- Role of Dendritic Cells in the Host Response to Biomaterials and Their Signaling Pathways. [Review]
- ABActa Biomater 2019 May 17
- Strategies to enhance, inhibit, or qualitatively modulate immune responses are important for diverse biomedical applications such as vaccine adjuvant, drug delivery, immunotherapy, cell transplant, t…
Strategies to enhance, inhibit, or qualitatively modulate immune responses are important for diverse biomedical applications such as vaccine adjuvant, drug delivery, immunotherapy, cell transplant, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. However, the clinical efficiency of these biomaterial systems is affected by the limited understanding of their interaction with complex host microenvironments, for example, excessive foreign body reaction and immunotoxicity. Biomaterials and biomedical devices implanted in the body may induce a highly complicated and orchestrated series of host responses. As macrophages are among the first cells to infiltrate and respond to implanted biomaterials, the macrophage-mediated host response to biomaterials has been well studied. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells that activate naive T cells and bridge innate and adaptive immunity. The potential interaction of DCs with biomaterials appears to be critical for exerting the function of biomaterials and has become an important, developing area of investigation. Herein, we summarize the effects of the physicochemical properties of biomaterials on the immune function of DCs together with their receptors and signaling pathways. This review might provide a complete understanding of the interaction of DCs with biomaterials and serve as a reference for the design and selection of biomaterials with particular effects on targeted cells. Statement of significance Biomaterials implanted in the body are increasingly applied in clinical practice. The performance of these implanted biomaterials is largely dependent on their interaction with the host immune system. As antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) directly interact with biomaterials through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognizing "biomaterial-associated molecular patterns" and generate a battery of immune responses. In this review, the physicochemical properties of biomaterials that regulate the immune function of DCs together with their receptors and signaling pathways of biomaterial-DC interactions are summarized and discussed. We believe that knowledge of the interplay of DC and biomaterials may spur clinical translation by guiding the design and selection of biomaterials with particular effects on targeted cell for tissue engineering, vaccine delivery, and cancer therapy.
- Expression of Components of the Renin-angiotensin System by Embryonic Stem Cell-like Population within Keloid Lesions. [Journal Article]
- PRPlast Reconstr Surg 2019 May 07
- CONCLUSIONS: PRR, ACE, ATIIR1 and ATIIR2 were expressed by the ESC-like population within the KALTs suggesting this primitive population may be a potential therapeutic target by modulation of the RAS.
- Investigation of the psychometric properties of the Inclusion Body Myositis Functional Rating Scale using Rasch analysis. [Journal Article]
- MNMuscle Nerve 2019 May 20
- CONCLUSIONS: This analysis has led to the development of three optimised versions of the IBMFRS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- What Range of Motion and Functional Results Can Be Expected After Open Arthrolysis with Hinged External Fixation For Severe Posttraumatic Elbow Stiffness? [Journal Article]
- COClin Orthop Relat Res 2019 Apr 27
- CONCLUSIONS: Satisfactory medium-term results were found for open arthrolysis with hinged external fixation with our protocol in patients who had severe posttraumatic elbow stiffness. Appropriate and sufficient releases of tethered soft tissues and correction of any blocks that affect elbow motion intraoperatively, a dedicated team approach, and an aggressive and systematic postoperative rehabilitation program are the core steps for this procedure. Additionally, the importance of preoperative discontinuation of tobacco use should be emphasized.
- Dementia care: international perspectives. [Journal Article]
- COCurr Opin Psychiatry 2019 May 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The majority of countries have made national attempts to estimate the number of people with dementia, have licenced antidementia drugs and have the support of a national Alzheimer's association with a website containing independent advice. More than half have a national plan targeted at the development of care and in a further quarter, the development of such plans is in progress. There appears to have been a great increase in interest and awareness of dementia in the last few years.
- Reconstruction of deep burn wounds around the ankle with free fascia flaps transfer and split-thickness skin graft. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Burn Care Res 2019 May 18
- We aimed to introduce a technique by combining free fascia flaps transfer with split-thickness skin graft for the reconstruction of deep burn wounds at the ankle. 15 patients from 2009 to 2016 were e…
We aimed to introduce a technique by combining free fascia flaps transfer with split-thickness skin graft for the reconstruction of deep burn wounds at the ankle. 15 patients from 2009 to 2016 were enrolled in this study. Patients in this series suffered from a deep burn injury around the ankle, which was accompanied with exposure of tendon and medial or lateral malleolus exposure due to severe soft tissue defects (N=15). All the 15 wounds were repaired combining free fascia flaps with split-thickness skin graft operations, including 9 anterolateral thigh fascia lata flaps (ATFL flaps) and 6 superficial temporal fascia flaps (STF flaps). All the fascia flaps completely survived. Two patients showed partial grafting skin necrosis due to either wound infection or subcutaneous hematoma infection, and this was eventually healed satisfactorily after conventional dressing change. All patients achieved esthetic outcome and acceptable functionality without further revisions needed. Our present study reports a useful method that involves using free fascia flaps in combination with split-thickness skin graft to repair deep burn wounds around the ankle. This method provided reliable and durable soft-tissue coverage with good outcomes.
- Interventions to reduce ambient particulate matter air pollution and their effect on health. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 May 20; 5:CD010919
- CONCLUSIONS: Given the heterogeneity across interventions, outcomes, and methods, it was difficult to derive overall conclusions regarding the effectiveness of interventions in terms of improved air quality or health. Most included studies observed either no significant association in either direction or an association favouring the intervention, with little evidence that the assessed interventions might be harmful. The evidence base highlights the challenges related to establishing a causal relationship between specific air pollution interventions and outcomes. In light of these challenges, the results on effectiveness should be interpreted with caution; it is important to emphasize that lack of evidence of an association is not equivalent to evidence of no association.We identified limited evidence for several world regions, notably Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Southeast Asia; decision-makers should prioritize the development and implementation of interventions in these settings. In the future, as new policies are introduced, decision-makers should consider a built-in evaluation component, which could facilitate more systematic and comprehensive evaluations. These could assess effectiveness, but also aspects of feasibility, fidelity and acceptability.The production of higher quality and more uniform evidence would be helpful in informing decisions. Researchers should strive to sufficiently account for confounding, assess the impact of methodological decisions through the conduct and communication of sensitivity analyses, and improve the reporting of methods, and other aspects of the study, most importantly the description of the intervention and the context in which it is implemented.
- The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on the Zone of Stasis and Apoptosis in an Experimental Burn Model. [Journal Article]
- PSPlast Surg (Oakv) 2019; 27(2):173-181
- CONCLUSIONS: In this animal model, apoptosis count and viable tissue area measurement and the anti-inflammatory results in the burn area confirm that PRP therapy has a statistically significant positive impact on the survival of the zone of stasis and in acute burn injury.
- The human positive cofactor 4 promotes androgen-independent prostate cancer development and progression through HIF-1α/β-catenin pathway. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cancer Res 2019; 9(4):682-698
- Androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) eventually progresses to androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), that has a poor prognosis owing to its unclear mechanism and lack of effective therapeu…
Androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) eventually progresses to androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), that has a poor prognosis owing to its unclear mechanism and lack of effective therapeutic targets. The human positive cofactor 4 (PC4) is a transcriptional cofactor, and plays a potential role in cancer development. However, the significance and mechanism of PC4 in AIPC progression are unclear. By analyzing the clinical data, we find that PC4 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and closely correlated with the progression, metastasis and prognosis of patients. Additionally, PC4 is significantly upregulated in AIPC cells compared with ADPC cells, implying its importance in the development and progression of AIPC. Then, in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that loss of PC4 inhibits cell growth by suppressing c-Myc/P21 pathway and inducing cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase transition in AIPC. PC4 knockdown also attenuates EMT-mediated metastasis in AIPC. Moreover, for the first time, we find that PC4 exerts its oncogenic functions by promoting the expression of HIF-1α and activating β-catenin signaling. Therefore, our findings determine the signatures and molecular mechanisms of PC4 in AIPC, and indicate that PC4 might be a promising therapeutic target for AIPC.
New Search Next
- Changes in Body Weight Before and After Kidney Donation. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Kidney Health Dis 2019; 6:2054358119847203
- CONCLUSIONS: Donors with normal BMI experienced significant weight loss before donation and maintained healthy body weight post-donation. Conversely, donors with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 at donation experienced significant weight gain over 1-year post-donation. Our findings suggest the need for enhanced weight control efforts among obese and overweight kidney donors to reduce the risk of ESKD.