic. To understand the transmission dynamics of avian ...
Avian influenza viruses have caused infections and deaths in wild birds, commercial poultry, and humans. It poses an increasing threat of a pandemic. To understand the transmission dynamics of avian influenza viruses and assess the effectiveness of different containment strategies, we develop a flexible modeling framework based on multi-layer compartmental models for digital disease surveillance and response in combating pandemics. The model can accommodate other disease outbreaks under diverse settings. We demonstrate its usage on avian influenza and derive the basic reproduction number and spread characteristics. We contrast the effectiveness of different containment strategies and their combination effect in protecting both the human and the bird populations. Our system, a digital surveillance and response system (RealOpt-ASSURE), can record, monitor, and predict avian influenza outbreaks. It combines with intervention strategies to return policies and on-the-ground operations/actions that are needed for best population protection. RealOpt-ASSURE can accept heterogeneous types of surveillance data. It can help decision makers to evaluate the risk of a pandemic and choose proper containment strategies to rapidly mitigate the outbreak.
- High-fibre diet beats flu. [Journal Article]
- NRNat Rev Immunol 2018 May 25
- Genetic analysis and biological characteristics of different internal gene origin H5N6 reassortment avian influenza virus in China in 2016. [Journal Article]
- VMVet Microbiol 2018; 219:200-211
- Clade 126.96.36.199 of H5N6 subtype Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) has become dominant clade in South-East Asia. So far, a total of 16 cases of human infection, including 6 deaths, have been confirmed sinc...
Clade 188.8.131.52 of H5N6 subtype Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) has become dominant clade in South-East Asia. So far, a total of 16 cases of human infection, including 6 deaths, have been confirmed since 2014. In this study, we systematically investigated the genetic evolution and biological characteristics of these viruses. We first carried out phylogenetic and statistical analysis of all H5N6 viruses that were downloaded from Influenza Research Database, GISAID and isolates from our lab. We found that H5N6 AIVs continued to reassort with other AIVs subtypes since 2014. Among these H5N6 reassortments, four main gene types were identified: A (internal genes of H5N1-origin), B (PB2 of H6-origin, and others of H5N1-origin), C (internal genes of H9-origin) and D (PB2 of H6-origin and PB1of H3-origin, and others of H5N1). In addition, after several years of evolution, gene type D is currently the dominant gene type. To systematically compare the genetic and evolutionary characteristics and pathogenicity of these viruses, four H5N6 AIVs of different gene types were selected for further analysis. S4, XZ6, GD1602 and YZ587 virus represented gene type A, B, C and D, respectively. Their NA genes were all originated from H6 and their whole genome showed a high similarity with human isolates. All these isolates could both bind with SA-α2,3 Gal and SA-α2,6 Gal receptors. Pathogenicity test showed that these viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens, while YZ587 showed the lowest virulence. Moreover, XZ6 and S4 viruses were highly pathogenic in ducks and moderately pathogenic in mice, while GD1602 and YZ587 viruses were no-pathogenic in these animals. Interestingly, GD1602 and YZ587-like viruses were responsible for 4 and 2 human infection cases in 2016, respectively. Therefore, our study showed that the YZ587 virus which has mixed internal genes, showed lower virulence in avian species and mammals compared to other genotype viruses. Overall, our findings suggest that the H5N6 avian influenza virus is undergoing constantly evolving and reassortment. Thus, our study highlights the necessary of continued surveillance of the H5N6 AIVs in birds and paying close attention to the spread of these novel reassortment viruses.
- Host-directed combinatorial RNAi improves inhibition of diverse strains of influenza A virus in human respiratory epithelial cells. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(5):e0197246
- Influenza A virus infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and currently available prevention and treatment methods are suboptimal. In recent years, genome-wide investiga...
Influenza A virus infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and currently available prevention and treatment methods are suboptimal. In recent years, genome-wide investigations have revealed numerous host factors that are required for influenza to successfully complete its life cycle. However, only a select, small number of influenza strains were evaluated using this platform, and there was considerable variation in the genes identified across different investigations. In an effort to develop a universally efficacious therapeutic strategy with limited potential for the emergence of resistance, this study was performed to investigate the effect of combinatorial RNA interference (RNAi) on inhibiting the replication of diverse influenza A virus subtypes and strains. Candidate genes were selected for targeting based on the results of multiple previous independent genome-wide studies. The effect of single and combinatorial RNAi on the replication of 12 diverse influenza A viruses, including three strains isolated from birds and one strain isolated from seals, was then evaluated in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. After excluding overly toxic siRNA, two siRNA combinations were identified that reduced mean viral replication by greater than 79 percent in all mammalian strains, and greater than 68 percent in all avian strains. Host-directed combinatorial RNAi effectively prevents growth of a broad range of influenza virus strains in vitro, and is a potential therapeutic candidate for further development and future in vivo studies.
- Induction of influenza-specific local CD8 T-cells in the respiratory tract after aerosol delivery of vaccine antigen or virus in the Babraham inbred pig. [Journal Article]
- PPPLoS Pathog 2018; 14(5):e1007017
- There is increasing evidence that induction of local immune responses is a key component of effective vaccines. For respiratory pathogens, for example tuberculosis and influenza, aerosol delivery is ...
There is increasing evidence that induction of local immune responses is a key component of effective vaccines. For respiratory pathogens, for example tuberculosis and influenza, aerosol delivery is being actively explored as a method to administer vaccine antigens. Current animal models used to study respiratory pathogens suffer from anatomical disparity with humans. The pig is a natural and important host of influenza viruses and is physiologically more comparable to humans than other animal models in terms of size, respiratory tract biology and volume. It may also be an important vector in the birds to human infection cycle. A major drawback of the current pig model is the inability to analyze antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, which are critical to respiratory immunity. Here we address this knowledge gap using an established in-bred pig model with a high degree of genetic identity between individuals, including the MHC (Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA)) locus. We developed a toolset that included long-term in vitro pig T-cell culture and cloning and identification of novel immunodominant influenza-derived T-cell epitopes. We also generated structures of the two SLA class I molecules found in these animals presenting the immunodominant epitopes. These structures allowed definition of the primary anchor points for epitopes in the SLA binding groove and established SLA binding motifs that were used to successfully predict other influenza-derived peptide sequences capable of stimulating T-cells. Peptide-SLA tetramers were constructed and used to track influenza-specific T-cells ex vivo in blood, the lungs and draining lymph nodes. Aerosol immunization with attenuated single cycle influenza viruses (S-FLU) induced large numbers of CD8+ T-cells specific for conserved NP peptides in the respiratory tract. Collectively, these data substantially increase the utility of pigs as an effective model for studying protective local cellular immunity against respiratory pathogens.
New Search Next
- Avian influenza viruses in wild birds: virus evolution in a multi-host ecosystem. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2018 May 16
- Wild ducks and gulls are the major reservoirs for avian influenza A viruses (AIVs). The mechanisms that drive AIV evolution are complex at sites where various duck and gull species from multiple flyw...
Wild ducks and gulls are the major reservoirs for avian influenza A viruses (AIVs). The mechanisms that drive AIV evolution are complex at sites where various duck and gull species from multiple flyways breed, winter or stage. The Republic of Georgia is located at the intersection of three migratory flyways: Central Asian Flyway, East Asian/East African Flyway and Black Sea/Mediterranean Flyway. For six consecutive years (2010-2016), we collected AIV samples from various duck and gull species that breed, migrate and overwinter in Georgia. We found substantial subtype diversity of viruses that varied in prevalence from year to year. Low pathogenic (LP)AIV subtypes included H1N1, H2N3, H2N5, H2N7, H3N8, H4N2, H6N2, H7N3, H7N7, H9N1, H9N3, H10N4, H10N7, H11N1, H13N2, H13N6, H13N8, H16N3, plus two H5N5 and H5N8 highly pathogenic (HP)AIVs belonging to clade 184.108.40.206. Whole genome phylogenetic trees showed significant host species lineage restriction for nearly all gene segments and significant differences for LPAIVs among different host species in observed reassortment rates, as defined by quantification of phylogenetic incongruence, and in nucleotide diversity. Hemagglutinin clade 220.127.116.11 H5N8 viruses, circulated in Eurasia during 2014-2015 did not reassort, but analysis after its subsequent dissemination during 2016-2017 revealed reassortment in all gene segments except NP and NS. Some virus lineages appeared to be unrelated to AIVs in wild bird populations in other regions with maintenance of local AIV viruses in Georgia, whereas other lineages showed considerable genetic inter-relationship with viruses circulating in other parts of Eurasia and Africa, despite relative under-sampling in the area.ImportanceWaterbirds (e.g., gulls/ducks) are natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and have been shown to mediate dispersal of AIV at inter-continental scales during seasonal migration. The segmented genome of influenza viruses enables viral RNA from different lineages to mix or re-assort when two viruses infect the same host. Such reassortant viruses have been identified in most major human influenza pandemics and several poultry outbreaks. Despite their importance, we have only recently begun to understand AIV evolution and reassortment in their natural host reservoirs. This comprehensive study illustrates of AIV evolutionary dynamics within a multi-host ecosystem at a stop-over site where three major migratory flyways intersect. Our analysis of this ecosystem over a six-year period provides a snapshot of how these viruses are linked to global AIV populations. Understanding the evolution of AIVs in the natural host is imperative to both mitigating the risk of incursion into domestic poultry and potential risk to mammalian hosts including humans.