- Vascular parameters continue to decrease post-exposure with simultaneous, but not individual exposure to BPA and hypoxia in zebrafish larvae. [Journal Article]
- CBComp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Feb 14
- How fish respond to hypoxia, a common stressor, can be altered by simultaneous exposure to pollutants like bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer. BPA is cardiotoxic and interferes with the hypoxia inducib...
How fish respond to hypoxia, a common stressor, can be altered by simultaneous exposure to pollutants like bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer. BPA is cardiotoxic and interferes with the hypoxia inducible factor pathway (HIF-1α), therefore disrupting the hypoxic response. Co-exposure to hypoxia and BPA also causes severe bradycardia and reduced cardiac output in zebrafish larvae. The purpose of this work was to determine how the cardiovascular effects of co-exposure vary with BPA concentration and persist beyond exposure. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 100 μg/L of BPA during normoxia (>6.0 mg/L O2) and hypoxia (2.0 ± 0.5 mg/L O2) between 1 h post fertilization (hpf) and late hatching (72-96 hpf). Heart rate, cardiac output, and red blood cell (RBC) velocity were determined through video microscopy and digital motion analysis at late hatching and 10 days post fertilization (dpf), several days post exposure. In comparison to the hypoxic control, RBC velocity was 25% lower with 0.01 μg/L BPA and hypoxia at late hatching. At 10 dpf, the difference in RBC velocity between these treatments doubled, despite several days of recovery. This coincided with a 24% thinner outer diameter for caudal vein but no effect on cardiac or developmental parameters. Statistical interactions between BPA and oxygen concentration were found for arterial RBC velocity at both ages. Because the co-occurrence of both stressors is extremely common, it would be beneficial to understand how BPA and hypoxia interact to affect cardiovascular function during and after exposure.
- Overexpression of heart-specific small subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase results in heart failure and conduction disturbance. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2018 Feb 16
- Mutations in genes encoding components of sarcomere cause cardiomyopathy, which is often associated with abnormal Ca2+sensitivity of muscle contraction. We previously showed that a heart-specific myo...
Mutations in genes encoding components of sarcomere cause cardiomyopathy, which is often associated with abnormal Ca2+sensitivity of muscle contraction. We previously showed that a heart-specific myosin light chain phosphatase small subunit, hHS-M21, increases the Ca2+-sensitivity of muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of hHS-M21in vivo and the causative role of abnormal Ca2+sensitivity in cardiomyopathy. We generated transgenic (Tg) mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of hHS-M21. We confirmed that hHS-M21increased the Ca2+sensitivity of cardiac muscle contraction in vivo, which was not followed by an increased phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) isoforms. The hHS-M21Tg mice developed severe systolic dysfunction with myocardial fibrosis and degeneration of cardiomyocytes in association with sinus bradycardia and atrioventricular conduction defect. The contractile dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis were improved by treatment with Rho-kinase inhibitor Fasudil. Our findings implied that the overexpression of hHS-M21results in cardiac dysfunction and conduction disturbance via non-MLC2-phosphorylation-dependent regulation.
- [ECG results: tips and tricks for the correct diagnosis : Bradycardia and tachycardia rhythm disorders]. [Journal Article]
- HERZHerz 2018 Feb 15
- The 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is of great importance for the diagnostics of cardiac arrhythmias. For the correct and systematic analysis it has a sensitivity and specificity for the cor...
The 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is of great importance for the diagnostics of cardiac arrhythmias. For the correct and systematic analysis it has a sensitivity and specificity for the correct diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardia or ventricular tachycardia of more than 95%. Nevertheless, the assessment of cardiac rhythm disorders is difficult for many physicians. In this way errors can occur, frequently due to a non-systematic analysis of the ECG; therefore, the aim of this article is to present the techniques and the necessary knowledge for assessment of the most frequent bradycardiac and tachycardiac heart rhythm disorders. Additionally, special features in the analysis of the ECG results in children are discussed.
- Incidence and clinical characteristics of ciguatera fish poisoning in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) between 2013 and 2016: a retrospective cases-series. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Feb 15; 8(1):3095
- This retrospective case study analysed the incidence and symptoms of ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera) in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) between 2013 and 2016. Cases attending the emergency depar...
This retrospective case study analysed the incidence and symptoms of ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera) in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) between 2013 and 2016. Cases attending the emergency departments of the two public hospitals and the reports received by the regional health authority in charge of monitoring (ARS) were compiled. Two hundred and thirty-four cases of poisoning were observed, with a mean annual incidence of 1.47/10,000 (95% CI): 1.29-1.66), i.e 5 times higher than the previously reported incidence (1996-2006). The main species described as being responsible for poisoning were fish from the Carangidae family (n = 47) (jack), followed by fish from the Lutjanidae family (n = 27) (snapper), Serranidae family (n = 15) (grouper), Sphyraenidae family (n = 12) (barracuda), and Mullidae family (n = 12) (goatfish). One case of lionfish ciguatera was observed. 93.9% of patients experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, 76.0% presented neurological signs (mainly paresthesia, dysesthesia and pruritus) and 40.3% presented cardiovascular symptoms (bradycardia and/or hypotension). A high frequency (61.4%) of hypothermia (body temperature <36.5 °C) was observed. This study reports for the first time the relatively high frequency of cardiac symptoms and low body temperature. The monitoring of ciguatera poisoning throughout the Caribbean region must be improved, notably after reef disturbance due to Irma and Maria major cyclones.
- GeneReviews® [BOOK]
- BOOKUniversity of Washington, Seattle: Seattle (WA)
- Bohring-Opitz syndrome (BOS) is characterized by distinctive facial features and posture, growth failure, variable but usually severe intellectual disability, and variable anomalies. The facial featu...
Bohring-Opitz syndrome (BOS) is characterized by distinctive facial features and posture, growth failure, variable but usually severe intellectual disability, and variable anomalies. The facial features may include microcephaly or trigonocephaly / prominent (but not fused) metopic ridge, hypotonic facies with full cheeks, synophrys, glabellar and eyelid nevus flammeus (simplex), prominent globes, widely set eyes, palate anomalies, and micrognathia. The BOS posture, which is most striking in early childhood and often becomes less apparent with age, is characterized by flexion at the elbows with ulnar deviation and flexion of the wrists and metacarpophalangeal joints. Feeding difficulties in early childhood, including cyclic vomiting, have a significant impact on overall health; feeding tends to improve with age. Seizures are common and typically responsive to standard epileptic medications. Minor cardiac anomalies and transient bradycardia and apnea may be present. Affected individuals may experience recurrent infections, which also tend to improve with age. Isolated case reports suggest that individuals with BOS are at greater risk for Wilms tumor than the general population, but large-scale epidemiologic studies have not been conducted.
- The validity of anesthetic protocols for the surgical procedure of castration in rats. [Journal Article]
- EAExp Anim 2018 Feb 14
- To achieve surgical anesthesia in animal experimentation, it is necessary to select the appropriate anesthetic protocol by considering its pharmacological properties and the surgical procedure to be ...
To achieve surgical anesthesia in animal experimentation, it is necessary to select the appropriate anesthetic protocol by considering its pharmacological properties and the surgical procedure to be performed. However, few studies have investigated the validity of anesthetic protocols under surgical conditions in small rodents. The present study aimed to clarify the pharmacological properties of 4 anesthetic protocols during the surgical procedure of castration in rats. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were anesthetized with anesthetics, including the combination of ketamine and xylazine (K/X), the combination of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol (M/M/B), and isoflurane, and sevoflurane. Castration was performed under each anesthesia, and anesthetic depth and times were assessed, as were vital signs. The injectable anesthetics were investigated at standard and high doses. The concentration of inhalant anesthetics was adjusted to 1.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). K/X at both doses demonstrated sufficient anesthetic depth with rapid induction and recovery. However, bradycardia and hypothermia were prominent in high-dose K/X, indicating that the standard-dose is more appropriate for surgical anesthesia in castration procedures. M/M/B demonstrated high anesthetic sensitivity variation in individual animals. In contrast to injectable anesthetics, inhalant anesthetics provided stable anesthetic depth with less cardiorespiratory influence. Sevoflurane did not lead to a significant decrease in rectal temperature during the anesthetic period. Results of the present study revealed the optimal dose and pharmacological features of several anesthetic protocols for castration, and may contribute to the standardization of surgical anesthesia in rats.
- Comparison of propofol alone and in combination with ketamine or fentanyl for sedation in endoscopic ultrasonography. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Anesthesiol 2018; 71(1):43-47
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of 50 µg fentanyl or 0.5 mg/kg ketamine in a single dose during EUS reduces the dose of propofol required for sedation. However, unlike the addition of fentanyl, the addition of ketamine increased the time to recovery. Thus, 50 µg fentanyl is a good additive to propofol infusion for sedation during EUS to reduce the requirement for propofol without affecting the time to recovery.
- Antiarrhythmic drugs-clinical use and clinical decision making: a consensus document from the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology, endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS) and International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy (ISCP). [Journal Article]
- EEuropace 2018 Feb 09
- [What's new in pediatric dermatology?] [Journal Article]
- ADAnn Dermatol Venereol 2016; 143 Suppl 3:S29-S36
- The association of a birth defect and a segmental hemangioma is well established, a consensus concerning evaluation and monitoring of infants with PHACE or LUMBAR syndromes has been published. The ef...
The association of a birth defect and a segmental hemangioma is well established, a consensus concerning evaluation and monitoring of infants with PHACE or LUMBAR syndromes has been published. The efficacy of propranolol in infantile hemangioma is proven; however there were still unresolved issues concerning the safety in children; after 8 years of use on thousands of children safety data collection did not show any unexpected side effects. Topical treatment of infantile hemangiomas with beta-blockers, such as timolol, is very popular, but recent publications revealed a significant systemic absorption that could be responsible for severe side effects, such as bradycardia, in low birthweight infants. As a consequence, this therapeutic option should be considered with caution. In the last 2 years mTOR inhibitors have been tested in low-flow vascular malformations with varying success, but progress remains to be done in the treatment of vascular abnormalities. Today, genetics has led to advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and in the future targeted therapies could probably be feasible. Skin barrier deficiency is responsible for the development of allergic phenomena in atopic patients, since it has been shown that sensibilisation, even to food, could probably be induced by skin contact. Unfortunately, the topical treatment with crisaborole, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, does not look like a revolution in children atopic dermatitis, its efficacy seems equivalent to emollient application. In the field of infectious diseases, changes in viral outbreaks are the most reported. Furthermore epidemic Zika virus, enteroviruses are responsible for expanded dermatological manifestations and also severe meningoencephalitis. Paraviral character of various eruptions, such as gloves and socks syndrome or eruptive pseudoangiomatosis is challenged.
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- Bradycardia is a Specific Phenotype of Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia Induced by RYR2 Mutations. [Journal Article]
- IMIntern Med 2018 Feb 09
- Background Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a lethal inherited disease characterized by ventricular arrhythmias induced by physical exercise or emotional stress. The ma...
Background Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a lethal inherited disease characterized by ventricular arrhythmias induced by physical exercise or emotional stress. The major cause of CPVT is mutations in RYR2, which encodes the cardiac ryanodine receptor channel. Recent advances in sequencing technology have yielded incidental findings of RYR2 variants in other cardiac diseases. Analyzing the characteristics of RYR2 variants related to CPVT will be useful for differentiation from those related to other cardiac diseases. We examined the phenotypic characteristics of patients with RYR2 variants. Methods Seventy-nine probands carrying RYR2 variants whose diagnoses were either CPVT (n=68) or long QT syndrome (LQTS; n=11) were enrolled. We compared the characteristics of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the location of the RYR2 mutations-N-terminal (NT), central region (CR) or C-terminal (CT)-between the two patient groups. Results Using the ECGs available from 53 probands before β-blocker therapies, we analyzed the heart rates (HRs). CPVT probands showed bradycardia more frequently (25/44; 57%) than LQTS probands (1/9; 11%; p=0.024). In CPVT patients, 20 mutations were located in NT, 25 in CR and 23 in CT. In LQTS patients, 5 mutations were located in NT, 2 in CR and 4 in CT. There were no significant differences in the locations of the RYR2 mutations between the phenotypes. Conclusions Bradycardia was highly correlated with the phenotype of CPVT. When a clinically-diagnosed LQTS patient with bradycardia carries an RYR2 mutation, we should be careful to avoid making a misdiagnosis, as the patient may actually have CPVT.