- Novel protein chip for the detection of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus. [Journal Article]
- BVBMC Vet Res 2018 Sep 17; 14(1):284
- CONCLUSIONS: Two microarray assays, which were rapid, specific, sensitive, and relatively simple, were developed for the detection of an antibody against IBV. These methods can be of great value for the surveillance of pathogens and monitoring the efficiency of vaccination.
- Nebulized N-Acetylcysteine for Management of Plastic Bronchitis. [Journal Article]
- IPIndian Pediatr 2018 Aug 15; 55(8):701-703
- Plastic bronchitis is characterized by formation of extensive obstructive endobronchial casts and high recurrence rates.
Plastic bronchitis is characterized by formation of extensive obstructive endobronchial casts and high recurrence rates.
- Recombinant Infectious Bronchitis Viruses expressing chimaeric spike glycoproteins induce partial protective immunity against homologous challenge despite limited replication in vivo. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2018 Sep 12
- Vaccination regimes against Infectious bronchitis virus, which are based on a single virus serotype, often induce insufficient levels of cross-protection against serotypes and two or more antigenical...
Vaccination regimes against Infectious bronchitis virus, which are based on a single virus serotype, often induce insufficient levels of cross-protection against serotypes and two or more antigenically diverse vaccines are used in attempt to provide broader protection. Amino acid differences in the surface protein, spike (S), in particular the S1 subunit, are associated with poor cross-protection. Here, homologous vaccination trials with recombinant IBVs, based on the apathogenic strain, BeauR, were conducted to elucidate the role of S1 in protection. A single vaccination of SPF-chickens with rIBV expressing S1 of virulent strains M41 or QX, BeauR-M41(S1) and BeauR-QX(S1), gave incomplete protection against homologous challenge, based on ciliary activity and clinical signs. There could be conformational issues with the spike if heterologous S1 and S2 are linked, suggesting a homologous S2 might be essential. To address this, a homologous vaccination-challenge trial incorporating rIBVs expressing full spike from M41, BeauR-M41(S), and S2 subunit from M41, BeauR-M41(S2) was conducted. All chimaeric viruses grew to similar titres in vitro, induced virus-specific partial protective immunity, evident by cellular infiltrations, reductions in viral RNA load in the trachea and conjunctiva and higher serum anti-IBV titres. Collectively, these show that vaccination with rIBVs primed the birds for challenge but the viruses were cleared rapidly from the mucosal tissues in the head. Chimaeric S1 and S2 viruses did not protect as effectively as BeauR-M41(S) based on ciliary activity and clinical signs. Booster vaccinations and a rIBV with improved in vivo replication may improve the levels of protection.IMPORTANCE Infectious bronchitis virus causes an acute, highly contagious respiratory disease, responsible for significant economic losses to the poultry industry. Amino acid differences in the surface protein, spike (S), in particular the S1 subunit, have been associated with poor cross-protection. Available vaccines give poor cross-protection and rationally designed live attenuated vaccines, based on apathogenic BeauR, could address these. Here, to determine the role of S1 in protection, a series of homologous vaccination trials with rIBVs were conducted. Single vaccinations with chimaeric rIBVs induced virus-specific partial protective immunity, characterised by reduction in viral load and serum antibody titres. However, BeauR-M41(S) was the only vaccination to improve the level of protection against clinical signs and the loss of tracheal ciliary activity. Growth characteristics show all of the rIBVs replicated in vitro to similar levels. Booster vaccinations and a rIBV with improved in vivo replication may improve the levels of protection.
- [Varieties textual research on "Bangjian": traditional Tibetan medicine including blue, black and variegated flowers]. [Journal Article]
- ZZZhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2018; 43(16):3404-3411
- "Bangjian" were traditional Tibetan medicine-flowers from Gentianaceae, which were widely used and had a long medicinal history for the function of detoxifying, curing heat symptoms and treating the ...
"Bangjian" were traditional Tibetan medicine-flowers from Gentianaceae, which were widely used and had a long medicinal history for the function of detoxifying, curing heat symptoms and treating the laryngitis. The Tibetan compound preparation endowed SFDA approval number always used Bangjian aas the main raw materials for relieving cough, asthma and treating respiratory diseases such as acute and chronic bronchitis. Its commodity medicinal materials were also sold in Qinghai, Sichuan, Tibet and other local medicinal materials market and local specialty marke. However, when recorded by literatures of Tibetan medicine, Bangjian were often classified into white, blue and black or white, blue and variegated according to color of flowers, leading to disordered varieties. In this paper, different Bangjian including their original plants and the main application varieties were studied and authenticated by textual research, wild specimen collection, investigation and collection of samples from Tibetan hospitals，Tibetan pharmaceutical factories and medical material markets. Results showed that Bangjian-including blue, black and variegated flowers were originated from 14 species and 3 varietas according to literatures, and the main application varieties mainly come from Ser. Ornatae of Sect. Monopodiae, such as Gentiana veitchiorum for the most, G. sino-ornata as well as G. lawrencei var. farreri. Suggestion about establishing the quality standard of Bangjian was gived, which provided reference in reasonable use and scientific research for Bangjian, and also had practical value for its clinical use and development.
- Marijuana and the lung: hysteria or cause for concern? [Journal Article]
- BBreathe (Sheff) 2018; 14(3):196-205
- Increasing cannabis use and legalisation highlights the paucity of data we have on the safety of cannabis smoking for respiratory health. Unfortunately, concurrent use of tobacco among marijuana smok...
Increasing cannabis use and legalisation highlights the paucity of data we have on the safety of cannabis smoking for respiratory health. Unfortunately, concurrent use of tobacco among marijuana smokers makes it difficult to untangle individual effect of marijuana smoking. Chronic cannabis only smoking has been shown in large cohort studies to reduce forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity via increasing forced vital capacity in chronic use contrary to the picture seen in tobacco smoking. The cause of this is unclear and there are various proposed mechanisms including respiratory muscle training secondary to method of inhalation and acute anti-inflammatory effect and bronchodilation of cannabis on the airways. While cannabis smoke has been shown to increase symptoms of chronic bronchitis, it has not been definitively shown to be associated with shortness of breath or irreversible airway changes. The evidence surrounding the development of lung cancer is less clear; however, preliminary evidence does not suggest association. Bullous lung disease associated with marijuana use has long been observed in clinical practice but published evidence is limited to a total of 57 published cases and only one cross-sectional study looking at radiological changes among chronic users which did not report any increase in macroscopic emphysema. More studies are required to elucidate these missing points to further guide risk stratification, clinical diagnosis and management.
- New Insights on the Pharmacokinetics of Ulifloxacin After Administration of Prulifloxacin in Patients with Mild, Moderate and Severe Renal Impairment. [Journal Article]
- DRDrugs R D 2018; 18(3):237-245
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that prulifloxacin is a safe quinolone and is well tolerated in both subjects with normal renal function and patients with impaired renal function, requiring a minimal dosage adjustment only in patients with severe renal impairment.
- Evaluation of MEDI8852, an Anti-Influenza A Monoclonal Antibody, in Treating Acute Uncomplicated Influenza. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Aug 27
- We evaluated MEDI8852, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds a highly conserved influenza A hemagglutinin stalk epitope, in outpatients with uncomplicated influenza A infection. One hundred twe...
We evaluated MEDI8852, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds a highly conserved influenza A hemagglutinin stalk epitope, in outpatients with uncomplicated influenza A infection. One hundred twenty-six subjects aged 18-65 years were enrolled during the 2015-2016 Northern and 2016 Southern Hemisphere seasons. Subjects with symptom onset ≤5 days before dosing were randomized to four cohorts: 750 mg (cohort 1) or 3,000 mg (cohort 2) MEDI8852 (single intravenous infusion) + 75 mg oseltamivir, placebo + 75 mg oseltamivir (cohort 3), and 3,000 mg MEDI8852 alone (cohort 4). Subjects were followed through day 10 for solicited influenza symptoms, day 28 for adverse events (AEs), and day 101 for serious AEs and AEs of special interest. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected through day 7 for confirmation of influenza A infection, viral shedding, and oseltamivir and MEDI8852 susceptibility. Slightly more AEs were reported in subjects receiving MEDI8852 (cohorts 1, 2, and 4 combined: 39/93, 41.9%) than oseltamivir only (cohort 3: 10/32, 31.3%). Most AEs were mild or moderate. The most common AE was bronchitis (11/93, 11.8%; 1/32, 3.1%). Median (range) decrease in viral shedding (log10 virus genome copies/mL) was similar between the two groups (-3.58 [-6.2. 0.5]; -3.43 [-5.9, 0.9]). Genotypic analyses found a limited number of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase amino acid changes between viruses isolated before and after therapy; however, none appeared within a known oseltamivir-resistant site or MEDI8852-binding region. The safety profile of MEDI8852 supports its continued development for treatment of patients hospitalized with influenza A infection.
- Indications for Systemic Fluoroquinolone Therapy in Europe and Prevalence of Primary-Care Prescribing in France, Germany and the UK: Descriptive Population-Based Study. [Journal Article]
- CDClin Drug Investig 2018 Aug 24
- CONCLUSIONS: Large numbers of fluoroquinolone products in Europe are listed for the treatment of milder infections such as acute bronchitis, acute sinusitis and uUTIs. Among the countries assessed, fluoroquinolones were commonly prescribed for these conditions and potentially should lead to a review of therapeutic guidelines.
- Chemical characterisation and toxicity assessment in vitro and in vivo of the hydroethanolic extract of Terminalia argentea Mart. leaves. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 Aug 22; 227:56-68
- CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that HETa had no cytotoxic in vitro effects for CHO-K1 and AGS cells. In in vitro genotoxicity assays, the HETa induced different responses, according to concentration and experimental condition. In the MN test the HETa presented genotoxic potential by increasing the number of MNs, NBUDs and NPBs. In the comet assay, HETa was genotoxic by itself and in the co-treatment protocol with H2O2. In pre-treatment or post-treatment protocols with H2O2, HETa presented an antigenotoxic effect by preventing or repairing, respectively, the genotoxicity induced by H2O2. In the in vivo models, HETa was shown to be relatively safe after acute administration in mice [no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 2000 mg/kg] and sub-chronic in rats (NOAEL of 800 mg/kg), confirming the riverine information that it is non-toxic in the dosage used. Phytochemical analysis of HETa revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phytosterols. Among the flavonoids and tannins, we highlight gallic acid, rutin, ellagic acid, quercetin, caffeic acid, quinic acid, corilagin, punicalin and punicalagin. Thus, it can be stated that HETa has a good safety margin for therapeutic use.
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- Otitis and meningoencephalitis associated with infectious coryza (Avibacterium paragallinarum) in commercial broiler chickens. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Aug 21; :1040638718792964
- Infectious coryza, caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, is an acute respiratory disease of poultry that can result in substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. In March 2017, the Turlo...
Infectious coryza, caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, is an acute respiratory disease of poultry that can result in substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. In March 2017, the Turlock branch of the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory system encountered an unusual clinical and pathologic presentation of infectious coryza in 6 live, 29-d-old, commercial broiler chickens that were submitted for diagnostic investigation. Antemortem evaluation revealed severe neurologic signs, including disorientation, torticollis, and opisthotonos. Swollen head-like syndrome and sinusitis were also present. Histologically, severe sinusitis, cranial osteomyelitis, otitis media and interna, and meningoencephalitis were noted, explaining the clinical signs described. A. paragallinarum was readily isolated from the upper and lower respiratory tract, brain, and cranial bones. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was also detected by PCR, and IBV was isolated in embryonated chicken eggs. Based on sequencing analysis, the IBV appeared 99% homologous to strain CA1737. A synergistic effect between A. paragallinarum and IBV, resulting in exacerbation of clinical signs and increased mortality, may have occurred in this case. A. paragallinarum should be considered among the possible causes of neurologic signs in chickens. Appropriate media should be used for bacterial isolation, and the role of additional contributing factors and/or complicating agents should be investigated in cases of infectious coryza.