- Primary intracranial leiomyosarcoma among patients with AIDS in the era of new chemotherapeutic and biological agents. [Case Reports]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Sep 15; 2018
- Primary intracranial leiomyosarcoma (PIL) is a rare non-infectious aetiology of focal mass lesions among HIV-infected individuals. With only 16 published cases worldwide, information on its pathophys...
Primary intracranial leiomyosarcoma (PIL) is a rare non-infectious aetiology of focal mass lesions among HIV-infected individuals. With only 16 published cases worldwide, information on its pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical course and management options is limited. We report two cases of PIL in HIV-infected Filipino men who presented with 1-3 months history of persistent headache, progressing in severity. Both had cranial MRI revealing intracranial mass diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma by excision biopsy and immunohistochemical staining. Both patients underwent adjuvant cranial radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Biologics were initiated in one patient. Both patients were alive with evidence of the disease.
- HIV/AIDS and an overweight body mass are associated with excessive intra-individual variability in response preparation. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurovirol 2018; 24(5):577-586
- Factors other than HIV/AIDS may influence the cognitive function of patients living with this disease. The present study tested the influence of a common comorbid problem-an overweight body mass. It ...
Factors other than HIV/AIDS may influence the cognitive function of patients living with this disease. The present study tested the influence of a common comorbid problem-an overweight body mass. It also examined intra-task variabilities in performance and brain activation as potentially more sensitive indicators of dysfunction than their mean levels. One-hundred seventy-eight participants were recruited and categorized by HIV-1 serostatus (-/+) and body mass (BMI < 26/≥ 26 kg/m2). They performed a simple time estimation task during which response time accuracy and electroencephalographic readiness potentials were recorded. A few hours later, they completed a battery of tests measuring balance and gait. The analyses revealed an advantage of variability over the mean in differentiating groups: the presence of HIV-1 and an overweight body mass were independently and additively associated with greater variability across trials in readiness potential amplitude and response accuracy. The analysis also showed that intra-task variability in the readiness potential, but not in response accuracy, was predictive of decrements in single and tandem leg balance and gait velocity. The present findings suggest that an elevated body mass is associated with, and may contribute to, problems in brain function and motor behavior experienced by patients in the current era. The findings recommend a careful consideration of the manner in which these problems are measured. When the problems are episodic and subtle, measures of central tendency may be less than ideal.
- Cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children. [Journal Article]
- AIDSAIDS 2018 Jun 19; 32(10):1267-1277
- CONCLUSIONS: PHEU and PHIV have modest, significant differences in serum levels of specific inflammatory and active myocardial injury biomarkers. Higher biomarker levels were associated with lower LV mass and shifts in LV structure. Further study is warranted on the longitudinal role of cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers for targeting interventions among PHIV and PHEU youth.
- Mycobacterium Genavense Granuloma Mimicking a Brain Tumor: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2017 Aug 07; 9(8):e1547
- Mycobacterium genavense (M. genavense) is a rare, non-tuberculous organism that commonly leads to gastrointestinal infections in immunocompromised patients. Only two cases of intracranial M. genavens...
Mycobacterium genavense (M. genavense) is a rare, non-tuberculous organism that commonly leads to gastrointestinal infections in immunocompromised patients. Only two cases of intracranial M. genavense infection have been reported to date. We describe a third case of M. genavense granuloma mimicking a right parietal intracranial mass, and review the literature on this exceedingly rare pathology.
- Visceral fat is associated with brain structure independent of human immunodeficiency virus infection status. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurovirol 2017; 23(3):385-393
- The combined effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), obesity, and elevated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on brain structure are unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis of Multicenter AIDS Cohor...
The combined effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), obesity, and elevated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on brain structure are unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants, we determined associations between HIV serostatus, adiposity, and brain structure. Men (133 HIV+, 84 HIV-) in the MACS Cardiovascular 2 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-studies with CT-quantified VAT and whole brain MRI measured within 1 year were assessed. Voxel-based morphometry analyzed brain volumes. Men were stratified by elevated (eVAT, ≥100cm2) or "normal" (nVAT, <100cm2) VAT. Forward stepwise modeling determined associations between clinical and demographic variables and regional brain volumes. eVAT was present in 67% of men. Groups were similar in age and education, but eVAT men were more likely to be HIV+ and have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, body mass index >25 kg/m2, smaller gray and white matter volumes, and larger cerebrospinal fluid volume than nVAT men. In multivariate analysis, hypertension, higher adiponectin, higher interleukin-6, age, diabetes mellitus, higher body mass index, and eVAT were associated with brain atrophy (p < 0.05, ordered by increasing strength of association), but HIV serostatus and related factors were generally not. No interactions were observed. Greater VAT was associated with smaller bilateral posterior hippocampus and left mesial temporal lobe and temporal stem white matter volume. Traditional risk factors are more strongly associated with brain atrophy than HIV serostatus, with VAT having the strongest association. However, HIV+ MACS men had disproportionately greater VAT, suggesting the risk for central nervous system effects may be amplified in this population.
- Cardiorespiratory fitness levels and moderators in people with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]
- PMPrev Med 2016; 93:106-114
- Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. CRF levels and moderators among people living with HIV (PLWH) are unknown. The aim of t...
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. CRF levels and moderators among people living with HIV (PLWH) are unknown. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to (1) determine mean CRF in PLWH and compare levels with age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs), (2) explore moderators of CRF, (3) and (4) explore moderators of CRF outcomes following physical activity (PA) interventions. Major electronic databases were searched systematically for articles reporting CRF expressed as maximum or peak oxygen uptake (ml/min/kg) in PLWH. A random effects meta-analysis calculating the pooled mean CRF including subgroup- and meta-regression analyses was undertaken. Across 21 eligible studies, the CRF level was 26.4ml/kg/min (95% CI=24.6 to 28.1) (n=1010; mean age=41years). There were insufficient data to compare CRF levels with HCs. A higher body mass index (β=-0.99, 95% CI=-1.93 to -0.06, P=0.04), older age (β=-0.31, 95% CI=-0.58 to -0.04, P=0.02) and the presence of lipodystrophy (β=-4.63, 95% CI=-7.88 to -1.39, P=0.005) were significant moderators of lower CRF levels. Higher CD4+ counts (β=0.004, 95% CI=0.0007 to 0.007, P=0.016), supervised interventions (P<0.001) and interventions with a lower frequency of weekly sessions (2 or 3 versus 4 times) (P<0.001) predicted a better CRF-outcome following PA. CRF levels of PLWH are among the lowest in comparison to other vulnerable populations. More research on the most optimal physical activity intervention characteristics is needed.
- Clinical Utility of Thallium-201 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Cerebrospinal Fluid Epstein-Barr Virus Detection Using Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of AIDS-Related Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2016 May 10; 8(5):e606
- CONCLUSIONS: Thallium-201 SPECT has a relatively high positive predictive value with regards to the diagnosis of PCNSL, which suggests that patients with positive results could undergo empiric radiation treatment without resorting to brain biopsy. However, the predictive value can be increased by testing for CSF EBV using PCR. Alternatively, if CSF cannot be safely obtained because of mass effect, we believe that these data still suggest that empiric radiation treatment should be considered when discussing treatment options with patients with a positive thallium-201 SPECT.
- Progesterone therapy for the treatment of non-cancer cachexia: a systematic review. [Review]
- BSBMJ Support Palliat Care 2016; 6(3):276-86
- CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence does not support the use of progesterone therapies for non-cancer cachexia. There may however be a limited role for its use as an appetite stimulant in a palliative context on a case-by-case basis.
- HIV-1 transgenic rats display mitochondrial abnormalities consistent with abnormal energy generation and distribution. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurovirol 2016; 22(5):564-574
- With the advent of the combination antiretroviral therapy era (cART), the development of AIDS has been largely limited in the USA. Unfortunately, despite the development of efficacious treatments, HI...
With the advent of the combination antiretroviral therapy era (cART), the development of AIDS has been largely limited in the USA. Unfortunately, despite the development of efficacious treatments, HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) can still develop, and as many HIV-1 positive individuals age, the prevalence of HAND is likely to rise because HAND manifests in the brain with very low levels of virus. However, the mechanism producing this viral disorder is still debated. Interestingly, HIV-1 infection exposes neurons to proteins including Tat, Nef, and Vpr which can drastically alter mitochondrial properties. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been posited to be a cornerstone of the development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we investigated mitochondria in an animal model of HAND. Using an HIV-1 transgenic rat model expressing seven of the nine HIV-1 viral proteins, mitochondrial functional and proteomic analysis were performed on a subset of mitochondria that are particularly sensitive to cellular changes, the neuronal synaptic mitochondria. Quantitative mass spectroscopic studies followed by statistical analysis revealed extensive proteome alteration in this model paralleling mitochondrial abnormalities identified in HIV-1 animal models and HIV-1-infected humans. Novel mitochondrial protein changes were discovered in the electron transport chain (ETC), the glycolytic pathways, mitochondrial trafficking proteins, and proteins involved in various energy pathways, and these findings correlated well with the function of the mitochondria as assessed by a mitochondrial coupling and flux assay. By targeting these proteins and proteins upstream in the same pathway, we may be able to limit the development of HAND.
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- HIV and Childhood Sexual Violence: Implications for Sexual Risk Behaviors and HIV Testing in Tanzania. [Journal Article]
- AEAIDS Educ Prev 2015; 27(5):474-87
- Prior research has established an association between sexual violence and HIV. Exposure to sexual violence during childhood can profoundly impact brain architecture and stress regulatory response. As...
Prior research has established an association between sexual violence and HIV. Exposure to sexual violence during childhood can profoundly impact brain architecture and stress regulatory response. As a result, individuals who have experienced such trauma may engage in sexual risk-taking behavior and could benefit from targeted interventions. In 2009, nationally representative data were collected on violence against children in Tanzania from 13-24 year old respondents (n=3,739). Analyses show that females aged 19-24 (n=579) who experienced childhood sexual violence, were more likely to report no/infrequent condom use in the past 12 months (AOR=3.0, CI [1.5, 6.1], p=0.0017) and multiple sex partners in the past 12 months (AOR=2.3, CI [1.0, 5.1], p=0.0491), but no more likely to know where to get HIV testing or to have ever been tested. Victims of childhood sexual violence could benefit from targeted interventions to mitigate impacts of violence and prevent HIV.