- Antibiotic prescriptions to adults with acute respiratory tract infections by Italian general practitioners. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Drug Resist 2018; 11:2199-2205
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed a very high frequency of nonevidence-based prescription of antibiotics at the primary care level. Future improvement programs should focus on development of evidence-based guidelines, access to postgraduate training, and better availability of diagnostic tools.
- Epidemiology of lower respiratory tract infections in adults. [Journal Article]
- ERExpert Rev Respir Med 2018 Dec 06
- Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the leading infectious disease cause of death in the world and the fifth overall cause of death. From an epidemiological point of view, most consider pn...
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the leading infectious disease cause of death in the world and the fifth overall cause of death. From an epidemiological point of view, most consider pneumonia, influenza, bronchitis (including acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [AECOPD]), and bronchiolitis to be the most important LRTIs. Areas covered: This review will describe the epidemiology of LRTIs in adults focusing on community-acquired pneumonia, influenza, and AECOPD, utilizing data from the more recent literature. Expert commentary: LRTIs remain exceedingly common, although there have been significant changes in their epidemiology over recent years, both with regard to their frequency and the infecting pathogens. Part of the change in the epidemiology may relate to changing population demographics, the varying prevalence of smoking, and the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children and patterns of vaccine usage. Furthermore, antigenic variations in the influenza viruses dictate the frequency and characteristics of the influenza epidemics and pandemics.
- Induction of IBV strain-specific neutralising antibodies and broad spectrum protection in layer pullets primed with IBV Massachusetts (Mass) and 793B vaccines prior to injection of inactivated vaccine containing Mass antigen. [Journal Article]
- APAvian Pathol 2018 Dec 06; :1-27
- In an initial study in SPF chickens, a heterologous virus neutralising (VN) antibody response to IBV variants Q1, Variant 2 (Var 2), D388/QX (D388), D274 and Arkansas (DPI) was observed using a vacci...
In an initial study in SPF chickens, a heterologous virus neutralising (VN) antibody response to IBV variants Q1, Variant 2 (Var 2), D388/QX (D388), D274 and Arkansas (DPI) was observed using a vaccination programme incorporating two different live-attenuated IBV vaccines, followed by boosting with an inactivated vaccine containing IBV Massachusetts (Mass) antigen. Therefore, a more detailed study was undertaken in SPF layer-type chickens previously primed with IBV Mass and 793B live-attenuated vaccines. The efficacy of single or repeated vaccination with a multivalent inactivated vaccine containing IBV antigen was determined against challenge with 5 virulent IBVs: Mass (M41), 793B (4/91), D388, Q1 and Var 2. The parameters assessed were serological response, respiratory signs, egg production, post mortem abnormalities in the reproductive organs and abdomen and incidence of IBV antigen in kidneys. Increased VN titres were recorded against the 5 IBV challenge strains, with a significantly higher level of protection against drops in egg production following challenge. The difference between one or two vaccinations with inactivated vaccine was not significant in terms of egg production. However, a significantly increased level of protection was seen in the lower percentage of hens with free yolk in the abdomen and/or peritonitis post challenge with IBV variants, D388, Q1 and Var 2 that were heterologous to the vaccines included in the vaccination programme. A lower incidence of acute, degenerated ovaries was found in the groups given one injection of inactivated vaccine following live priming and this was significantly lower than in groups that had only received live priming.
- Validation of a Clinical Instrument for Measuring the Severity of Acute Bronchitis in Children - The BSS-ped. [Journal Article]
- OROpen Respir Med J 2018; 12:50-66
- CONCLUSIONS: The BSS-ped is a valid procedure for measuring the severity of acute bronchitis in children.
- [Multicenter investigation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation application in pediatric intensive care unit in China]. [Journal Article]
- ZEZhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Dec 02; 56(12):929-932
- Objective: To survey the conduction and evaluate the effectiveness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China mainland. Methods: In a que...
Objective: To survey the conduction and evaluate the effectiveness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China mainland. Methods: In a questionnaire-based survey, we retrospectively reviewed the application of ECMO in children's hospital and general hospital in China mainland to summarize and analyze the categories of diseases and prognosis of children treated with ECMO therapy. Results: By December 31, 2017, a total of 23 hospitals using ECMO, including 22 tertiary referral hospitals and 1 secondary hospital, among which 16 were children's hospitals and 7 were general hospitals. Thirty-seven ECMO equipment was available. A total of 518 patients treated with ECMO, within whom 323 (62.4%) successfully weaned from ECMO and 262 (50.6%) survived to discharge. Among 375 pediatric patients, 233 (62.1%) were successfully weaned from ECMO and 186 (49.6%) survived to discharge. Among 143 newborn patients, 90 (62.9%) successfully weaned from ECMO, 76 (53.1%) survived to discharge. ECMO was applied in veno-arterial (VA) mode to 501 (96.7%) patients, veno-venous (VV) mode to 14 (2.7%) patients, and VV-VA conversion mode to 3 (0.6%) patients. Sixty-nine patients required extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), including 20 newborn patients (29.0%) and 38 pediatric patients (71.0%), who were all with cardiovascular disease. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (26/61), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) (12/61), and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) (11/61) are the most common pulmonary diseases in newborn patients; among whom, infants with PPHN had highest survival rate (10/12), followed by MAS (9/11). Among newborn patients with cardiovascular diseases, those who admitted were after surgery for congenital cardiac disease were the most common (54/82), while those with septic shock had the highest survival rate (2/3). In pediatric pulmonary diseases, acute respiratory distress syndrome was the most common (42/93), while plastic bronchitis was with the highest survival rate (4/4), followed by viral pneumonia (13/16). Among pediatric cardiovascular diseases, congenital cardiac defect was the most common (124/282), while fulminant myocarditis had the highest survival rate (54/77). Conclusion: The application of ECMO as a rescue therapy for children with severe cardiopulmonary failure has dramatically developed in China mainland.
- Anti-inflammatory effect of Juniperus procera extract in rats exposed to streptozotocin toxicity. [Journal Article]
- AAAntiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem 2018 Nov 26
- CONCLUSIONS: Streptozotocin toxicity induces acute inflammation and increases serum glucose, IL-6, IL-2 and TNF-α levels. However, juniperus procera extract was significantly prevented that reaction within four weeks experimented frame time.
- Which ICD-9-CM codes should be used for bronchiolitis research? [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Med Res Methodol 2018 Nov 22; 18(1):149
- CONCLUSIONS: Users of Medic-Aid administrative data should generally favor broad rather than narrow definitions of bronchiolitis and should perform sensitivity analysis comparing broad and narrow definitions.
- Clinical and endoscopic response to high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy in malignant lung tumors: A single centre experience. [Journal Article]
- SASouth Asian J Cancer 2018 Oct-Dec; 7(4):267-269
- CONCLUSIONS: HDR brachytherapy is a highly effective, safe, convenient therapy in alleviating symptoms of endobronchial obstruction with endoscopic response in the majority of cases. Thus, HDR-BT is a promising treatment for palliation of patients presenting with symptoms of endobronchial obstruction with an acceptable rate of complications.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- A variety of viruses and bacteria can cause upper respiratory tract infections. These cause a variety of patient diseases including acute bronchitis, the common cold, influenza, and respiratory distr...
A variety of viruses and bacteria can cause upper respiratory tract infections. These cause a variety of patient diseases including acute bronchitis, the common cold, influenza, and respiratory distress syndromes. Defining most of these patient diseases is difficult because the presentations connected with upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) commonly overlap and their causes are similar. Upper respiratory tract infections can be defined as: self-limited irritation and swelling of the upper airways with associated cough with no proof of pneumonia, lacking a separate condition to account for the patient symptoms, or with no history of COPD/emphysema/chronic bronchitis.  Upper respiratory tract infections involve the nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, and the large airways.
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- Spectrum-effect relationships between high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and anti-inflammatory activities of Leontopodium leontopodioides (Willd.) Beauv. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2018 Nov 06; 1104:11-17
- Leontopodium leontopodioides (Willd.) Beauv. is used therapeutically to prevent numerous diseases. Historically, L. leontopodioides extracts have been used to treat influenza infections, bronchitis, ...
Leontopodium leontopodioides (Willd.) Beauv. is used therapeutically to prevent numerous diseases. Historically, L. leontopodioides extracts have been used to treat influenza infections, bronchitis, acute and chronic nephritis, proteinuria, hematuria, and diabetes. However, the bioactive compounds that are responsible for the associated therapeutic effects have not yet been characterized. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography was utilized to study the anti-inflammatory properties of L. leontopodioides through analysis of spectrum-effect relationships. The bioactive compounds that correlated with anti-inflammatory activities were partially identified. Following aqueous extraction, a variety of different polar organic solvents including petrol ether extracts, ethyl acetate extracts, n-butanol extracts, and residual aqueous extracts were successfully isolated from L. leontopodioides. These extracts were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography to generate HPLC fingerprints. A total of 32 common peaks were selected following a similarity analysis (SA). The spectrum-effect relationship was subsequently studied and inflammatory factors were identified following acute inflammatory experiments. The results revealed that the main peaks associated with anti-inflammatory activities were x1, x3, x4, x13, x14, x16 for interleukin-1 (IL-1), x5, x8, x9, x18, x26, x27, x30, x31, x32 for interleukin-6 (IL-6), and x28 and x29 for leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Following analysis of HPLC data, peaks x9 and x14 were identified as chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid, respectively. The current study utilized HPLC and pharmacological analyses to formulate a spectrum-effect relationship and identify bioactive compounds in L. leontopodioides.