- Window of opportunity trials in head and neck cancer. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cancer Metastasis Treat 2019; 5
- Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a large global burden of disease and poor survival outcomes. Recent targeted therapies and immunotherapies have been explored in HNSCC, but there has…
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a large global burden of disease and poor survival outcomes. Recent targeted therapies and immunotherapies have been explored in HNSCC, but there has been limited translation to clinical practice outside of recurrent or metastatic cases. Window of opportunity settings, where novel agents are administered between cancer diagnosis and planned definitive therapy, have begun to be employed in HNSCC. Tumor tissue biopsies are obtained at diagnosis and after the investigation treatment, along with other biospecimens and radiographic exams. Thus, this study design can characterize the safety profiles, pharmacodynamics, and initial tumor responses to novel therapies in a treatment-naïve subject. Early window studies have also identified potential biomarkers to predict sensitivity or resistance to treatments. However, these early investigations have revealed multiple challenges associated with this trial design. In this review, we discuss recent window of opportunity trials in HNSCC and how they inform design considerations for future studies.
- Conservative surgical treatment of a borderline ovarian Brenner tumour in a pre-menopausal woman with subsequent pregnancy: case report of a rare entity. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Obstet Gynaecol 2019 Jul 13; :1-2
- External validation of molecular subtype classifications of colorectal cancer based on microsatellite instability, CIMP, BRAF and KRAS. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Cancer 2019 Jul 11; 19(1):681
- CONCLUSIONS: External validation of three previously proposed classifications confirmed findings of worse survival for CRC patients with MSS subtypes and BRAF or KRAS mutations. Regarding MSI subtypes, other patient characteristics such as stage of the tumor, may influence the potential survival benefit. Further integration of methylation, genetic, and immunological information is needed to develop and validate a comprehensive classification that will have relevance for use in clinical practice.
- Changes in colorectal cancer screening use after introduction of alternative screening offer in Germany: Prospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Cancer 2019 Jul 10
- In October 2002, screening colonoscopy was added to the German colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program as an alternative to fecal occult blood test (FOBT). We aimed to evaluate the change in CRC sc…
In October 2002, screening colonoscopy was added to the German colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program as an alternative to fecal occult blood test (FOBT). We aimed to evaluate the change in CRC screening use after introduction of the dual screening offer and to assess determinants of screening use. Data were drawn from a population-based cohort study initiated during 2000-2002 in Germany (n=5845, age range at recruitment: 50-75 years). We conducted both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses to obtain uptake rates of CRC screening based on four waves of data. Age-group specific proportions of participants having had FOBT within two years remained essentially unchanged at 61%-67% between 2000-2002 (1st wave) and 2005-2007 (3rd wave). The proportions of participants having undergone screening colonoscopy within 10 years increased from 23%-29% to 46%-57%, leading to a substantial overall increase in being up-to-date with CRC screening from 66%-68% to 77%-80%. In 2008-2010 (4th wave), FOBT use declined and colonoscopy use continued to increase. Obesity was significantly associated with lower prevalence of being up-to-date with FOBT (OR at 8-year follow-up 0.68; 95% CI 0.58-0.80) and screening colonoscopy (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.62-0.86). Also, smokers were less likely to have ever used FOBT (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.40-0.75) or colonoscopy (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.63-0.90) compared to non-smokers. Following the introduction of dual screening offer, the overall adherence to CRC screening steeply increased, mainly due to an increase in screening colonoscopy uptake. Screening tests kept being underused by obese people and smokers who are at elevated CRC risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Laser brain cancer surgery in a xenograft model guided by optical coherence tomography. [Journal Article]
- TTheranostics 2019; 9(12):3555-3564
- CONCLUSIONS: Precise and bloodless tumor resection under OCT image guidance is demonstrated in the murine xenograft brain cancer model. Tumor margins and vasculature are accurately made visible without need for exogenous contrast agents.
- Targeting the tumor microenvironment and T cell metabolism for effective cancer immunotherapy. [Review]
- EJEur J Immunol 2019 Jul 04
- The successful implementation of immunotherapies has provided new impetus in the fight against cancer. Antibody-mediated blockade of immune checkpoint molecules PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 has had a dramat…
The successful implementation of immunotherapies has provided new impetus in the fight against cancer. Antibody-mediated blockade of immune checkpoint molecules PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 has had a dramatic impact upon the treatment of previously intractable cancers such as malignant melanoma, while adoptive cell therapies using chimeric antigen receptor-bearing T cells have proven highly efficacious in B cell leukemia. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms by which tumors evade or become resistant to these immunotherapies. In this regard, approaches to broaden the applicability and enhance the efficacy of immunotherapies increasingly include modulation of tumor and immune cell metabolism. In this mini-review, we highlight the most recent studies describing novel approaches and targets for the manipulation of the tumor microenvironment and T cell metabolism and describe how these approaches are being combined with current immunotherapies in preclinical studies.
- Occupations and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Occup Environ Med 2019; 61(5):397-404
- CONCLUSIONS: We found associations between certain occupations and HNC risks, including for subsites, with a duration-response relationship.
- Tandem CAR T cells targeting HER2 and IL13Rα2 mitigate tumor antigen escape. [Expression of Concern]
- JCIJ Clin Invest 2019 Jul 02; 130
- Plasmacytoid dendritic cells orchestrate innate and adaptive anti-tumor immunity induced by oncolytic coxsackievirus A21. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Immunother Cancer 2019 Jul 01; 7(1):164
- CONCLUSIONS: This work supports the development of CVA21 as an immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of both AML and MM. Additionally, the data presented provides an important insight into the mechanisms of CVA21-mediated immunotherapy to aid the development of clinical biomarkers to predict response and rationalize future drug combinations.
New Search Next
- Whole-blood DNA Methylation Markers for Risk Stratification in Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review. [Review]
- CCancers (Basel) 2019 Jun 28; 11(7)
- DNA methylation profiles within whole-blood samples have been reported to be associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) occurrence and might enable risk stratification for CRC. We systematically reviewe…
DNA methylation profiles within whole-blood samples have been reported to be associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) occurrence and might enable risk stratification for CRC. We systematically reviewed and summarized studies addressing the association of whole-blood DNA methylation markers and risk of developing CRC or its precursors. We searched PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge to identify relevant studies published until 12th November 2018. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study population characteristics, candidate genes, methylation measurement methods, methylation levels of patients in comparison to healthy controls, p-values, and odds ratios of the markers. Overall, 19 studies reporting 102 methylation markers for risk assessment of colorectal neoplasms met our inclusion criteria. The studies mostly used Methylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MS-PCR) for assessing the methylation status of a defined set of genes. Only two studies applied array-based genome-wide assays to assess the methylation levels. Five studies incorporated panels consisting of 2-10 individual methylation markers to assess their potential for stratifying the risk of developing colorectal neoplasms. However, none of these associations was confirmed in an independent cohort. In conclusion, whole-blood DNA methylation markers may be useful as biomarkers for risk stratification in CRC screening, but reproducible risk prediction algorithms are yet to be established by large scale epigenome-wide studies with thorough validation of results in prospective study cohorts including large screening populations. The possibilities of enhancing predictive power by combining methylation data with polygenetic risk scores and environmental risk factors need to be explored.