- Emissions from a flex fuel GDI vehicle operating on ethanol fuels show marked contrasts in chemical, physical and toxicological characteristics as a function of ethanol content. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 May 23; 683:749-761
- This study assessed the gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) from a flex fuel vehicle equipped with a wall-guided gasoline direct inje…
This study assessed the gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) from a flex fuel vehicle equipped with a wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine over triplicates cold-start and hot-start LA92 cycles. The vehicle was operated on a Tier 3 E10 fuel, an E10 fuel with higher levels of aromatics than the Tier 3 E10, an E30, and an E78 blend. Total hydrocarbon (THC), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate emissions, and gaseous toxics (of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), and 1,3-butadiene) reduced for E30 and E78 blends compared to both E10 fuels. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions substantially increased with the higher ethanol blends. The high aromatic E10 fuel increased the emissions of THC, NMHC, particulates, and BTEX compared to the Tier 3 E10 fuel and the higher ethanol blends, as well as showed higher concentrations of accumulation mode particles. The GDI PM did not exhibit any measurable mutagenicity at the PM concentrations tested. Cytotoxicity varied only within a small range and concentrations of PM, eliciting a cytotoxic response similar to those by ambient aerosol. The outcomes of our two measures of PM oxidative potential (macrophage ROS and DTT) were significantly correlated, with the E78 blend exhibiting the least oxidative potential and the E30 the greatest. Gene expression analysis at both the mRNA and protein level indicates that there is the potential for GDI PM emissions to contribute to inflammation and etiology of disease such as asthma, and in contrast to the ROS and DTT outcomes, the E78 fuel PM exhibited the greatest potential to elicit pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNFα) production. Overall, the trends in toxicity emission rates (activity/mi) across the ethanol blends was driven primarily by PM mass emission rate contrasts and only secondarily by the differences in intrinsic toxicity of the PM.
- World workshop on oral medicine VII: Direct anticoagulant agents management for invasive oral procedures: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- ODOral Dis 2019; 25 Suppl 1:157-173
- CONCLUSIONS: Results from the included studies did not discern any important differences in postoperative bleeding events in patients who continued versus patients who discontinued DOACs. Furthermore, no thromboembolic events were recorded. However, the low quality of the studies must be considered.
- Third generation EGFR inhibitor osimertinib combined with pemetrexed or cisplatin exerts long-lasting anti-tumor effect in EGFR-mutated pre-clinical models of NSCLC. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Exp Clin Cancer Res 2019 May 28; 38(1):222
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results identify a combination between osimertinib and pemetrexed or cisplatin potentially useful in the treatment of EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients, which might delay the appearance of osimertinib resistance with long-lasting effects.
- Effectiveness of Pacing as a Learned Strategy for People With Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Occup Ther 2019 May/Jun; 73(3):7303205060p1-7303205060p10
- CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence supports the delivery of a learned pacing intervention to reduce the interference of fatigue, reduce joint stiffness, and decrease physical activity variability but does not support the use of learned pacing to reduce pain severity. Future research should investigate the effectiveness of pacing as a pain management strategy within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health domains of activity and participation.
- Higher Number of Night Shifts Associates with Good Perception of Work Capacity and Optimal Lung Function but Correlates with Increased Oxidative Damage and Telomere Attrition. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2019; 2019:8327629
- Sleep deprivation and the consequent circadian clock disruption has become an emergent health question being associated with premature aging and earlier chronic diseases onset. Night-shift work leads…
Sleep deprivation and the consequent circadian clock disruption has become an emergent health question being associated with premature aging and earlier chronic diseases onset. Night-shift work leads to circadian clock misalignment, which is linked to several age-related diseases. However, mechanisms of this association are not well understood. Aim of this study is to explore in night-shift workers early indicators of oxidative stress response and biological aging [oxidized/methylated DNA bases and leukocytes telomere length (LTL)] and late indicators of functional aging [lung function measurements (FEV1 and FVC)] in relation to personal evaluation of work capacity, measured by work ability index (WAI). One hundred fifty-five hospital workers were studied within the framework of a cross-sectional study. We collected physiological, pathological, and occupational history including pack-years, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and night shifts, together with blood and urine samples. Relationships were appraised by univariate and multivariate ordered-logistic regression models. We found that workers with good and excellent WAI present higher FEV1 (p< 0.01) and number of night-work shifts (p<0.05), but they reveal higher urinary levels of 8-oxoGua (p<0.01) and shorter LTL (p<0.05). We confirmed that higher work ability was prevalent among chronological younger workers (p<0.05), who have also a significant reduced number of diseases, particularly chronic (p<0.01) and musculoskeletal diseases (p<0.01). The new findings which stem from our work are that subjects with the highest work ability perception may have more demanding and burdensome tasks; they in fact present the highest number of night-shift work and produce unbalanced oxidative stress response that might induce premature aging.
- How do particle number, surface area, and mass correlate with toxicity of diesel particle emissions as measured in chemical and cellular assays? [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2019; 229:559-569
- Increasingly stringent particulate matter (PM) emission standards have brought forth engine design improvements, cleaner-burning fuels, and aftertreatment technologies. Reductions in tailpipe PM mass…
Increasingly stringent particulate matter (PM) emission standards have brought forth engine design improvements, cleaner-burning fuels, and aftertreatment technologies. Reductions in tailpipe PM mass have concomitantly reduced accumulation-mode particle emissions. However, some strategies promote the emission of nucleation-mode particles, which are typically quantified on a number (PN) basis. We previously demonstrated that PN emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with various aftertreatment systems were inversely correlated, and gravimetric PM mass was positively correlated, with two in vitro assays. This present work expands on the analysis of PM mass and PN with in vitro assays to also include four additional PM metrics: suspended PM mass, active particle surface area, aggregate particle surface area, and accumulation-mode particle number. This new analysis shows that like gravimetric PM mass, suspended particle mass and accumulation mode particle number are well correlated with dithiothreitol consumption rate (DTT) and macrophage reactive oxygen species consumption rate (ROS) assays (R2 = 0.61-0.96). Data suggest that PM mass emissions dominated by nucleation-mode particles induce equal or slightly greater toxicity compared to PM mass dominated by accumulation-mode particles. Data also show that among all PM metrics, those used for regulating PM in the United States and Europe, namely gravimetric mass and solid PN are overall most correlated with in vitro toxicity. Moreover, continued exploration of alternative, low-cost, and more appropriate PM metrics is warranted to better understand the reproducibility of these findings on other engine applications, fuel types, and aftertreatment platforms.
- Intrinsic functional connectivity during continuous maintenance and suppression of emotion in bipolar disorder. [Journal Article]
- BIBrain Imaging Behav 2019 May 16
- Resting-state connectivity studies, which examine unconstrained low frequency BOLD fluctuations, have reported inconsistent abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BP). In this study, we investigated intr…
Resting-state connectivity studies, which examine unconstrained low frequency BOLD fluctuations, have reported inconsistent abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BP). In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain connectivity under the constraints of a Continuous Emotion Regulation Task (CERT) in BP patients in depressed (BPD) and manic (BPM) states, along with healthy control participants. Medication-free participants, with either a diagnosis of BP (BPD = 27, BPM = 30) or healthy controls (N = 33) were included. We collected 2 fMRI scans using the CERT paradigm, in which participants continuously watched negative pictures and either maintained emotions (MAINTAIN) or suppressed emotion using reappraisal techniques (SUPPRESS). Network-based statistic and graph theory analyses were examined for (i) the main effect of condition (within-group) and (ii) group and condition interactions. In healthy participants, MAINTAIN largely involved occipital and parietal cortices (p < .001), whereas SUPPRESS also recruited the frontal and cingulate cortices (p = .023). The interaction between group (BPD vs. BPM) and condition revealed a network involving the inferior frontal lobe which was stronger during MAINTAIN for BPD and during SUPPRESS for BPM (p = .037). Graph theory properties (i.e., clustering coefficient) for key nodes also evidenced significant group by condition interactions. We observed BP-related changes in network properties involved in normal and abnormal emotion regulation, which provide insights into the neural bases for affective disturbances in BP.
- Involvement of the microglial NLRP3 inflammasome in the anti-inflammatory effect of the antidepressant clomipramine. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Affect Disord 2019 May 05; 254:15-25
- CONCLUSIONS: These results imply that clomipramine could attenuate depressive behaviors and neuroinflammation induced by LPS via partial regulation of NLRP3.
- Influence of Er;Cr: YSGG Laser on Shear Bond Strength and Color Stability of Lithium Disilicate Ceramics: An In Vitro Study. [Journal Article]
- PPPhotobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2019 May 13
- CONCLUSIONS: LD specimens lased (Er;Cr:YSGG) with 3.75 W power and 15 Hz frequency for 4 min showed bond strength comparable with HF acid samples, and color changes within acceptable range (ΔE 1.17). Laser treatment (Er;Cr:YSGG) at 3.75 W power and 15 Hz frequency for 4 min of LD ceramics appears to be clinically efficient, showing acceptable bond strength and color stability.
New Search Next
- Endoscopic closure of a refractory enterocutaneous fistula by use of a fistula plug with fixation and mucosal oversewing. [Journal Article]
- VVideoGIE 2019; 4(5):203-205