- Fertility and family planning in Uttar Pradesh, India: major progress and persistent gaps. [Journal Article]Reprod Health 2019; 16(1):129RH
- CONCLUSIONS: Greater reliance on traditional methods and condoms coupled with relatively low demand for modern contraception suggest inadequate access to modern contraceptives, especially in district with high fertility rates. Family planning activities need to be appropriately scaled according to need and geography to ensure the achievement of state-level improvements in family planning programs and fertility outcomes.
- Smoked Tobacco, Air Pollution, and Tuberculosis in Lao PDR: Findings from a National Sample. [Journal Article]Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019; 16(17)IJ
- In 2017, more than half of the global burden of incident tuberculosis (TB) came from the Western Pacific region. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), the high rates of tobacco use and use of polluting biomass fuels for cooking (e.g., wood, charcoal, crop waste, dung) represent significant risk factors for TB. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between self-reported (…
In 2017, more than half of the global burden of incident tuberculosis (TB) came from the Western Pacific region. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), the high rates of tobacco use and use of polluting biomass fuels for cooking (e.g., wood, charcoal, crop waste, dung) represent significant risk factors for TB. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between self-reported (1) smoking and TB; and (2) exposure to air pollution (from both cooking fires and environmental tobacco smoke) and TB among adults in Lao PDR. We analyzed data from the 2012 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATSL) of Lao PDR-a multi-stage stratified cluster sample of 9706 subjects from 2822 households located in all 17 provinces. Utilizing a nationally representative sample and inferential, multivariable methods, we observed a significant increase in odds of self-reported TB among those who smoked tobacco (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = (1.00 to 2.98)). Larger multivariable models identified independent contributions from exposure to tobacco pipes (OR = 21.51, 95% CI = (6.34 to 72.89)) and communal outdoor fires (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = (1.15 to 4.49)). An index measuring combined exposure to smoked tobacco, environmental tobacco smoke in enclosed workspace, indoor cooking fire, trash fires, and other outdoor communal fires also showed a positive association (OR per added exposure = 1.47, 95% CI = (1.14 to 1.89)). The findings of this study underscore the need for multi-sectoral collaboration between tobacco control, environmental health, TB prevention and treatment programs, national authorities, policy makers, civil groups, and the private sector to address the convergence of potential risk factors impacting respiratory health in Lao PDR.
- Chromenone derivatives as a versatile scaffold with dual mode of inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-associated Ribonuclease H function and integrase activity. [Journal Article]Eur J Med Chem 2019; 182:111617EJ
- A number of compounds targeting different processes of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) life cycle have been developed in the continuing fight against AIDS. Coumarin-based molecules already proved to act as HIV-1 Protease (PR) or Integrase (IN) inhibitors and also to target HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), blocking the DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase activity or the RNA-dependent DNA…
A number of compounds targeting different processes of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) life cycle have been developed in the continuing fight against AIDS. Coumarin-based molecules already proved to act as HIV-1 Protease (PR) or Integrase (IN) inhibitors and also to target HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), blocking the DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase activity or the RNA-dependent DNA-polymerase activity working as common NNRTIs. In the present study, with the aim to exploit a coumarin-based scaffold to achieve the inhibition of multiple viral coded enzymatic functions, novel 4-hydroxy-2H, 5H-pyrano (3, 2-c) chromene-2, 5-dione derivatives were synthesized. The modeling studies calculated the theoretical binding affinity of the synthesized compounds on both HIV-1 IN and RT-associated Ribonuclease H (RNase H) active sites, which was confirmed by biological assays. Our results provide a basis for the identification of dual HIV-1 IN and RT RNase H inhibitors compounds.
- Antibiotic Resistance in Community-Acquired Intra-Abdominal Infections: Diabetes Mellitus as a Risk Factor. [Journal Article]Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2019SI
- CONCLUSIONS: High resistance to CIP and AMS was observed. Although the combination of AMS + CIP offers coverage for 84% of patients, PTZ should be considered as an option for patients with severe infections or diabetes mellitus. Finding factors associated with antibiotic resistance could help to select empirical therapy for CA IAIs better.
- Assessing cortical bone mechanical properties using collagen proton fraction from ultrashort echo time magnetization transfer (UTE-MT) MRI modeling. [Journal Article]Bone Rep 2019; 11:100220BR
- Cortical bone shows as a signal void when using conventional clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrashort echo time MRI (UTE-MRI) can acquire high signal from cortical bone, thus enabling quantitative assessments. Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging combined with UTE-MRI can indirectly assess protons in the organic matrix of bone. This study aimed to examine UTE-MT MRI techniques to esti…
Cortical bone shows as a signal void when using conventional clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrashort echo time MRI (UTE-MRI) can acquire high signal from cortical bone, thus enabling quantitative assessments. Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging combined with UTE-MRI can indirectly assess protons in the organic matrix of bone. This study aimed to examine UTE-MT MRI techniques to estimate the mechanical properties of cortical bone. A total of 156 rectangular human cortical bone strips were harvested from the tibial and femoral midshafts of 43 donors (62 ± 22 years old, 62 specimens from females, 94 specimens from males). Bone specimens were scanned using UTE-MT sequences on a clinical 3 T MRI scanner and on a micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanner. A series of MT pulse saturation powers (400°, 600°, 800°) and frequency offsets (2, 5, 10, 20, 50 kHz) was used to measure the macromolecular fraction (MMF) utilizing a two-pool MT model. Failure mechanical properties of the bone specimens were measured using 4-point bending tests. MMF from MRI results showed significant strong correlations with cortical bone porosity (R = -0.72, P < 0.01) and bone mineral density (BMD) (R = +0.71, P < 0.01). MMF demonstrated significant moderate correlations with Young modulus, yield stress, and ultimate stress (R = 0.60-0.61, P < 0.01). These results suggest that the two-pool UTE-MT model focusing on the organic matrix of bone can potentially serve as a novel tool to detect the variations of bone mechanical properties and intracortical porosity.
- Higher prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome and greater gastrointestinal symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder. [Review]J Psychiatr Res 2019; 118:1-6JP
- CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms may be an important clinical consideration when treating OCD patients. More specifically, assessment of IBS and gastrointestinal symptoms may be useful when considering pharmacotherapeutic treatments options for patients. Given the high comorbidity noted with IBS, a disorder of the "gut-brain axis", results may suggest a shared pathophysiological mechanism between psychiatric and gastrointestinal disorders which should be explored in future research.
- The association of preoperative delirium with postoperative outcomes following hip surgery in the elderly. [Journal Article]J Clin Anesth 2019; 60:28-33JC
- CONCLUSIONS: After controlling for potential confounding variables, we showed that preoperative delirium was associated with postoperative delirium, pulmonary complications, extended hospital stay, hospital readmission, and mortality. Given the lack of studies on preoperative delirium and its postoperative outcomes, our data provides a strong starting point for further investigations as well as the development and implementation of targeted risk-reduction programs.
- Correction to: Gap Analysis Regarding Prognostication in Neurocritical Care: A Joint Statement from the German Neurocritical Care Society and the Neurocritical Care Society. [Published Erratum]Neurocrit Care 2019NC
- This article was updated to correct the spelling of Karl Georg Haeusler.
This article was updated to correct the spelling of Karl Georg Haeusler.
- 2D shear wave elastography: measurement acquisition and reliability criteria in noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. [Journal Article]Abdom Radiol (NY) 2019AR
- CONCLUSIONS: Quality criterion IQR/median ≤ 0.5 increases sensitivity and specificity in prediction of clinically significant liver fibrosis while excluding only a small subset of patients. Grouped measurements are comparable to individual measurements and may help increase procedural efficiency.
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- Early onset of action with a 17β-estradiol, softgel, vaginal insert for treating vulvar and vaginal atrophy and moderate to severe dyspareunia. [Journal Article]Menopause 2019M
- CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of postmenopausal women with moderate to severe dyspareunia responded with the E2 softgel vaginal insert at week 2, and a positive response at week 2 predicted a positive response at week 12.