- Scientists Call FDA Statement on Bisphenol A Safety Premature. [Journal Article]
- JAMAJAMA 2018 Mar 21
- Modeling Environmentally-Induced Motor Neuron Degeneration in Zebrafish. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Mar 20; 8(1):4890
- Zebrafish have been used to investigate motor neuron degeneration, including as a model system to examine the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The use of zebrafish for this purpos...
Zebrafish have been used to investigate motor neuron degeneration, including as a model system to examine the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The use of zebrafish for this purpose has some advantages over other in vivo model systems. In the current paper, we show that bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in zebrafish embryos results in motor neuron degeneration with affected motor function, reduced motor axon length and branching, reduced neuromuscular junction integrity, motor neuron cell death and the presence of activated microglia. In zebrafish, motor axon length is the conventional method for estimating motor neuron degeneration, yet this measurement has not been confirmed as a valid surrogate marker. We also show that reduced motor axon length as measured from the sagittal plane is correlated with increased motor neuron cell death. Our preliminary timeline studies suggest that axonopathy precedes motor cell death. This outcome may have implications for early phase treatments of motor neuron degeneration.
- Photocatalytic oxidation of six endocrine disruptor chemicals in wastewater using ZnO at pilot plant scale under natural sunlight. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Mar 20
- Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are xenobiotics that interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, and elimination of the natural hormones. In this paper, the photodegradation of si...
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are xenobiotics that interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, and elimination of the natural hormones. In this paper, the photodegradation of six EDs in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents at pilot plant scale is reported. The EDs were bisphenol A, bisphenol B, diamyl phthalate, butyl benzylphthalate, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, and ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate. ZnO as photocatalyst in tandem with Na2S2O8as electron acceptor under natural sunlight were used. The process was previously optimized under laboratory conditions through a photoreactor under artificial UVA irradiation studying the role of some key operating parameters (catalyst loading, effect of electron acceptor, and pH). Results carried out at pilot plant scale show that addition of ZnO in tandem with Na2S2O8strongly enhances degradation rates compared with photolytic test. At the end of the irradiation time (240 min), the remaining amounts of EDs ranged from 24% (butyl benzylphthalate) to 0% (< LOQ bisphenol B). The degradation rates were in the order: bisphenols > parabens > phthalates. After the photoperiod, 83% of the initial dissolved organic carbon was removed and toxicity decreased to acceptable values (11% inhibition to Vibrio fisheri). The photodegradation process was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetic model with DT50ranging from 5 min (bisphenol B) to 102 min (butyl benzylphthalate). Thereby, photocatalytic oxidation using ZnO is an area of environmental interest for the treatment of polluted water, particularly relevant for Mediterranean countries, where solar irradiation is highly available.
- The Influence of High and Low Doses of Bisphenol A (BPA) on the Enteric Nervous System of the Porcine Ileum. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Mar 20; 19(3)
- Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic di...
Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders. Knowledge of the impact of BPA on enteric neurons is practically non-existent. The destination of this study was to investigate the influence of BPA at a specific dose (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day) and at a dose ten times higher (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day), given for 28 days, on the porcine ileum. The influence of BPA on enteric neuron immunoreactive to selected neuronal active substances, including substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT-used here as a marker of cholinergic neurons), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), was studied by the double immunofluorescence method. Both doses of BPA affected the neurochemical characterization of the enteric neurons. The observed changes depended on the type of enteric plexus but were generally characterized by an increase in the number of cells immunoreactive to the particular substances. More visible fluctuations were observed after treatment with higher doses of BPA. The results confirm that even low doses of BPA may influence the neurochemical characterization of the enteric neurons and are not neutral for living organisms.
- hCG and Its Disruption by Environmental Contaminants during Human Pregnancy. [Review]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Mar 20; 19(3)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone of considerable importance in the establishment, promotion and maintenance of human pregnancy. It has been clearly demonstrated that hCG exerts multipl...
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone of considerable importance in the establishment, promotion and maintenance of human pregnancy. It has been clearly demonstrated that hCG exerts multiple endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions on a variety of gestational and non-gestational cells and tissues. These actions are directed to promote trophoblast invasiveness and differentiation, placental growth, angiogenesis in uterine vasculature, hormone production, modulation of the immune system at the maternal-fetal interface, inhibition of myometrial contractility as well as fetal growth and differentiation. In recent years, considerable interest has been raised towards the biological effects of environmental contaminants, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to selected EDCs can have a deleterious impact on the fetus and long-lasting consequences also in adult life. The results of the in vitro effects of commonly found EDCs, particularly Bisphenol A (BPA) andpara-Nonylphenol (p-NP), indicate that these substances can alter hCG production and through this action could exert their fetal damage, suggesting that hCG could represent and become a potentially useful clinical biomarker of an inappropriate prenatal exposure to these substances.
- Diphenyl diselenide regulates Nrf2/Keap-1 signaling pathway and counteracts hepatic oxidative stress induced by bisphenol A in male mice. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2018 Mar 16; 164:280-287
- Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical toxicant that has deleterious effects on human. BPA causes oxidative stress in tissues, including the liver. Diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2improves the antioxidant respon...
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical toxicant that has deleterious effects on human. BPA causes oxidative stress in tissues, including the liver. Diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2improves the antioxidant response via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (keap 1) pathway in macrophage cells. In the present study, we investigated whether (PhSe)2counteracts hepatic oxidative stress induced by BPA in male and female Swiss mice. Three-week-old mice received by the intragastric (i.g.) route BPA (5 mg/kg) from 21st to 60th postnatal day (PND). At PND 61, the mice were treated with (PhSe)2(1 mg/kg, i.g.) for seven days. Parameters of hepatic damage and oxidative stress were determined in male and female mice. The results show that BPA increased the activity of aspartate aminotransferase in female mice, and in male mice the activity of alanine aminotranseferase was increased. Male and female mice had an increase in fat mass accumulation. Male mice showed an increase in hepatic oxidative damage of proteins and a decrease in non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid and non-protein thiol) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase) defenses, which are consistent with oxidative stress status. Male mice were more susceptible than female mice to hepatic oxidative stress induced by BPA. BPA decreased Nrf2/Keap1 protein content in male mice. (PhSe)2reduced hepatic oxidative stress induced by BPA in male mice. Our results demonstrate that male mice were more susceptible to hepatic oxidative stress induced by BPA than female mice. (PhSe)2regulated Nrf2/Keap-1 signaling pathway and countered hepatic oxidative stress induced by BPA in male mice.
- Porous Electrospun Fibers Embedding TiO2for Adsorption and Photocatalytic Degradation of Water Pollutants. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Technol 2018 Mar 23
- Using a bipolymer system consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), P25-TiO2was immobilized into thin film mats of porous electrospun fibers. Pores were introduced...
Using a bipolymer system consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), P25-TiO2was immobilized into thin film mats of porous electrospun fibers. Pores were introduced by dissolving sacrificial PVP to increase surface area and enhance access to TiO2. The highest photocatalytic activity was achieved using a PVDF:PVP weight ratio of 2:1. Methylene blue (MB) was used to visualize contaminant removal, assess the sorption capacity (5.93 ± 0.23 mg/g) and demonstrate stable removal kinetics ( kMB> 0.045 min-1) under UVA irradiation (3.64 × 10-9einstein/cm2/s) over 10 cycles. Treatment was also accomplished via sequential MB sorption in the dark and subsequent photocatalytic degradation under UVA irradiation, to illustrate that these processes could be uncoupled to overcome limited light penetration. The photocatalytic mat degraded bisphenol A and 17α-ethynylestradiol in secondary wastewater effluent (17 mg TOC/L), and (relative to TiO2slurry) immobilization of TiO2in the mat mitigated performance inhibition by co-occurring organics that scavenge oxidation capacity. This significantly lowered the electrical energy-per-order of reaction (EEO) needed to remove such endocrine disruptors in the presence of oxidant scavenging/inhibitory organics. Thus, effective TiO2immobilization into polymers with affinity toward specific priority pollutants could both increase the efficiency and reduce energy requirements of photocatalytic water treatment.
- Microarray expression profiling and co-expression network analysis of circulating LncRNAs and mRNAs associated with neurotoxicity induced by BPA. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Mar 18
- A growing body of evidence has shown bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like industrial chemical, has adverse effects on the nervous system. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional behavior of...
A growing body of evidence has shown bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like industrial chemical, has adverse effects on the nervous system. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional behavior of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs to provide the information to explore neurotoxic effects induced by BPA. By microarray expression profiling, we discovered 151 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 794 differentially expressed mRNAs in the BPA intervention group compared with the control group. Gene ontology analysis indicated the differentially expressed mRNAs were mainly involved in fundamental metabolic processes and physiological and pathological conditions, such as development, synaptic transmission, homeostasis, injury, and neuroinflammation responses. In the expression network of the BPA-induced group, a great number of nodes and connections were found in comparison to the control-derived network. We identified lncRNAs that were aberrantly expressed in the BPA group, among which, growth arrest specific 5 (GAS5) might participate in the BPA-induced neurotoxicity by regulating Jun, RAS, and other pathways indirectly through these differentially expressed genes. This study provides the first investigation of genome-wide lncRNA expression and correlation between lncRNA and mRNA expression in the BPA-induced neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that the elevated expression of lncRNAs is a major biomarker in the neurotoxicity induced by BPA.
- Gestational bisphenol S impairs placental endocrine function and the fusogenic trophoblast signaling pathway. [Journal Article]
- ATArch Toxicol 2018 Mar 17
- Exposure to bisphenolic chemicals during pregnancy occurs in > 90% of pregnancies. Bisphenolic compounds can cross the placental barrier reaching fetal circulation. However, the effects of emerging b...
Exposure to bisphenolic chemicals during pregnancy occurs in > 90% of pregnancies. Bisphenolic compounds can cross the placental barrier reaching fetal circulation. However, the effects of emerging bisphenolic compounds, such as bisphenol S (BPS), on placental function remain untested. The aim was to determine if bisphenol A (BPA) or BPS, at an environmentally relevant dose, impairs placental function. Pregnant sheep were randomly distributed into three treatment groups (n = 7-8/group): control, BPA, and BPS. All animals received daily injections of corn oil (control), BPA, or BPS (0.5 mg/kg; s.c.; internal fetal doses were ~ 2.6 ng/mL unconjugated BPA and ~ 7.7 ng/mL of BPS) from gestational day 30-100. After a 20-day washout period, placentas were weighed and placentomes collected. Placental endocrine function was assessed on biweekly maternal blood samples. Gestational exposure to BPS, but not BPA, reduced maternal circulating pregnancy-associated glycoproteins without change in placental weight or placental stereology. BPS-exposed placentas had 50% lower e-cadherin protein expression, ~ 20% fewer binucleate cells, and ~ threefold higher glial cell missing-1 protein expression. BPA placentas were not affected highlighting the intrinsic differences among bisphenolic chemicals. This is the first study to demonstrate that gestational BPS can result in placental endocrine dysfunction and points to a dysregulation in the fusogenic trophoblast signaling pathway.
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- Associations of prenatal environmental phenol and phthalate biomarkers with respiratory and allergic diseases among children aged 6 and 7 years. [Journal Article]
- EIEnviron Int 2018 Mar 15; 115:79-88
- CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal bisphenol A and paradichlorobenzene exposures were associated with pediatric respiratory outcomes among boys. Future studies may shed light on biological mechanisms and potential sexually-dimorphic effects of select phenols and phthalates on respiratory disease development.