- PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Cancer Institute (US): Bethesda (MD)
- This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about breast cancer prevention. It is intended as a resource to inform a...
This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about breast cancer prevention. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
- [Multiple risk factors prediction models for high risk population of colorectal cancer]. [Journal Article]
- ZDZhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2018 May 25; 47(2):194-200
- Colorectal cancer is caused by the interaction of genetic and environment factors. Domestic and foreign scholars have attempted to develop several colorectal cancer risk prediction models, in order t...
Colorectal cancer is caused by the interaction of genetic and environment factors. Domestic and foreign scholars have attempted to develop several colorectal cancer risk prediction models, in order to identity risk factors, to screen for high risk population and evaluate the risk of developing colorectal cancer, so as to provide personalized screening protocols for individuals with different risk, and eventually reduce the incidence and mortality rate of colorectal cancer. Currently, the common colorectal cancer risk prediction models were mainly developed based on case-control study and cohort study. Models developed in European and American regions and Asia (excluding China) only include common risk factors, while Chinese models also include hereditary factors on the bases of common risk factors. However, the development and verification of each model are mainly based on local population, whether it can be applied for other population need to be determined. This article reviews the development, validation and evaluation of the risk prediction models, in order to provide a basis for developing more precise risk prediction models for colorectal cancer.
- Potential for HPV vaccination and primary HPV screening to reduce cervical cancer disparities: Example from New Zealand. [Journal Article]
- VVaccine 2018 Sep 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Relative reductions in cervical cancer due to vaccination and HPV-based screening are predicted to be greater in Maori than in European/Other women. While these interventions have the potential to substantially reduce between-group differences, cervical cancer incidence would remain higher in Maori women. These findings highlight the importance of multiple approaches and the potential influence of factors beyond HPV prevention.
- Application of Constrained Optimization Methods in Health Services Research: Report 2 of the ISPOR Optimization Methods Emerging Good Practices Task Force. [Journal Article]
- VHValue Health 2018; 21(9):1019-1028
- CONCLUSIONS: Constrained optimization methods are informative in providing insights to decision makers about optimal target solutions and the magnitude of the loss of benefit or increased costs associated with the ultimate clinical decision or policy choice. Failing to identify a mathematically superior or optimal solution represents a missed opportunity to improve economic efficiency in the delivery of care and clinical outcomes for patients. The ISPOR Optimization Methods Emerging Good Practices Task Force's first report provided an introduction to constrained optimization methods to solve important clinical and health policy problems. This report also outlined the relationship of constrained optimization methods relative to traditional health economic modeling, graphically illustrated a simple formulation, and identified some of the major variants of constrained optimization models, such as linear programming, dynamic programming, integer programming, and stochastic programming. The second report illustrates the application of constrained optimization methods in health care decision making using three case studies. The studies focus on determining optimal screening and vaccination strategies for cervical cancer, optimal statin start times for diabetes, and an educational case to invite the reader to formulate radiation therapy optimization problems. These illustrate a wide range of problem types that can be addressed with constrained optimization methods.
- Colorectal cancer screening. [Journal Article]
- VLVnitr Lek 2018; 64(6):679-683
- In developed countries, colorectal cancer represents one of the most common malignancy. Screening of colorectal cancer, as a tool of secondary prevention, lead to reduction of the incidence and morta...
In developed countries, colorectal cancer represents one of the most common malignancy. Screening of colorectal cancer, as a tool of secondary prevention, lead to reduction of the incidence and mortality of this disease. It allows to capture not only the precancerous lesions, but also the earlier stages of colorectal cancer, which can be effectively treated. In the Czech Republic the National colorectal cancer screening program was launched in 2000. It is focused to asymptomatic individuals over 50 years old, who have a negative personal and family history of colorectal neoplasia. The basic tools of colorectal cancer screening in the Czech Republic include fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy. Introduction a population based screening program by addressed invitation in 2014 led to increase the participation of the target population for screening. Key words: address invitation - colorectal cancer - epidemiology - population based screening - screening tests.
- The Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Hepatitis C Screening for Migrants in the EU/EEA: A Systematic Review. [Review]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Sep 14; 15(9)
- Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) is a public health priority in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) and is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and liver cancer. Migrants account for a di...
Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) is a public health priority in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) and is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and liver cancer. Migrants account for a disproportionate number of HCV cases in the EU/EEA (mean 14% of cases and >50% of cases in some countries). We conducted two systematic reviews (SR) to estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HCV screening for migrants living in the EU/EEA. We found that screening tests for HCV are highly sensitive and specific. Clinical trials report direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapies are well-tolerated in a wide range of populations and cure almost all cases (>95%) and lead to an 85% lower risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma and an 80% lower risk of all-cause mortality. At 2015 costs, DAA based regimens were only moderately cost-effective and as a result less than 30% of people with HCV had been screened and less 5% of all HCV cases had been treated in the EU/EEA in 2015. Migrants face additional barriers in linkage to care and treatment due to several patient, practitioner, and health system barriers. Although decreasing HCV costs have made treatment more accessible in the EU/EEA, HCV elimination will only be possible in the region if health systems include and treat migrants for HCV.
- Screening for Syphilis with Dual Algorithms: Analysis of Discordant and Concordant Serology Results in a Population with a Low Prevalence of Syphilis. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Sep 17
- CONCLUSIONS: The RSA identified more patients with reactive treponemal serology. However, it also yielded an increased likely false-reactive rate compared with the TSA, especially those results with low index values and TRUST-nonreactive serology, were necessary to retest with a second treponemal test. Further testing results with TPPA, VITROS TPA and EuroWB suggested the false-reactive CIA screening results and the likely false-nonreactive TPPA results when the reactive treponemal results screened with RSA were to be identified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Individual and Geospatial Characteristics Associated With Use and Nonuse of the Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) for Colorectal Cancer Screening in an Urban Minority Population. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Gastroenterol 2018 Sep 15
- CONCLUSIONS: FIT uptake remains suboptimal. Individual predictors as well as area poverty is associated with low screening uptake. Geospatial mapping is an effective tool for evaluating CRC screening uptake.
- A Reliability Comparison of Cone-Beam Breast Computed Tomography and Mammography: Breast Density Assessment Referring to the Fifth Edition of the BI-RADS Atlas. [Journal Article]
- ARAcad Radiol 2018 Sep 13
- CONCLUSIONS: CBBCT showed equal aptitude and better agreement for the breast density evaluation compared to mammography. CBBCT could be an effective modality for breast density assessment and breast cancer risk evaluation in routine diagnosis and breast cancer screening.
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- The burden of cancers and their variations across the states of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2016. [Journal Article]
- LOLancet Oncol 2018 Sep 11
- CONCLUSIONS: The substantial heterogeneity in the state-level incidence rate and health loss trends of the different types of cancer in India over this 26-year period should be taken into account to strengthen infrastructure and human resources for cancer prevention and control at both the national and state levels. These efforts should focus on the ten cancers contributing the highest DALYs in India, including cancers of the stomach, lung, pharynx other than nasopharynx, colon and rectum, leukaemia, oesophageal, and brain and nervous system, in addition to breast, lip and oral cavity, and cervical cancer, which are currently the focus of screening and early detection programmes.