- Effects of a single 20 mg dose of letrozole on ovarian function post dominant follicle selection: an exploratory randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Ovarian Res 2017 Jan 21; 10(1):6
- CONCLUSIONS: Administration of a single 20 mg dose of Letrozole at the times of the menstrual cycle we examined did not induce dominant follicle regression or failure of corpus luteum formation. Letrozole-induced suppression of estradiol synthesis by the dominant follicle was not detrimental to follicle growth or ovulation following follicle selection, likely due to increased circulating concentrations of FSH and LH resulting from a lack of estradiol-induced suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.
- Sexual and reproductive health services utilization by female sex workers is context-specific: results from a cross-sectional survey in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa. [Journal Article]
- RHReprod Health 2017 Jan 19; 14(1):13
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of SRH commodities and services by FSWs is often low and is highly context-specific. Reasons for variation across cities need to be further explored. The differences are unlikely caused by differences in socio-demographic characteristics and more probably stem from differences in the availability and accessibility of SRH services. Intervention packages to improve use of contraceptives and SRH services should be tailored to the particular gaps in each city.
- Optimizing maternal and neonatal outcomes with postpartum contraception: impact on breastfeeding and birth spacing. [Review]
- MHMatern Health Neonatol Perinatol 2017; 3:1
- Postpartum contraception is important to prevent unintended pregnancies. Assisting women in achieving recommended inter-pregnancy intervals is a significant maternal-child health concern. Short inter...
Postpartum contraception is important to prevent unintended pregnancies. Assisting women in achieving recommended inter-pregnancy intervals is a significant maternal-child health concern. Short inter-pregnancy intervals are associated with negative perinatal, neonatal, infant, and maternal health outcomes. More than 30% of women experience inter-pregnancy intervals of less than 18 months in the United States. Provision of any contraceptive method after giving birth is associated with improved inter-pregnancy intervals. However, concerns about the impact of hormonal contraceptives on breastfeeding and infant health have limited recommendations for such methods and have led to discrepant recommendations by organizations such as the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In this review, we discuss current recommendations for the use of hormonal contraception in the postpartum period. We also discuss details of the lactational amenorrhea method and effects of hormonal contraception on breastfeeding. Given the paucity of high quality evidence on the impact on hormonal contraception on breastfeeding outcomes, and the strong evidence for improved health outcomes with achievement of recommended birth spacing intervals, the real risk of unintended pregnancy and its consequences must not be neglected for fear of theoretical neonatal risks. Women should establish desired hormonal contraception before the risk of pregnancy resumes. With optimization of postpartum contraception provision, we will step closer toward a healthcare system with fewer unintended pregnancies and improved birth outcomes.
- Molecular modeling and dynamics simulation analysis of KATNAL1 for identification of novel inhibitor of sperm maturation. [Journal Article]
- CCComb Chem High Throughput Screen 2017 Jan 16
- Rapid growth of world population is one of the biggest challenges faced by the human race. Hormone based birth control often causes various side effects, as such development of non-hormonal based con...
Rapid growth of world population is one of the biggest challenges faced by the human race. Hormone based birth control often causes various side effects, as such development of non-hormonal based contraceptives is the need of the hour. A recent study revealed that temporary infertility without changing hormone levels can be attained by inhibiting Katanin p60 ATPase-containing subunit A-like 1 protein (KATNAL1) which is critical in sperm maturation in the testes. This study revealed that, KATNAL1 is a soluble protein retained in the cytoplasm having molecular weight of 55,392 Dalton. In the secondary structure of KATNAL1, percentage of random coils was found to be maximum followed by helices and strands. The protein is highly thermostable, mild acidic and hydrophilic in nature. Further molecular docking study confirmed its ATP binding with various hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions. Binding efficiency of various phytochemicals that have previously been reported as spermicidal were tested using molecular docking against KATNAL1. Calotropin, a cardenolide of Calotropis procera showed the highest binding efficiency against the target protein without toxicity. Molecular dynamics simulation (MD) of the docked complex validated the results of the docking study. In conclusion, our results revealed the ATP binding mode of KATNAL1 and identified calotropin as a potential lead molecule against it showing high binding efficiency with good bioavailability and no mutagenicity. Further in vitro and in vivo bioassay of calotropin could facilitate the development of novel non-hormonal male-specific contraceptive in near future.
- Uterine Fibroids: Diagnosis and Treatment. [Journal Article]
- AFAm Fam Physician 2017 Jan 15; 95(2):100-107
- Uterine fibroids are common benign neoplasms, with a higher prevalence in older women and in those of African descent. Many are discovered incidentally on clinical examination or imaging in asymptoma...
Uterine fibroids are common benign neoplasms, with a higher prevalence in older women and in those of African descent. Many are discovered incidentally on clinical examination or imaging in asymptomatic women. Fibroids can cause abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, bowel dysfunction, urinary frequency and urgency, urinary retention, low back pain, constipation, and dyspareunia. Ultrasonography is the preferred initial imaging modality. Expectant management is recommended for asymptomatic patients because most fibroids decrease in size during menopause. Management should be tailored to the size and location of fibroids; the patient's age, symptoms, desire to maintain fertility, and access to treatment; and the experience of the physician. Medical therapy to reduce heavy menstrual bleeding includes hormonal contraceptives, tranexamic acid, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or selective progesterone receptor modulators are an option for patients who need symptom relief preoperatively or who are approaching menopause. Surgical treatment includes hysterectomy, myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, and magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery.
- Absorption and metabolization of sex hormones and their transformation into contraceptive technologies: the paths taken by medical thought in Brazil. [Journal Article]
- CSCien Saude Colet 2017; 22(1):107-116
- The article analyses knowledge assimilation and the development of clinical and research practices relating to sex hormones among Brazilian gynaecologists. It discusses the paths taken by medical tho...
The article analyses knowledge assimilation and the development of clinical and research practices relating to sex hormones among Brazilian gynaecologists. It discusses the paths taken by medical thought from the reception of the hormones to their transformation into contraceptives. Our objective is to comprehend styles of introducing and disseminating medical technologies in the area of reproductive health in Brazil. It uses methods of historical analysis and takes as its source the Anais Brasileiros de Ginecologia, a journal published between 1936 and 1970. From the outset, the accompaniment of scientific breakthroughs in relation to sex hormones and their use to treat diverse female illnesses played a key role in the rapid medical acceptance of hormonal contraception. Scientific and technical questions (side effects, dosages) and the demographic issue formed part of the majority of the debates. Objections from the Catholic Church were considered but did not set the agenda of medical thought on contraceptives. The quest to consolidate gynaecology as a scientific, modern and cosmopolitan area of expertise, along with sanitary and demographic motives that allowed contraceptives to be classed as ethical drugs, are identified as processes underlying the assimilation and metabolization of sex hormones as hormonal contraceptives.
- The brief life of Norplant® in Brazil: controversies and reassemblages between science, society and State. [Journal Article]
- CSCien Saude Colet 2017; 22(1):43-52
- Norplant® is the brand name of the world's first registered subdermal hormonal contraceptive implant, developed by the laboratories of the Population Council, an international organisation working in...
Norplant® is the brand name of the world's first registered subdermal hormonal contraceptive implant, developed by the laboratories of the Population Council, an international organisation working in the area of fertility and population growth. The article revisits the trajectory of this contraceptive in Brazil from its arrival through clinical trials to its eventual ban in 1986 by the Brazilian regulatory agency responsible for approving medications at the time. Its circulation generated controversies related to research practices, side effects and political uses of the drug as a birth control method. This article focuses its analysis on the divergences related to research practices. It uses a controversy analysis technique, reviewing the versions of those involved, investigating their understandings and the effects that this object generated in their networks. Norplant® provoked displacements and associations between civil society groups, State authorities, scientists and physicians, industry, pharmaceutical products, research procedures, bureaucratic instruments, and the female users of the contraceptives. Scientific styles of medical thought were shaken up and new forms of thinking about scientific autonomy began to be discussed in the country.
- Perfusion of the uterine junctional zone in nulliparous and primiparous women assessed by DCE-MRI, as a function of menstrual cycle and hormonal contraception. [Journal Article]
- MRMagn Reson Imaging 2017 Jan 06; 38:101-111
- CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data on normal perfusion parameters of inner and outer myometrium, which may be potentially useful in assisted reproductive therapy.
- Implications of dispensing self-administered hormonal contraceptives in a 1-year supply: a California case study. [Journal Article]
- CContraception 2017 Jan 04
- On September 23, 2016, California became the sixth state to pass legislation requiring health plans and insurers to cover a 12-month supply of FDA-approved self-administered hormonal contraceptives s...
On September 23, 2016, California became the sixth state to pass legislation requiring health plans and insurers to cover a 12-month supply of FDA-approved self-administered hormonal contraceptives such as contraceptive pills, patches and vaginal rings. This legislation is estimated to result in 38% of current contraceptive pill, patch, and ring users receiving a 12-month supply dispensed at one time. This shift in dispensing patterns was estimated to result in a reduction of 15,000 unintended pregnancies; 2000 fewer miscarriages; and 7000 fewer abortions in California decreasing total net health care expenditures by 0.03%. With similar legislation introduced in 17 states, the findings from this study are important for consideration outside of California.
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- Drug Interactions between Hormonal Contraceptives and Antiretrovirals: A Systematic Review. [Journal Article]
- AIDSAIDS 2017 Jan 04
- CONCLUSIONS: Women taking antiretrovirals, for treatment or prevention, should not be denied access to the full range of hormonal contraceptive options, but should be counseled on the expected rates of unplanned pregnancy associated with all contraceptive methods, in order to make their own informed choices.