- No evidence for accelerated ageing-related brain pathology in treated HIV: longitudinal neuroimaging results from the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) project. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Jan 04
- CONCLUSIONS: Our finding indicate that when receiving successful treatment, middle-aged PLWH are not at increased risk of accelerated ageing-related brain changes or cognitive decline over two years, when compared to closely-matched HIV-negative controls.
- Mycobacterium Genavense Granuloma Mimicking a Brain Tumor: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2017 Aug 07; 9(8):e1547
- Mycobacterium genavense (M. genavense) is a rare, non-tuberculous organism that commonly leads to gastrointestinal infections in immunocompromised patients. Only two cases of intracranial M. genavens...
Mycobacterium genavense (M. genavense) is a rare, non-tuberculous organism that commonly leads to gastrointestinal infections in immunocompromised patients. Only two cases of intracranial M. genavense infection have been reported to date. We describe a third case of M. genavense granuloma mimicking a right parietal intracranial mass, and review the literature on this exceedingly rare pathology.
- Visceral fat is associated with brain structure independent of human immunodeficiency virus infection status. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurovirol 2017; 23(3):385-393
- The combined effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), obesity, and elevated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on brain structure are unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis of Multicenter AIDS Cohor...
The combined effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), obesity, and elevated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on brain structure are unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants, we determined associations between HIV serostatus, adiposity, and brain structure. Men (133 HIV+, 84 HIV-) in the MACS Cardiovascular 2 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-studies with CT-quantified VAT and whole brain MRI measured within 1 year were assessed. Voxel-based morphometry analyzed brain volumes. Men were stratified by elevated (eVAT, ≥100cm2) or "normal" (nVAT, <100cm2) VAT. Forward stepwise modeling determined associations between clinical and demographic variables and regional brain volumes. eVAT was present in 67% of men. Groups were similar in age and education, but eVAT men were more likely to be HIV+ and have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, body mass index >25 kg/m2, smaller gray and white matter volumes, and larger cerebrospinal fluid volume than nVAT men. In multivariate analysis, hypertension, higher adiponectin, higher interleukin-6, age, diabetes mellitus, higher body mass index, and eVAT were associated with brain atrophy (p < 0.05, ordered by increasing strength of association), but HIV serostatus and related factors were generally not. No interactions were observed. Greater VAT was associated with smaller bilateral posterior hippocampus and left mesial temporal lobe and temporal stem white matter volume. Traditional risk factors are more strongly associated with brain atrophy than HIV serostatus, with VAT having the strongest association. However, HIV+ MACS men had disproportionately greater VAT, suggesting the risk for central nervous system effects may be amplified in this population.
- Cardiorespiratory fitness levels and moderators in people with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]
- PMPrev Med 2016; 93:106-114
- Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. CRF levels and moderators among people living with HIV (PLWH) are unknown. The aim of t...
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. CRF levels and moderators among people living with HIV (PLWH) are unknown. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to (1) determine mean CRF in PLWH and compare levels with age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs), (2) explore moderators of CRF, (3) and (4) explore moderators of CRF outcomes following physical activity (PA) interventions. Major electronic databases were searched systematically for articles reporting CRF expressed as maximum or peak oxygen uptake (ml/min/kg) in PLWH. A random effects meta-analysis calculating the pooled mean CRF including subgroup- and meta-regression analyses was undertaken. Across 21 eligible studies, the CRF level was 26.4ml/kg/min (95% CI=24.6 to 28.1) (n=1010; mean age=41years). There were insufficient data to compare CRF levels with HCs. A higher body mass index (β=-0.99, 95% CI=-1.93 to -0.06, P=0.04), older age (β=-0.31, 95% CI=-0.58 to -0.04, P=0.02) and the presence of lipodystrophy (β=-4.63, 95% CI=-7.88 to -1.39, P=0.005) were significant moderators of lower CRF levels. Higher CD4+ counts (β=0.004, 95% CI=0.0007 to 0.007, P=0.016), supervised interventions (P<0.001) and interventions with a lower frequency of weekly sessions (2 or 3 versus 4 times) (P<0.001) predicted a better CRF-outcome following PA. CRF levels of PLWH are among the lowest in comparison to other vulnerable populations. More research on the most optimal physical activity intervention characteristics is needed.
- Clinical Utility of Thallium-201 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Cerebrospinal Fluid Epstein-Barr Virus Detection Using Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of AIDS-Related Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2016; 8(5):e606
- CONCLUSIONS: Thallium-201 SPECT has a relatively high positive predictive value with regards to the diagnosis of PCNSL, which suggests that patients with positive results could undergo empiric radiation treatment without resorting to brain biopsy. However, the predictive value can be increased by testing for CSF EBV using PCR. Alternatively, if CSF cannot be safely obtained because of mass effect, we believe that these data still suggest that empiric radiation treatment should be considered when discussing treatment options with patients with a positive thallium-201 SPECT.
- Progesterone therapy for the treatment of non-cancer cachexia: a systematic review. [Review]
- BSBMJ Support Palliat Care 2016; 6(3):276-86
- CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence does not support the use of progesterone therapies for non-cancer cachexia. There may however be a limited role for its use as an appetite stimulant in a palliative context on a case-by-case basis.
- HIV-1 transgenic rats display mitochondrial abnormalities consistent with abnormal energy generation and distribution. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurovirol 2016; 22(5):564-574
- With the advent of the combination antiretroviral therapy era (cART), the development of AIDS has been largely limited in the USA. Unfortunately, despite the development of efficacious treatments, HI...
With the advent of the combination antiretroviral therapy era (cART), the development of AIDS has been largely limited in the USA. Unfortunately, despite the development of efficacious treatments, HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) can still develop, and as many HIV-1 positive individuals age, the prevalence of HAND is likely to rise because HAND manifests in the brain with very low levels of virus. However, the mechanism producing this viral disorder is still debated. Interestingly, HIV-1 infection exposes neurons to proteins including Tat, Nef, and Vpr which can drastically alter mitochondrial properties. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been posited to be a cornerstone of the development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we investigated mitochondria in an animal model of HAND. Using an HIV-1 transgenic rat model expressing seven of the nine HIV-1 viral proteins, mitochondrial functional and proteomic analysis were performed on a subset of mitochondria that are particularly sensitive to cellular changes, the neuronal synaptic mitochondria. Quantitative mass spectroscopic studies followed by statistical analysis revealed extensive proteome alteration in this model paralleling mitochondrial abnormalities identified in HIV-1 animal models and HIV-1-infected humans. Novel mitochondrial protein changes were discovered in the electron transport chain (ETC), the glycolytic pathways, mitochondrial trafficking proteins, and proteins involved in various energy pathways, and these findings correlated well with the function of the mitochondria as assessed by a mitochondrial coupling and flux assay. By targeting these proteins and proteins upstream in the same pathway, we may be able to limit the development of HAND.
- HIV and Childhood Sexual Violence: Implications for Sexual Risk Behaviors and HIV Testing in Tanzania. [Journal Article]
- AEAIDS Educ Prev 2015; 27(5):474-87
- Prior research has established an association between sexual violence and HIV. Exposure to sexual violence during childhood can profoundly impact brain architecture and stress regulatory response. As...
Prior research has established an association between sexual violence and HIV. Exposure to sexual violence during childhood can profoundly impact brain architecture and stress regulatory response. As a result, individuals who have experienced such trauma may engage in sexual risk-taking behavior and could benefit from targeted interventions. In 2009, nationally representative data were collected on violence against children in Tanzania from 13-24 year old respondents (n=3,739). Analyses show that females aged 19-24 (n=579) who experienced childhood sexual violence, were more likely to report no/infrequent condom use in the past 12 months (AOR=3.0, CI [1.5, 6.1], p=0.0017) and multiple sex partners in the past 12 months (AOR=2.3, CI [1.0, 5.1], p=0.0491), but no more likely to know where to get HIV testing or to have ever been tested. Victims of childhood sexual violence could benefit from targeted interventions to mitigate impacts of violence and prevent HIV.
- Interacting partners of macrophage-secreted cathepsin B contribute to HIV-induced neuronal apoptosis. [Journal Article]
- AIDSAIDS 2015 Oct 23; 29(16):2081-92
- CONCLUSIONS: Inhibiting SAPC-cathepsin B interaction protects against HIV-induced neuronal death and may help to find alternative treatments for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.
New Search Next
- CXCL8 as a Potential Therapeutic Target for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders. [Review]
- CDCurr Drug Targets 2016; 17(1):111-21
- Chemokine CXCL8 is a low molecular weight neutrophil chemoattractant implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Increased expression of CXCL8 has been...
Chemokine CXCL8 is a low molecular weight neutrophil chemoattractant implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Increased expression of CXCL8 has been reported in serum, plasma and brain of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected individuals with neurocognitive impairment, indicating its role in neuroinflammation associated with HIV-1 infection of the brain. Since chemokines are critical in eliciting immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS), CXCL8 is of particular importance for being one of the first chemokines described in the brain. Activation of astrocytes and microglia by HIV-1 and virus associated proteins results in production of this chemokine in the brain microenvironment. Consequently, CXCL8 exerts its effect on target cells via Gprotein coupled receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. Neutrophils are the main target cells for CXCL8; however, microglia and neurons also express CXCR1/CXCR2 and therefore are important targets for CXCL8-mediated crosstalk. The objective of this review is to focus on CXCL8 production, signaling and regulation in neuronal and glial cells in response to HIV-1 infection. We highlight the role of HIV-1 secreted proteins such as trans-activator of transcription, envelope glycoprotein, negative regulatory factor and viral protein r in the regulation of CXCL8. We discuss dual role of CXCL8 in neurodegeneration as well as neuroprotection in the CNS. Thus, targeting CXCL8 through the development of CXCR1/CXCR2-based therapeutic strategies to either selectively agonize or antagonize receptors may be able to selectively promote neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory outcomes, leading to significant clinical applications in many neuroinflammatory CNS diseases, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.