- Recurrent Glioblastomas Exhibit Higher Expression of Biomarkers with Stem-like Properties. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosci Rural Pract 2018 Jan-Mar; 9(1):86-91
- CONCLUSIONS: A significant increase in the expression of SOX2 in recurrent tumors probably indicates the presence of undifferentiated cells with stem-like properties in these tumors. EGFR is known to mediate SOX2 expression thereby resulting in stemness of the glioma cancer cells, which could further explain its overexpression in recurrent GBMs. Furthermore, a decreased expression of TOP2A observed in the recurrent tumors could probably be due to reduction in chemosensitivity to temozolomide, which has been shown in earlier studies. We also noted that p53 expression remained unaltered in the recurrent tumors when compared to the primary, suggesting the absence of preferential clonal expansion of p53 mutant cells following exposure to radiochemotherapy. Our study reiterates the fact that GBM recurrences are associated with molecular alterations that probably contribute to radiochemoresistance, increased invasiveness, therapeutic efficacy, and stemness.
- Skull metastasis revealing a renal tumor: A case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Surg Case Rep 2018 Feb 10; 43:56-60
- CONCLUSIONS: Although metastases to the head and neck occur infrequently, they should be considered when evaluating any unusual subcutaneous mass in the head and neck. RCC should not be discounted when sites as unlikely as the calvaria are evaluated. Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma is complex, and the optimal regimen for achieving a lasting response without severe toxicity has not yet been defined.
- Diagnostic Accuracy of 2-Hydroxyglutarate Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Newly-Diagnosed Brain Mass and Suspected Recurrent Gliomas. [Journal Article]
- NONeuro Oncol 2018 Feb 09
- CONCLUSIONS: 2HG MRS provides diagnostic utility for IDH-mutant gliomas both preoperatively and at time of suspected tumor recurrence. SVS has a better diagnostic performance for untreated IDH-mutant gliomas, whereas CSI demonstrates greater performance in identifying recurrent tumors.
- Quantification of glioblastoma mass effect by lateral ventricle displacement. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Feb 12; 8(1):2827
- Mass effect has demonstrated prognostic significance for glioblastoma, but is poorly quantified. Here we define and characterize a novel neuroimaging parameter, lateral ventricle displacement (LVd), ...
Mass effect has demonstrated prognostic significance for glioblastoma, but is poorly quantified. Here we define and characterize a novel neuroimaging parameter, lateral ventricle displacement (LVd), which quantifies mass effect in glioblastoma patients. LVd is defined as the magnitude of displacement from the center of mass of the lateral ventricle volume in glioblastoma patients relative to that a normal reference brain. Pre-operative MR images from 214 glioblastoma patients from The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) were segmented using iterative probabilistic voxel labeling (IPVL). LVd, contrast enhancing volumes (CEV) and FLAIR hyper-intensity volumes (FHV) were determined. Associations with patient survival and tumor genomics were investigated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Glioblastoma patients had significantly higher LVd relative to patients without brain tumors. The variance of LVd was not explained by tumor volume, as defined by CEV or FLAIR. LVd was robustly associated with glioblastoma survival in Cox models which accounted for both age and Karnofsky's Performance Scale (KPS) (p = 0.006). Glioblastomas with higher LVd demonstrated increased expression of genes associated with tumor proliferation and decreased expression of genes associated with tumor invasion. Our results suggest LVd is a quantitative measure of glioblastoma mass effect and a prognostic imaging biomarker.
- Undifferentiated thymic carcinoma with intracranial metastasis in a two-year-old. [Journal Article]
- ACAsian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2018 Jan 01; :218492318759346
- Thymic carcinoma with central nervous system involvement is very rare in children. A 27-month-old girl presented with a unilateral squint, vomiting, and behavioral changes. Imaging studies showed a s...
Thymic carcinoma with central nervous system involvement is very rare in children. A 27-month-old girl presented with a unilateral squint, vomiting, and behavioral changes. Imaging studies showed a silent anterior mediastinal mass and a large metastatic mass at the base of the skull. Biopsy of the anterior mediastinal mass confirmed an undifferentiated tumor consistent with thymic carcinoma. The child died within 3 months of the onset of symptoms, due to progression of the disease. These lethal tumors of unknown histogeneses and etiology are aggressive in nature, resistant to therapy, and have a rapidly fatal course.
- Brain metastasis in a patient with melanoma receiving Pembrolizumab therapy: A case report and review of the literature. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96(50):e9278
- CONCLUSIONS: In the case reported here, a delayed and mixed response was observed after Pembrolizumab was used. Because of causing severe pulmonary infection, the use of steroids should be considered carefully when treating immunorelated adverse events. It seemed that the Pembrolizumab has a positive effect on melanoma brain metastases especially combined with other treatments. However, there are still some challenges including patient selection, predictors of response, drug tolerance, optimizing combination strategies and control of adverse effects. More carefully designed clinical trials are urgently needed.
- Central nervous system leukemia in a patient with concurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma and acute myeloid leukaemia: A case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96(52):e9199
- CONCLUSIONS: The co-occurrence of NPC and AML is rare and prognosis is poor. Radiotherapy in NPC can disrupt the blood-brain barrier, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of central nervous system leukemia. Early alert and prevention of central nervous system leukemia following radiotherapy in NPC patient is recommended.
- Bone mineral density is compromised in very long-term survivors of irradiated childhood brain tumor. [Journal Article]
- AOActa Oncol 2018 Jan 27; :1-10
- CONCLUSIONS: Low BMD should be taken in consideration in treatment of irradiated childhood brain tumor survivors especially in those with previous fractures in long bones.
- Birth weight and body mass index z-score in childhood brain tumors: A cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jan 26; 8(1):1642
- Children with brain tumors (CBT) are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes compared to the general population, in which birth weight is a risk factor for these diseases. Howeve...
Children with brain tumors (CBT) are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes compared to the general population, in which birth weight is a risk factor for these diseases. However, this is not known in CBT. The primary aim of this study was to explore the association between birth weight and body mass measures in CBT, compared to non-cancer controls. This is a secondary data analysis using cross-sectional data from the CanDECIDE study (n = 78 CBT and n = 133 non-cancer controls). Age, sex, and birth weight (grams) were self-reported, and confirmed through examination of the medical records. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight measures and reported as kg/m2. BMI z-scores were obtained for subjects under the age of 20 years. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between birth weight and BMI and BMI z-score, adjusted for age, sex, puberty, and fat mass percentage. Higher birth weight was associated with higher BMI and BMI z-score among CBT and controls. In conclusion, birth weight is a risk factor for higher body mass during childhood in CBT, and this may help the identification of children at risk of future obesity and cardiometabolic risk.
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- Epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of non-functioning pituitary adenomas. [Review]
- PPituitary 2018 Jan 24
- CONCLUSIONS: This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical behaviour and diagnostic approach of non-functioning pituitary adenomas.