- Tackling reservoir siltation by controlled sediment flushing: Impact on downstream fauna and related management issues. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(6):e0218822
- Sediment flushing can tackle reservoirs siltation and improve sediment flux through dammed rivers. However, the increase of the sediment loading below the dam can trigger a suite of undesired ecologi…
Sediment flushing can tackle reservoirs siltation and improve sediment flux through dammed rivers. However, the increase of the sediment loading below the dam can trigger a suite of undesired ecological effects in the downstream river reaches. To limit these drawbacks, sediment flushing can be controlled, by jointly regulating the sediment concentration of the evacuated water and the streamflow in the downstream channel. In this paper, we report on ten controlled sediment flushing operations (CSFOs), carried out between 2006 and 2012 in the central Italian Alps, at four hydropower reservoirs. These CSFOs displayed specific common traits: (i) Limits were set by the local environmental authorities concerning the allowable suspended sediment concentration. (ii) Reservoirs were fully drawn-down, earth-moving equipment was used to dislodge sediment, and the downstream water discharge was increased, compared to baseflow, by operating upstream intakes. (iii) Abiotic and biotic measurements in selected downstream reaches (before, during, and after the CSFOs) represented an integral part of the operations. In contrast, significant differences characterize the hydropower facilities (elevation and storage of reservoirs, in particular) as well as the basic CSFOs parameters (i.e., season, duration, mass and grain-size of the evacuated sediment, suspended sediment concentration). The macroinvertebrate assemblages resulted noticeably impacted by the CSFOs. In the short term, a significant density drop was observed, slightly influenced by the extent of the perturbation. In contrast, the latter appeared to control the assemblages contraction in terms of richness, according to the different sensitivity to sediment stress of the different taxa. The time employed to recover pre-CSFO standard ranged from few months to just under one year, and the related patterns would seem mostly correlated to the flushing season and to further site specificities. The density of trout populations was impacted as well, thus suggesting the adoption of mitigating strategies as removal by electrofishing before, and repopulation after the CSFO.
- A Prospective, Randomized, Multi-Center Study of Intraosseous Basivertebral Nerve Ablation for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain. [Journal Article]
- SJSpine J 2019 Jun 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Minimally invasive RF ablation of the BVN led to significant improvement of pain and function at 3-months in patients with chronic vertebrogenic related LBP.
- Use of earth observation-derived hydrometeorological variables to model and predict rotavirus infection (MAL-ED): a multisite cohort study. [Journal Article]
- LPLancet Planet Health 2019; 3(6):e248-e258
- CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the effect of climate on rotavirus transmission was mediated by four independent mechanisms: waterborne dispersal, airborne dispersal, virus survival on soil and surfaces, and host factors. Earth observation data products available at a global scale and at subdaily resolution can be combined with longitudinal surveillance data to test hypotheses about routes and drivers of transmission but showed little potential for making predictions in this setting.
- The Utility of Intraoperative Cytological Smear and Frozen Section in the Surgical Management of Patients with Cushing's Disease due to Pituitary Microadenomas. [Journal Article]
- EPEndocr Pathol 2019 Jun 21
- Cushing's disease (CD) is most commonly caused by a microadenoma, which at surgical exploration may not provide adequate tissue for pathologic diagnosis using standard techniques. We wished to determ…
Cushing's disease (CD) is most commonly caused by a microadenoma, which at surgical exploration may not provide adequate tissue for pathologic diagnosis using standard techniques. We wished to determine the accuracy of intraoperative pathologic examination and whether the addition of intraoperative cytology increased the diagnostic yield. We reviewed the pathology reports from 403 operations on 341 patients with CD microadenomas from a single institution. The concordance rates of intraoperative diagnoses (cytology and frozen) with the final (paraffin section) pathological diagnosis were calculated. The overall pathologic confirmation of an adenoma (by either cytology, frozen, or paraffin section) was compared with the result from a historical cohort (using only standard frozen section analysis but not intraoperative cytology) and the pooled result from a meta-analysis of previously published data. The concordance rate between frozen section diagnosis and paraffin section histology was 390/403 (96.8%). The concordance rate between cytological smear and paraffin section histology was 213/246 (86.6%). In 54 cases (13.4%) with ultimate remission, pathologic confirmation was obtained only on intraoperative pathology (frozen section or cytology). Overall, pathologic confirmation was obtained in 326 operations (80.9%) by at least one pathological modality. The overall pathological confirmation of an adenoma was greater after the introduction of intraoperative cytology when compared with the historical control (67.1%, p = 0.015), and compared with the pooled rate of published data from the meta-analysis (72.1%, p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that addition of intraoperative cytological analyses during surgery for CD is an additional useful diagnostic tool for both neurosurgeons and pathologists.
- Aortitis caused by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis: a case-based review. [Review]
- RIRheumatol Int 2019 Jun 19
- Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a systemic necrotizing small vessel vasculitis primarily affecting elderly patients. Neutrophil apoptosis and release of pr…
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a systemic necrotizing small vessel vasculitis primarily affecting elderly patients. Neutrophil apoptosis and release of pro-inflammatory mediators promote small vessel inflammation and hence multi-organ disease. It rarely affects larger vessels with extremely rare aortic involvement. Diagnosis is made based on clinical presentation, tissue biopsy of affected organ, as well as immunofluorescence and ELISA assays for ANCA. Management includes immunosuppression (e.g., glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide and rituximab) and supportive therapy. We present a rare case of a younger patient with AAV involving the aorta. The patient's diagnosis was supported by clinical presentation, systemic organ involvement, strongly positive c-ANCA, and skin as well as aortic tissue biopsy results. After failing multiple immunosuppressants, he responded well to rituximab with improved symptoms, inflammatory markers, and imaging findings. Based on our literature review, we were only able to find ten cases of ANCA-related vasculitis involving the aorta. This is the first reported case of successful treatment of AAV-related aortitis using rituximab. Our case report and literature review provide insight into treatment of severe cases of AAV with aortic involvement.
- Towards connecting biodiversity and geodiversity across scales with satellite remote sensing. [Journal Article]
- GEGlob Ecol Biogeogr 2019; 28(5):548-556
- CONCLUSIONS: With the onset of climate change, it is more important than ever to examine geodiversity for its potential to foster biodiversity. Widely available satellite remotely sensed geodiversity data offer an important and expanding suite of measurements for understanding and predicting changes in different forms of biodiversity across scales. Interdisciplinary research teams spanning biodiversity, geoscience and remote sensing are well poised to advance understanding of biodiversity-geodiversity relationships across scales and guide the conservation of nature.
- Long-term impacts of rising sea temperature and sea level on shallow water coral communities over a ~40 year period. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jun 19; 9(1):8826
- Effects of combined rising sea temperature and increasing sea level on coral reefs, both factors associated with global warming, have rarely been addressed. In this ~40 y study of shallow reefs in th…
Effects of combined rising sea temperature and increasing sea level on coral reefs, both factors associated with global warming, have rarely been addressed. In this ~40 y study of shallow reefs in the eastern Indian Ocean, we show that a rising relative sea level, currently estimated at ~11 mm y-1, has not only promoted coral cover but also has potential to limit damaging effects of thermally-induced bleaching. In 2010 the region experienced the most severe bleaching on record with corals subject to sea temperatures of >31 °C for 7 weeks. While the reef flats studied have a common aspect and are dominated by a similar suite of coral species, there was considerable spatial variation in their bleaching response which corresponded with reef-flat depth. Greatest loss of coral cover and community structure disruption occurred on the shallowest reef flats. Damage was less severe on the deepest reef flat where corals were subject to less aerial exposure, rapid flushing and longer submergence in turbid waters. Recovery of the most damaged sites took only ~8 y. While future trajectories of these resilient reefs will depend on sea-level anomalies, and frequency of extreme bleaching the positive role of rising sea level should not be under-estimated.
- The association of marital status and mortality among men with early-stage prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy: insight into post-prostatectomy survival strategies. [Journal Article]
- CCCancer Causes Control 2019 Jun 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Unmarried men with prostate cancer were at greater risk for death after radical prostatectomy. Among married men with prostate cancer, marriage likely serves as a multi-faceted proxy for many protective factors including social support. Future studies should explore the mechanisms underlying these findings to inform the development of novel prostate cancer survival interventions for unmarried men and those with low social support.
- Pharmacokinetics of Human Recombinant Anti-Botulinum Toxin Antibodies in Rats. [Journal Article]
- TToxins (Basel) 2019 Jun 17; 11(6)
- Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are potential biothreat agents due to their high lethality, potency, and ease of distribution, thus the development of antitoxins is a high priority to the US government.…
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are potential biothreat agents due to their high lethality, potency, and ease of distribution, thus the development of antitoxins is a high priority to the US government. This study examined pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies in rats of four oligoclonal anti-BoNT mAb-based therapeutics (NTM-1631, NTM-1632, NTM-1633, NTM-1634) for five BoNT serotypes (A, B, E, C, and D). NTM-1631, NTM-1632, and NTM-1633 each consist of three IgG1 mAbs, each with a distinct human or humanized variable region which bind to distinct epitopes on BoNT serotype A, B, or E respectively. NTM-1634 consists of four human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) mAbs binding BoNT C/D mosaic toxins. The mechanism of these antitoxins requires that three antibodies simultaneously bind toxin to achieve rapid clearance. Rats (total 378) displayed no adverse clinical signs attributed to antibody treatment from any of the antitoxins. Pharmacokinetic evaluation demonstrated that the individual mAbs are slowly eliminated, exhibiting dose-dependent exposure and long elimination half-lives ranging from 6.5 days to 10 days. There were no consistent differences observed between males and females or among the individual antibodies in each formulation in half-life. Anti-drug antibodies (ADA) were observed, as expected for human antibodies administered to rats. The results presented were used to support the clinical investigation of antibody-based botulism antitoxins.
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- Aquatic adaptation and depleted diversity: a deep dive into the genomes of the sea otter and giant otter. [Journal Article]
- MBMol Biol Evol 2019 Jun 18
- Despite its recent invasion into the marine realm, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) has evolved a suite of adaptations for life in cold coastal waters, including limb modifications and dense insulating…
Despite its recent invasion into the marine realm, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) has evolved a suite of adaptations for life in cold coastal waters, including limb modifications and dense insulating fur. This uniquely dense coat led to the near-extinction of sea otters during the 18th-20th century fur trade and an extreme population bottleneck. We used the de novo genome of the southern sea otter (E. l. nereis) to reconstruct its evolutionary history, identify genes influencing aquatic adaptation, and detect signals of population bottlenecks. We compared the genome of the southern sea otter to the tropical freshwater-living giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) to assess common and divergent genomic trends between otter species, and to the closely related northern sea otter (E. l. kenyoni) to uncover population-level trends. We found signals of positive selection in genes related to aquatic adaptations, particularly limb development and polygenic selection on genes related to hair follicle development. We found extensive pseudogenization of olfactory receptor genes in both the sea otter and giant otter lineages, consistent with patterns of sensory gene loss in other aquatic mammals. At the population level, the southern sea otter and the northern sea otter showed extremely low genomic diversity, signals of recent inbreeding, and demographic histories marked by population declines. These declines pre-date the fur trade and appear to have resulted in an increase in putatively deleterious variants that could impact the future recovery of the sea otter.