- Bifurcation structure determines different phase-amplitude coupling patterns in the activity of biologically plausible neural networks. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroimage 2019 Jul 19; :116031
- Phase-amplitude cross frequency coupling (PAC) is a rather ubiquitous phenomenon that has been observed in a variety of physical domains; however, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of PAC and i…
Phase-amplitude cross frequency coupling (PAC) is a rather ubiquitous phenomenon that has been observed in a variety of physical domains; however, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of PAC and its functional significance in the context of neural processes are open issues under debate. In this work we analytically demonstrate that PAC phenomenon naturally emerges in mean-field models of biologically plausible networks, as a signature of specific bifurcation structures. The proposed analysis, based on bifurcation theory, allows the identification of the mechanisms underlying oscillatory dynamics that are essentially different in the context of PAC. Specifically, we found that two PAC classes can coexist in the complex dynamics of the analyzed networks: 1) harmonic PAC which is an epiphenomenon of the nonsinusoidal waveform shape characterized by the linear superposition of harmonically related spectral components, and 2) nonharmonic PAC associated with "true" coupled oscillatory dynamics with independent frequencies elicited by a secondary Hopf bifurcation and mechanisms involving periodic excitation/inhibition (PEI) of a network population. Importantly, these two PAC types have been experimentally observed in a variety of neural architectures confounding traditional parametric and nonparametric PAC metrics, like those based on linear filtering or the waveform shape analysis, due to the fact that these methods operate on a single one-dimensional projection of an intrinsically multidimensional system dynamics. We exploit the proposed tools to study the functional significance of the PAC phenomenon in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD). Our results show that pathological slow oscillations (e.g. β band) and nonharmonic PAC patterns emerge from dissimilar underlying mechanisms (bifurcations) and are associated to the competition of different BG-thalamocortical loops. Thus, this study provides theoretical arguments that demonstrate that nonharmonic PAC is not an epiphenomenon related to the pathological β band oscillations, thus supporting the experimental evidence about the relevance of PAC as a potential biomarker of PD.
- Identification of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 as a temperature-sensitive negative regulator of tuberisation in potato. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Exp Bot 2019 Jul 20
- For many potato cultivars, tuber yield is optimal at average day time temperature in the range of 14-22 ºC. Above this range, tuber yield is reduced for most cultivars. We previously reported that mo…
For many potato cultivars, tuber yield is optimal at average day time temperature in the range of 14-22 ºC. Above this range, tuber yield is reduced for most cultivars. We previously reported that moderately elevated temperature increases steady-state expression of the core circadian clock TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (StTOC1) gene in developing tubers, whereas expression of the StSP6A tuberisation signal is reduced along with tuber yield. In this study we provide evidence showing that StTOC1 links environmental signalling with potato tuberisation by suppressing StSP6A autoactivation in the stolons. We show that transgenic lines silenced in StTOC1 expression exhibit enhanced StSP6A transcript levels and changes in gene expression in developing tubers which are indicative of an elevated sink strength. Nodal cuttings of StTOC1 antisense lines displayed increased tuber yields at moderately elevated temperatures, whereas tuber yield and StSP6A expression were reduced in StTOC1 over-expressor lines. Here we identify a number of StTOC1 binding partners and demonstrate that suppression of StSP6A expression is independent of StTOC1 complex formation with the potato homolog StPIF3. Down-regulation of StTOC1 thus provides a strategy to mitigate the effects of elevated temperature on tuber yield.
- A Blockchain Framework for Securing Connected and Autonomous Vehicles. [Journal Article]
- SSensors (Basel) 2019 Jul 18; 19(14)
- Recently, connected vehicles (CV) are becoming a promising research area leading to the concept of CV as a Service (CVaaS). With the increase of connected vehicles and an exponential growth in the fi…
Recently, connected vehicles (CV) are becoming a promising research area leading to the concept of CV as a Service (CVaaS). With the increase of connected vehicles and an exponential growth in the field of online cab booking services, new requirements such as secure, seamless and robust information exchange among vehicles of vehicular networks are emerging. In this context, the original concept of vehicular networks is being transformed into a new concept known as connected and autonomous vehicles. Autonomous vehicular use yields a better experience and helps in reducing congestion by allowing current information to be obtained by the vehicles instantly. However, malicious users in the internet of vehicles may mislead the whole communication where intruders may compromise smart devices with the purpose of executing a malicious ploy. In order to prevent these issues, a blockchain technique is considered the best technique that provides secrecy and protection to the control system in real time conditions. In this paper, the issue of security in smart sensors of connected vehicles that can be compromised by expert intruders is addressed by proposing a blockchain framework. This study has further identified and validated the proposed mechanism based on various security criteria, such as fake requests of the user, compromise of smart devices, probabilistic authentication scenarios and alteration in stored user's ratings. The results have been analyzed against some existing approach and validated with improved simulated results that offer 79% success rate over the above-mentioned issues.
- Current status of first- and second-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in the metropolitan area: a multicenter study with a large number of patients. [Journal Article]
- TATherap Adv Gastroenterol 2019; 12:1756284819858511
- CONCLUSIONS: The eradication rate improved from 2015 to 2018 with the first-line therapy because of the introduction of vonoprazan in the market. The eradication rates with first- and second-line regimens in elderly patients were lower than those in younger patients.
- Clinical effect of probiotics in prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal disease in dogs: A systematic review. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Intern Med 2019 Jul 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The current data point toward a very limited and possibly clinically unimportant effect for prevention or treatment of acute gastrointestinal disease. For chronic gastrointestinal disease, dietary intervention remains the major key in treatment, whereas probiotic supplement seems not to add significant improvement. However, studies were often underpowered, underscoring the need for future larger, preferably multicenter studies.
- Experiences from a community advisory Board in the Implementation of early access to ART for all in Eswatini: a qualitative study. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Med Ethics 2019 Jul 16; 20(1):50
- CONCLUSIONS: The experiences of the first CAB in Eswatini demonstrate that community engagement using CABs is a valuable mechanism for engaging communities in implementation studies. Considerations that could impact CAB functioning include clearly defining the scope of the CAB, addressing issues of CAB independence, the CAB budget, providing emotional support for CAB members, and providing continuous training and capacity building. These issues should be addressed during the early stages of CAB formation in order to optimize functioning.
- The global and regional prevalence of oestrosis in sheep and goats: a systematic review of articles and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2019 Jul 12; 12(1):346
- CONCLUSIONS: Oestrosis is highly prevalent in many geographical regions of the world, especially in Europe and Africa. Factors that contribute to the pooled prevalence estimate of oestrosis need to be emphasised in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of oestrosis. Furthermore, there is a need for immunisation or implementation of other preventive measures to reduce the burden of oestrosis in sheep and goats and to improve the health and welfare status.
- Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Caffeine Adenosine Res 2019 Jun 01; 9(2):60-63
- CONCLUSIONS: The current results provide initial evidence that CAB use may place males and females at greater risk of IPV victimization.
- Risk factors for acute abdominal pain (colic) in the adult horse: A scoping review of risk factors, and a systematic review of the effect of management-related changes. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0219307
- Acute abdominal pain (colic) is the most common reason for emergency veterinary treatment in the horse. Consolidation of data through a systematic review is important to inform evidence-based medicin…
Acute abdominal pain (colic) is the most common reason for emergency veterinary treatment in the horse. Consolidation of data through a systematic review is important to inform evidence-based medicine and clinical guidelines, but there are currently no published systematic reviews on colic in the horse. The aim of this study was to identify, categorize and appraise the evidence on factors associated with increased risk of developing abdominal pain (colic) due to gastrointestinal disease in the adult horse. A scoping review was performed to identify and categorize evidence on all risk factors for colic. A systematic review of management-related risk factors was then performed following PRISMA guidelines. Both searches were conducted in Medline, CAB Abstracts and Web of Science databases, and publications were assessed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. For the scoping review, study and participant characteristics of included publications and key results were extracted and tabulated. For the systematic review, cohort, case-control or cross-sectional studies investigating acute abdominal pain in horses within two weeks of management changes were assessed. Study characteristics, participant characteristics and study results of included publications for the systematic review were extracted and tabulated. Included publications were appraised using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies. The scoping review search identified 3,756 publications. Fifty eight studies met final inclusion criteria, and 22 categories of risk factors were identified. These were grouped into three broad areas: horse-related factors, management-related factors and environment-related factors. The largest body of evidence related to management change. The systematic review of management change identified 410 publications: 14 met inclusion criteria for analysis. These consisted of one cohort, eight case-control and five cross-sectional studies. The studies were conducted between 1990-2008, and the majority of studies were located in the USA (8/14) or UK (3/14). The risk factors related to management change that were assessed were feed, carer, exercise, pasture, water and housing. The largest bodies of evidence for increased risk of colic associated with management change were changes in feed (5/14 publications) and recent change in housing (3/14). Most studies (8/14) did not meet the JBI criterion on confounding factors. There was marked heterogeneity of study methodologies and measures. This is the first study to use a combined scoping and systematic review to analyse evidence for modifiable risk factors for a common condition in the horse. It provides a comprehensive review that will be a key resource for researchers, veterinary practitioners and horse owners. It identified modifiable risk factors associated with an increased risk of colic which should be a key target for preventative health programmes. The findings from the critical appraisal were used to develop recommendations for future research to improve the quality of evidence-based veterinary medicine.
New Search Next
- Binary interactions between the yeast Candida albicans and two gut-associated Bacteroides species. [Journal Article]
- MPMicrob Pathog 2019 Jul 07; 135:103619
- The yeast Candida albicans forms part of the natural gut microbiota of healthy human individuals and its interactions with other microbial symbionts can impact host well-being. We therefore studied b…
The yeast Candida albicans forms part of the natural gut microbiota of healthy human individuals and its interactions with other microbial symbionts can impact host well-being. We therefore studied binary interactions between potentially pathogenic representatives of the gut-associated bacterial genus Bacteroides and C. albicans using anaerobic bacteria/yeast co-cultures prepared with a quarter-strength brain heart infusion (¼ BHI; 9.25 g/l) broth. We found that, except for minor changes observed in the cell numbers of one out of four C. albicans strains tested, yeast growth was largely unaffected by the presence of the bacteria. In contrast, growth of Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343 and Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482 was significantly enhanced in the presence of C. albicans. Supplementation of Bacteroides monocultures with dead Candida albicans CAB 392 cells, containing intact outer cell wall mannan layers, resulted in increased bacterial concentrations. Subsequent culturing of the Bacteroides strains in a liquid minimal medium supplemented with candidal mannan demonstrated that B. vulgatus ATCC 8482, unlike B. fragilis NCTC 9343, utilized the mannan. Furthermore, by reducing the initial oxygen levels in monocultures prepared with ¼ BHI broth, bacterial numbers were significantly enhanced compared to in monocultures prepared with ¼ BHI broth not supplemented with the reducing agent l-cysteine hydrochloride. This suggests that C. albicans can stimulate Bacteroides growth via aerobic respiration and/or antioxidant production. The cell-free supernatant of 24-h-old C. albicans CAB 392 monocultures was also found to increase Bacteroides growth and chloramphenicol sensitivity.