- A Brucella Case That Leads Atlanto-Axial Spinal Instability In Childhood. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2019 Jul 16
- Correction for Islam et al., "First Genome Sequence of Brucella abortus Biovar 3 Strain BAU21/S4023, Isolated from a Dairy Cow in Bangladesh". [Journal Article]
- MRMicrobiol Resour Announc 2019 Jul 18; 8(29)
- Brucella abortus contamination of camel milk in two Iranian regions. [Journal Article]
- PVPrev Vet Med 2019 Aug 01; 169:104708
- Brucella spp. commonly infect humans in various regions worldwide. Human brucellosis mainly spreads through the consumption of contaminated raw dairy products and meat from domestic livestock (water …
Brucella spp. commonly infect humans in various regions worldwide. Human brucellosis mainly spreads through the consumption of contaminated raw dairy products and meat from domestic livestock (water buffalo, goats, sheep, cattle, pigs and camels). In this regard, the origin and routes of transmission of this bacterium should be carefully determined in order to control the source of infection. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of Brucella spp. contamination of camel milk samples sent for analysis to the national brucellosis laboratory during 2018 in Iran. For this purpose, 96 milk samples from 96 dairy camel herds were randomly collected from two provinces and investigated for the presence of Brucella spp contaminations by both bacterial culture method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No clinical manifestation of brucellosis was reported in camels from which milk samples were collected. Using the culture method, three milk samples (3%) originating from two camels of Isfahan province (4%) and one camel from the Semnan province (2%), were contaminated with Brucella abortus. According to PCR analyses, B. abortus gene was detected in 14 (14.5%) milk samples, including 9 and 5 samples from Isfahan (18%) and Semnan (11%) province, respectively. PCR method revealed significant differences (p = 0.02) in the level of contamination with B. abortus between milk samples collected from two regions. These results represent the first report regarding the isolation of B. abortus from raw camel milk in Iran and highlight the importance to screen apparent healthy camels. Therefore, the consumption of raw camel milk may contribute to the spread of human brucellosis in endemic regions.
- A multiple risk model for brucellosis at the human-animal interface in Egypt. [Journal Article]
- TETransbound Emerg Dis 2019 Jul 15
- Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis affecting humans and a wide range of domesticated and wild animal species. An important element for effective disease containment is to improve knowledge, …
Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis affecting humans and a wide range of domesticated and wild animal species. An important element for effective disease containment is to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of afflicted communities. This study aimed to assess the KAP related to brucellosis at the human-animal interface in an endemic area of Egypt and to identify the risk factors for human infection. A matched case-control study was conducted at the central fever hospitals located in six governorates in northen Egypt. Face-to-face interviews with cases and controls were conducted using a structured questionnaire. In total, 40.7% of the participants owned farm animals in their households. The overall mean practice score regarding animal husbandry, processing and consumption of milk and dairy products was significantly lower among cases compared to controls [-12.7±18.1 vs 0.68±14.2 respectively; p< 0.001]. Perceived barriers for notification of animal infection/abortion were predominate among cases and positively correlated with participants' education. The predictors of having brucellosis infection were consumption of unpasteurized milk or raw dairy products and practicing animal husbandry. Applying protective measures against infection significantly reduced its risk. A model predicting risk factors for brucellosis among those who own animal showed that frequent abortions per animal increased the chance for brucellosis infection among human cases by 50-fold (95% CI: 8.8 - 276.9), whereas the use of protective measures in animal care reduced the odds [OR= 0.11 (95% CI: 0.03 - 0.45)]. In conclusion, consumption of unprocessed dairy products was equally important as contact with infected/aborted animals as major risk factors for Brucella spp. infection among humans in Egypt. There is poor knowledge, negative attitudes and risky behaviors among villagers which can perpetuate the risk of brucellosis transmission at the human-animal interface. This supports the need for integrating health education into the national brucellosis control program. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Seroprevalence and risk factors of Brucella ovis in domestic sheep in Wyoming, USA. [Journal Article]
- BVBMC Vet Res 2019 Jul 15; 15(1):246
- CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study suggest few sheep have been exposed to B. ovis, but many flocks contain at least one seropositive animal. Each region in Wyoming contained at least one seropositive animal and flock, emphasizing the importance of disease-free documentation before purchasing new sheep. Aged sheep (≥ 6 years of age) had the highest seroprevalence among age groups; hence, we propose the separation of young rams from older rams to help reduce disease spread outside the breeding season. Wool breeds (Rambouillet and Merino) may be less susceptible to B. ovis infection given they had the lowest animal seroprevalence of the breed types, and large flocks (> 100 breeding rams) had the highest seroprevalence of the flock size categories, likely due to more intensive management strategies that can contribute to the introduction and persistence of B. ovis infection in sheep and flocks.
- [Effect of equal concentration of Helicobacter pylori suspension on gastric mucosa in mice by different gavage methods]. [Journal Article]
- ZNZhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019 Jun 28; 44(6):628-633
- To investigate the effects of equal concentration of Helicobacter pylori suspension on gastric mucosal infection in mice by different gavage methods. Methods: Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were infe…
To investigate the effects of equal concentration of Helicobacter pylori suspension on gastric mucosal infection in mice by different gavage methods. Methods: Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were infected by a suspension of Brucella broth containing the same amount of NCTC11637 Helicobacter pylori suspension by A, B, C, and D methods. For method A, the mice were intragastrically administered with Helicobacter pylori suspension (0.2 mL per mouse), once two day for 5 times; for method B, the mice were intragastrically administered with Helicobacter pylori (0.2 mL per mouse) once a day for 5 times; for method C, the mice were perfused with 0.4 mL per mouse of Helicobacter pylori suspension on the first day, then once a day and 0.2 mL per mouse for 3 times; for method D, the mice were administrated with 0.4 mL per mouse Helicobacter pylori suspension on the first day, 0.2 mL per mouse every other day for 3 times. For method E, the mice received equal amounts of normal saline. The mice were killed at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after gavage. The gastric mucosa was detected by rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori infection, and gastric mucosa was taken for HE staining to observe the degree of infection. Results: After 2 weeks of gavage, the infection rates of the mice in A, B, C, and D group were 33.3%, 50.0%, 66.7%, and 33.3%, respectively. The degree of inflammation infection was as following order: C group>B group>D group>A group>E group. The infection rates of mice after 4 weeks of gavage in the A, B, C, and D groups were 50.0%, 83.3%, 83.3%, and 66.7%, respectively. The degree of inflammation infection was as following order: C group>B group>D group>A group>E group. After 6 weeks of gavage, the infection rate in A, B, C, and D groups was 100%, while the degree of inflammation infection was as following order: C group>D group>B group>A group>E group. Conclusion: At the acute stage of Helicobacter pylori infection, different gavage methods show different infection rates in mice, and the degree of inflammation is different. At the chronic stage, different gavage methods display the same infection rate in mice with different degree. The gavage method that 0.4 mL Helicobacter pylori suspension on the first day, then once a day and 0.2 mL for 3 times is most conducive to Helicobacter pylori colonization in the gastric mucosa of mice. This method can induce the the most seriou inflammatory infection and is beneficial to the successful establishment of the Helicobacter pylori infection model.
- Immunogenic and protective antigens of Brucella as vaccine candidates. [Journal Article]
- CIComp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2019; 65:29-36
- Brucella is an intracellular pathogen that causes abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. Due to the lack of a human vaccine against brucellosis, animal vaccines play an important …
Brucella is an intracellular pathogen that causes abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. Due to the lack of a human vaccine against brucellosis, animal vaccines play an important role in the management of animal and human brucellosis for decades. Strain 19, RB51 and Rev1 are the approved Brucella spp. vaccine strains that are most commonly used to protect livestock against infection and abortion. However, due to some disadvantages of these vaccines, numerous studies have been conducted for the development of effective vaccines that could also be used in other susceptible animals. In this review, we compare different aspects of immunogenic antigens that have been a candidate for the brucellosis vaccine.
- Spatial seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in India-A large random sampling survey. [Journal Article]
- CIComp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2019; 65:124-127
- Brucellosis caused by Brucella spp. is an important zoonosis and constitutes a serious public health hazard. In India, the disease is increasingly prevalent among bovine population with high zoonotic…
Brucellosis caused by Brucella spp. is an important zoonosis and constitutes a serious public health hazard. In India, the disease is increasingly prevalent among bovine population with high zoonotic potential and negative impact on national economy. The investigation was conducted to study seroprevalence of brucellosis through random sample survey using survey tool box software. A total of 12,054 [cattle-9236, buffaloes-2818] bovine serum samples sourced from 15 states of India were tested by protein G indirect ELISA. The true prevalences of brucellosis observed in cattle and buffaloes were 8.3% and 3.6%, respectively. The highest prevalence of brucellosis was observed in the state of Punjab in both cattle and buffaloes (23.51 and 10.2%). Comparatively higher prevalence was recorded in cattle than the buffaloes in all the states except Manipur. The true prevalence greater than 5% was recorded in 8 and 3 states for cattle and buffaloes, respectively [(cattle- Punjab, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Kerala) and (buffaloes-Punjab, Gujarat and Manipur)] indicating wider prevalence of brucellosis. This study conclusively highlighted the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis at state level which might be useful for prioritizing regions for vaccination, designing control strategies and improvisation of clinical surveillance system.
- Effect of Doxycycline-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles on Serum Level of Trace Elements, Biochemical and Hematological Parameters in Acute and Chronic Brucellosis. [Journal Article]
- BTBiol Trace Elem Res 2019 Jul 11
- Disease relapse is one of the most important challenges in treating brucellosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of doxycycline-loaded solid nanoparticles (DOX-SLN) on acute and c…
Disease relapse is one of the most important challenges in treating brucellosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of doxycycline-loaded solid nanoparticles (DOX-SLN) on acute and chronic brucellosis, serum levels of trace elements, and biochemical and hematological parameters in rats infected with Brucella melitensis. The treating effect of DOX-SLN was evaluated by investigating serum levels of trace elements such as zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), and potassium (K); biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TBil); and hematological parameters in rats suffering from acute and chronic brucellosis. The mean size, zeta potential, PDI, drug loading, and encapsulation efficiency of the synthesized nanoparticles were 299 ± 34 nm, - 28.7 ± 3.2 mV, 0.29 ± 0.027, 11.2 ± 1.3%, and 94.9 ± 3.2%, respectively. The serum level of trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe), biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, TBil), and hematological parameters (white blood cell (WBC) and hemoglobin (HB)) were significantly different between healthy and infected rats. DOX-SLN had an appropriate treating effect on chronic brucellosis through modifying the serum level of mentioned factors. Assessing the serum level of trace elements, biochemical and hematological parameters can be useful in detecting brucellosis with other diagnostic tests and determining its acute or chronic phase. DOX-SLN had a better efficacy in treating chronic brucellosis than ordinary free drugs used routinely in this regard.
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- The relationship between caspase-1 related inflammasome expression and serum inflammatory cytokine levels during acute brucellosis. [Journal Article]
- NCNorth Clin Istanb 2019; 6(2):117-123
- CONCLUSIONS: Caspase-1-related inflammasomes are sufficiently activated to induce the secretion of cytokines, such as IFN-γ and IL-18, to induce cellular immune response. Caspase-1 activation level should be investigated at different periods of disease in a group with high number of patients to understand the role of pyroptosis and caspase-1 in brucellosis.