- Short communication: Evaluation of the efficacy of novel disbudding methods for dairy calves. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2018 Nov 08
- The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate whether cryoablation or the administration of clove oil was as efficacious as cautery disbudding at preventing horn growth, and (2) evaluate whether ...
The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate whether cryoablation or the administration of clove oil was as efficacious as cautery disbudding at preventing horn growth, and (2) evaluate whether the efficacy of cautery disbudding is affected by removing or leaving the horn bud tissue intact after disbudding of dairy calves. At approximately 4 d of age (4.0 ± 0.88 d of age, mean ± SD), 265 dairy heifer calves from 3 dairy farms (farm 1: n = 129 calves; farm 2: n = 109 calves; farm 3: n = 27 calves) were disbudded. Each calf had 1 of 4 treatments randomly assigned to each horn bud: (1) clove oil (0.5 mL) administered subcutaneously under the horn bud (CLOV, n = 135 buds); (2) a liquid nitrogen-filled probe applied to the horn bud area for 30 s (CRYO, n = 134 buds); (3) cautery disbudding using an electric hot-iron and the horn bud removed (BUDOFF, n = 130); or (4) cautery disbudding and the horn bud tissue left intact (BUDON, n = 131). Calves were assessed for signs of infection at the disbudding site frequently within the first month after disbudding. At approximately 6 mo of age (6 ± 2.2 mo, mean ± SD) calves were assessed for scur or horn growth. The disbudding procedures were considered successful if no scur or horn development was observed. Within the first month, 12% of disbudding wounds showed some indication of infection, such as pus, exudate, or swelling; of the infected buds, 52% were associated with the BUDON treatment, 27% with CLOV, 25% with BUDOFF, and 2% with CRYO treatments. At 6 mo of age, BUDOFF was the most effective method of preventing horn growth and CRYO was the least efficacious [mean percentage of success: BUDOFF: 100% (95% CI: 97.7-100.0); CRYO: 1% (95% CI: 0.2-5.3)]. Injecting clove oil under the horn bud was 87% (95% CI: 80.6-92.5) successful. Not removing the horn bud tissue after cautery disbudding reduced the efficacy of this method by 9% [91% success (95% CI: 83.8-95.7)]; moreover, this method was associated with more infection at the site of disbudding. It appears as though the clove oil treatment could be used as an alternative to cautery disbudding of dairy calves; however, further research is needed to evaluate the tissue damage and associated pain caused by clove oil and to refine this technique (i.e., administration methods to improve efficacy) before it could be considered an alternative to cautery.
- Can disbudding of calves (one versus four weeks of age) induce chronic pain? [Journal Article]
- PBPhysiol Behav 2018 Nov 08
- CONCLUSIONS: The sequelae of disbudding can extend beyond the acute post-procedural phase. Chronic trigeminal sensitization, independently from the age at disbudding can affect individual calves.
- Exercise-induce hyperalgesia, complement system and elastase activation in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - a secondary analysis of experimental comparative studies. [Journal Article]
- SJScand J Pain 2018 Oct 16
- Background and aims The interaction between the immune system and pain has been thoroughly explored in the recent decades. The release of inflammatory mediators from immune cells has the capability o...
Background and aims The interaction between the immune system and pain has been thoroughly explored in the recent decades. The release of inflammatory mediators from immune cells has the capability of activating neurons and glial cells, in turn sensitizing the nervous system. Both immune system alterations and pain modulation dysfunctions have been shown in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) following exercise. However, no studies tried to explore whether these two phenomena are linked and can explain exercise-induced symptoms worsening in people with ME/CFS. We hypothesized that exercise-induced changes in descending pain modulation is associated to changes in immune system functions. We used complement system product C4a and elastase activity as indicators of immune system activity. Methods The study design was a secondary analysis of controlled experimental studies. Twenty-two patients with ME/CFS and 22 healthy sedentary controls were enrolled. In experiment 1, subjects performed an aerobic submaximal exercise test; in experiment 2 they underwent a self-paced exercise test. One week of rest period were set between the two exercise tests. Before and after each experiment, subjects underwent clinical assessment, pain thresholds (PPTs) measurement, and blood sampling. Immune system function was assessed measuring complement system C4a products and elastase activity. Results Changes in elastase activity were not associated to changes in PPTs. Associations were observed in the ME/CFS group between changes in PPTs and C4a products, following both types of exercise. After submaximal exercise, the change in C4a products was associated with the change in PPT at the thumb in patients (r=0.669, p=0.001). Similarly, after self-paced exercise the change in C4a products was associated witht the change in PPT at the calf in patients (r=0.429, p=0.047). No such correlations were found in healthy controls. Regression analysis showed that C4a changes after the submaximal exercise significantly predicted the change in PPTs (R2=0.236; p=0.02). Conclusions Moderate associations between exercise-induced changes in PPTs and immune system activity were found only in ME/CFS. The change in the complement system following submaximal exercise might be able to explain part of the change in patient's pain thresholds, providing evidence for a potential link between immune system alteration and dysfunctional endogenous pain modulation. These results have to be taken with caution, as only one out of three measures of PPTs was found associated with C4a changes. We cannot reject the hypothesis that C4a might therefore be a confounding factor, and changes during exercise might be mediated by other mechanism. Implications Immune system changes following exercise might contribute to exercise-induced symptoms worsening in patients with ME/CFS. However, the role of the complement system is questionable.
- Long-term outcome of open surgery in CVI patients concerning postoperative complications, perioperative hemodynamics and clinical efficacy, Part I. [Journal Article]
- CHClin Hemorheol Microcirc 2018 Oct 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a metabolic syndrome or receiving anti-platelet therapy or anticoagulation medication should undergo open venous surgery under hospital conditions with routine postinterventional surveillance visits. Patients undergoing an open surgery of SSV are definite candidates for postoperative subcutaneous heparin thromboprophylaxis. In general Stripping below knee increases the risk of postoperative sensory deficit. This resolves in almost all patients within one year.
- The effect of polydeoxyribonucleotide on the treatment of radiating leg pain due to cystic mass lesion in inner aspect of right sciatic foramen: A CARE compliant case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(41):e12794
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this case suggest that PDRN is an effective alternative for steroids in patients with radiating leg pain, although its efficacy and safety needs to be evaluated in further large-scale studies.
- Recurrent diabetic myonecrosis -an under-diagnosed cause of acute painful swollen limb in long standing diabetics. [Journal Article]
- AMAnn Med Surg (Lond) 2018; 35:141-145
- Diabetic myonecrosis (DMN) is an under-diagnosed complication of long-standing poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. It presents as abrupt pain and swelling of the extremity, mostly lower limbs. Diagn...
Diabetic myonecrosis (DMN) is an under-diagnosed complication of long-standing poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. It presents as abrupt pain and swelling of the extremity, mostly lower limbs. Diagnosis is often delayed as it mimics a number of clinical entities such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis and malignancy. Failure to properly identify this condition can result in increased morbidity through exposure to unnecessary tests and biopsy. A 56-year-old male with a history of complicated type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension presented to emergency with gradually worsening left calf pain for last 2 weeks. A lower-extremity venous Doppler was negative for DVT. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was suggestive of muscle edema likely of inflammatory etiology. Muscle biopsy revealed myonecrosis with ischemic myopathy and was negative for vasculitis or inflammatory myopathy. He was managed conservatively and his symptoms resolved in 4 weeks. After 6 months he had recurrence in right thigh which was managed conservatively too. Given these findings, a diagnosis of recurrent diabetic myonecrosis was made. Myonecrosis is a less known microvascular complications of diabetes and should always be keep in mind when evaluating a diabetic patient with muscle pain. Diagnosis can be made on MRI in appropriate clinical settings. The clinical course is usually self-limiting and patients respond well to supportive medical therapy that involves bed rest, strict glycemic control along with analgesic.
- COMPARISON OF BILATERAL AND UNILATERAL SQUAT EXERCISES ON BARBELL KINEMATICS AND MUSCLE ACTIVATION. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Sports Phys Ther 2018; 13(5):871-881
- CONCLUSIONS: Unilateral squats with the same external load per leg produced greater peak vertical ground reaction forces than bilateral squats, as well as higher barbell velocity, which is associated with strength development and rate of force development, respectively. The authors suggest using unilateral rather than bilateral squats for people with low back pain and those enrolled in rehabilitation programs after ACL ruptures, as unilateral squats are performed with small loads (28 vs. 135 kg) but achieve similar magnitude of muscle activity in the hamstring, calf, hip and abdominal muscles and create less load on the spine.
- [Deep Vein Thrombosis Due to Compression of Huge Hepatic Cyst Successfully Treated by Inferior Vena Cava Filter and Cyst Drainage]. [Case Reports]
- KJKorean J Gastroenterol 2018 Sep 25; 72(3):146-149
- An 88-year-old woman complained of right quadrant abdominal pain and severe edema in both legs. She had a history of pulmonary embolism one month ago. Abdomen CT showed a huge hepatic cyst compressin...
An 88-year-old woman complained of right quadrant abdominal pain and severe edema in both legs. She had a history of pulmonary embolism one month ago. Abdomen CT showed a huge hepatic cyst compressing the intrahepatic portion of the inferior vena cava (IVC). The venogram CT showed multifocal thrombosis in the iliocaval and both lower extremity veins. Percutaneous hepatic cyst drainage was carried out. Fluid analysis presented leukocytosis, which suggested an infected hepatic cyst. To prevent secondary pulmonary thromboembolism, an IVC filter was inserted before catheter drainage for the hepatic cyst. One week later, abdominal pain was relieved. Then, sclerotherapy for the remnant hepatic cyst was performed by ethanol. Follow-up CT showed an increased amount of thrombosis in the iliocaval and left calf vein, but the IVC filter prevented another thromboembolic event successfully. The patient started dabigatran, a new oral anticoagulant, and compression stockings were applied to both legs. After one month, no visible thrombosis in the pelvis or either extremity was detected in abdominal CT. This case suggests that a huge hepatic cyst, especially with infection, should be considered as a possible cause of deep vein thrombosis if no other risk factors for thromboembolism exist.
- Three-curve rocker-soled shoes and gait adaptations to intermittent claudication pain: A randomised crossover trial. [Journal Article]
- GPGait Posture 2018 Sep 22; 67:31-36
- CONCLUSIONS: The three-curved rocker shoes, in their current design, do not augment gait sufficiently to enhance walking distance, when compared with control shoes, and therefore cannot be recommended for the intermittent claudication population. Clinical Reg No. (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT02505503.
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- Scurvy: a rare case in an adult. [Journal Article]
- SRSkeletal Radiol 2018 Sep 26
- A 69-year-old man presented with unilateral calf pain, swelling, and erythematous rash. He was initially treated with antibiotics for suspected cellulitis. A venous duplex ultrasound, performed to ex...
A 69-year-old man presented with unilateral calf pain, swelling, and erythematous rash. He was initially treated with antibiotics for suspected cellulitis. A venous duplex ultrasound, performed to exclude deep venous thrombosis, revealed multiple heterogeneous hypoechoic foci of unknown etiology throughout the calf musculature. His condition did not improve with antibiotics, instead progressing to a necrotic ulcer along the medial malleolus. Clinical suspicion of vascular insufficiency or vasculitis prompted an extensive imaging work-up. CT and MRI revealed the intramuscular abnormalities observed on previous ultrasound represented foci of intramuscular hemorrhage. Marrow signal abnormality was also noted in the proximal tibia. A punch biopsy of the skin rash ultimately demonstrated distorted hair follicles with perifollicular inflammation and hemorrhage concerning for scurvy. The diagnosis was confirmed by low vitamin C levels and dietary history. A resurgence of scurvy has occurred in the pediatric population in recent years. However, this diagnosis remains uncommon in adults, with limited reports of the potential advanced imaging findings in the current literature.