- Autoantibody Signaling in Pemphigus Vulgaris: Development of an Integrated Model. [Review]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:692
- Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune skin blistering disease effecting both cutaneous and mucosal epithelia. Blister formation in PV is known to result from the binding of autoantibodies (autoAbs...
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune skin blistering disease effecting both cutaneous and mucosal epithelia. Blister formation in PV is known to result from the binding of autoantibodies (autoAbs) to keratinocyte antigens. The primary antigenic targets of pathogenic autoAbs are known to be desmoglein 3, and to a lesser extent, desmoglein 1, cadherin family proteins that partially comprise the desmosome, a protein structure responsible for maintaining cell adhesion, although additional autoAbs, whose role in blister formation is still unclear, are also known to be present in PV patients. Nevertheless, there remain large gaps in knowledge concerning the precise mechanisms through which autoAb binding induces blister formation. Consequently, the primary therapeutic interventions for PV focus on systemic immunosuppression, whose side effects represent a significant health risk to patients. In an effort to identify novel, disease-specific therapeutic targets, a multitude of studies attempting to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms downstream of autoAb binding, have led to significant advancements in the understanding of autoAb-mediated blister formation. Despite this enhanced characterization of disease processes, a satisfactory explanation of autoAb-induced acantholysis still does not exist. Here, we carefully review the literature investigating the pathogenic disease mechanisms in PV and, taking into account the full scope of results from these studies, provide a novel, comprehensive theory of blister formation in PV.
- Caspase cascade pathways of apoptosis in oral pemphigus: An immunohistochemical study. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2018 Jan-Apr; 22(1):48-53
- CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in the present study suggest that the process of apoptosis occurs in PV. Hence, inhibition of apoptosis in the patients could reduce the severity of the lesions, and they could also represent new specific targets for pemphigus treatment.
- Diverse expression of TNF-α and CCL27 in serum and blister of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. [Journal Article]
- CTClin Transl Allergy 2018; 8:12
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated roles of CCL27 and TNF-α in promoting the course of SJS/TEN. CCL27 may act early in the course of disease, via the circulation, whereas TNF-α acts throughout the course of disease, in skin lesions.
- Bullous Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A description of the clinical and histopathologic features. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cutan Pathol 2018 Apr 27
- Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, formerly reflex sympathetic dystrophy) is a poorly understood syndrome occurring most commonly after peripheral trauma.(1) Diagnostic features include pain, auto...
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, formerly reflex sympathetic dystrophy) is a poorly understood syndrome occurring most commonly after peripheral trauma.(1) Diagnostic features include pain, autonomic dysregulation, sensory/motor abnormalities and trophic changes involving the affected limb.(1,2) Dermatologic findings include erythema, atrophy, xerosis, erosive disease, and reticulated erythematous patches.(3,4) Exceptionally, blistering has been reported.(5-7) Given its rarity, the clinical and histopathologic findings of bullous CRPS are not well described. We report a case of bullous CRPS in a patient with mycosis fungoides (MF), describing the clinical and histopathologic features of this uncommon entity.
- Eosinophils are a Major Source of Interleukin-31 in Bullous Pemphigoid. [Journal Article]
- ADActa Derm Venereol 2018 Apr 24
- Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is characterized by substantial skin and blood eosinophilia as well as intensive pruritus. Since the pruritogenic cytokine interleukin (IL)-31 is increased in inflammatory ski...
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is characterized by substantial skin and blood eosinophilia as well as intensive pruritus. Since the pruritogenic cytokine interleukin (IL)-31 is increased in inflammatory skin diseases the aim of this study was to determine whether IL-31 plays a role in BP. Using immunofluorescence, IL-31 expression was analysed in eosinophils derived from blister fluids and skin from patients with BP and IL-31 levels in blister fluids, serum and culture supernatants were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). High levels of IL-31 expression were observed in BP blister fluids, but they were only marginally elevated in BP serum compared with healthy controls. Eosinophils from either BP blister fluids or skin biopsies showed strong expression of IL-31. Furthermore, peripheral blood eosinophils from patients with BP, but not healthy controls, released high levels of IL-31, reflecting those in blister fluids. In conclusion, eosinophils are a major source of IL-31 in BP and this cytokine may contribute to itch in patients with BP.
- Mucosal Involvement in Bullous Pemphigoid Is Mostly Associated with Disease Severity and to Absence of Anti-BP230 Autoantibody. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:479
- Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune bullous disease and typically affects the elderly. Binding of specific autoantibodies to BP180/230 hemidesmosomal components induces an inflammat...
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune bullous disease and typically affects the elderly. Binding of specific autoantibodies to BP180/230 hemidesmosomal components induces an inflammatory response leading to skin blister formation. Unusual manifestations of BP include additional mucous membrane involvement, without pathophysiological knowledge associated to the formation of these lesions. We here performed a prospective study on series of consecutive BP patients with (n = 77) and without (n = 18) mucosal involvements at baseline to further investigate why some BP patients display mucosal lesion and other not. Analysis of disease activity showed that BP patients with mucosal involvement displayed a higher total BP Disease Area Index (BPDAI) score (P = 0.008), but also higher skin and blister/erosion BPDAI scores (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively). By contrast, the erythema/urticaria BPDAI score was identical between the two groups of patients. The erythema/urticaria BPDAI score, but not the blister/erosion BPDAI score, was correlated with the serum concentration of anti-BP180 NC16A autoantibodies in patients with mucosal involvement. In multivariate analysis, the absence of anti-BP230 autoantibody was the only factor independently associated with mucosal involvement (OR 7.8; 95% CI, 3.1-19.6) (P < 0.0001). Analysis of the distribution of BP patients according to BPDAI scores revealed a shift toward higher blister/erosion BPDAI scores for BP patients with mucosal involvement. This study indicates that mucosal lesions are clinically mainly related to disease severity and immunologically to the absence of anti-BP230 antibodies.
- Specific Inhibition of Complement Activation Significantly Ameliorates Autoimmune Blistering Disease in Mice. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:535
- Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an antibody-mediated blistering skin disease associated with tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies to type VII collagen (COL7). Transfer of antibodies a...
Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an antibody-mediated blistering skin disease associated with tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies to type VII collagen (COL7). Transfer of antibodies against COL7 into mice results in a subepidermal blistering phenotype, strictly depending on the complement component C5. Further, activation predominantly by the alternative pathway is required to induce experimental EBA, as blistering was delayed and significantly ameliorated only in factor B-/-mice. However, C5 deficiency not only blocked the activation of terminal complement components and assembly of the membrane attack complex (MAC) but also eliminated the formation of C5a. Therefore, in the present study, we first aimed to elucidate which molecules downstream of C5 are relevant for blister formation in this EBA model and could be subsequently pharmaceutically targeted. For this purpose, we injected mice deficient in C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) or C6 with antibodies to murine COL7. Importantly,C5ar1-/-mice were significantly protected from experimental EBA, demonstrating that C5a-C5aR1 interactions are critical intermediates linking pathogenic antibodies to tissue damage in this experimental model of EBA. By contrast,C6-/-mice developed widespread blistering disease, suggesting that MAC is dispensable for blister formation in this model. In further experiments, we tested the therapeutic potential of inhibitors of complement components which were identified to play a key role in this experimental model. Complement components C5, factor B (fB), and C5aR1 were specifically targeted using complement inhibitors both prophylactically and in mice that had already developed disease. All complement inhibitors led to a significant improvement of the blistering phenotype when injected shortly before anti-COL7 antibodies. To simulate a therapeutic intervention, anti-fB treatment was first administered in full-blown EBA (day 5) and induced significant amelioration only in the final phase of disease evolution, suggesting that early intervention in disease development may be necessary to achieve higher efficacy. Anti-C5 treatment in incipient EBA (day 2) significantly ameliorated disease during the whole experiment. This finding is therapeutically relevant, since the humanized anti-C5 antibody eculizumab is already successfully used in patients. In conclusion, in this study, we have identified promising candidate molecules for complement-directed therapeutic intervention in EBA and similar autoantibody-mediated diseases.
- Prospective study in bullous pemphigoid: Association of high serum anti-BP180 IgG levels with increased mortality and reduced Karnofsky score. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Dermatol 2018 Apr 01
- CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the autoantibody profile is not only of diagnostic relevance but may also be helpful in predicting the course of the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Bullous pemphigoid: Italian guidelines adapted from the EDF/EADV guidelines. [Journal Article]
- GIG Ital Dermatol Venereol 2018; 153(3):305-315
- Bullous pemphigoid is the most common autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. This disease typically affects the elderly and presents with itch and localized or g...
Bullous pemphigoid is the most common autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. This disease typically affects the elderly and presents with itch and localized or generalized bullous lesions. In up to 20% of affected patients blister may be completely absent, and only excoriations, prurigo-like lesions, eczematous lesions, urticated lesions, and/or infiltrated plaques are observed. The disease is significantly associated with neurological disorders. The morbidity of bullous pemphigoid and its impact on the quality of life are significant. So far, a limited number of national treatment guidelines have been proposed, but no common European consensus has emerged. This guideline for the treatment of bullous pemphigoid has been developed by an Italian group of experts taking in account the Italian legislation and local pharmacological governance. Guidelines are adapted from the original article under the guidance of the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) in collaboration with the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV). It summarizes evidence-based and expert-based recommendations (S2 level).
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- Tissue Destruction in Bullous Pemphigoid Can Be Complement Independent and May Be Mitigated by C5aR2. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:488
- Bullous pemphigoid (BP), the most frequent autoimmune bullous disorder, is a paradigmatic autoantibody-mediated disease associated with autoantibodies against BP180 (type XVII collagen, Col17). Sever...
Bullous pemphigoid (BP), the most frequent autoimmune bullous disorder, is a paradigmatic autoantibody-mediated disease associated with autoantibodies against BP180 (type XVII collagen, Col17). Several animal models have been developed that reflect important clinical and immunological features of human BP. Complement activation has been described as a prerequisite for blister formation, however, the recent finding that skin lesions can be induced by anti-Col17 F(ab')2fragments indicates complement-independent mechanisms to contribute to blister formation in BP. Here,C5-/-mice injected with anti-Col17 IgG showed a reduction of skin lesions by about 50% associated with significantly less skin-infiltrating neutrophils compared to wild-type mice. Reduction of skin lesions and neutrophil infiltration was seen independently of the employed anti-Col17 IgG dose. Further,C5ar1-/-mice were protected from disease development, whereas the extent of skin lesions was increased inC5ar2-/-animals. Pharmacological inhibition of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) by PMX53 led to reduced disease activity when applied in a prophylactic setting. In contrast, PMX-53 treatment had no effect when first skin lesions had already developed. While C5aR1 was critically involved in neutrophil migrationin vitro, its role for Col17-anti-Col17 IgG immune complex-mediated release of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils was less pronounced. Our data demonstrate that complement-dependent and -independent mechanisms coexist in anti-Col17-autoantibody-mediated tissue destruction. C5aR1 and C5aR2 seem to play opposing roles in this process with C5aR1 exerting its primary effect in recruiting inflammatory cells to the skin during the early phase of the disease. Further studies are required to fully understand the role of C5aR2 in autoantibody-mediated skin inflammation.