- Risk Factors for Advanced Colorectal Neoplasms in the Proximal Colon in 6,218 Subjects Undergoing Complete Colonoscopy. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Jun 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Age≥50 and male gender were associated with both proximally located AN and serrated lesion; FDR with CRC and hypertension increased the risk of proximal AN, while ever smoking increased risk of proximal serrated lesion. FDR with CRC was not associated with serrated lesion.
- Endocrine treatment of aging transgender people. [Review]
- RERev Endocr Metab Disord 2018 Jun 19
- High quality empirical data assessing morbidity and mortality and cancer incidence among transgender people are almost non-existent. Sex hormone treatment of conditions in older non-transgender peopl...
High quality empirical data assessing morbidity and mortality and cancer incidence among transgender people are almost non-existent. Sex hormone treatment of conditions in older non-transgender people might as yet be taken as the best available analogy to hormone administration to aging transgender persons. Testosterone administration to transgender men carries little risk with regard to cardiovascular disease and cancer. A dose adaptation may be needed in men with a high hematocrit or cardiac insufficiency. In transgender men, even after breast ablation, breast cancer may occur in residual mammary tissue. Treatment with estrogens (specifically oral ethinylestradiol) of transgender women, particularly in combination with progestins, carries a significant relative risk of developing cardiovascular disease (almost a twofold incidence compared to the general population). The dose of estrogens may have to be reduced with aging. A change from oral to probably safer transdermal estrogens must be considered. Though rare, tumors of the breasts, prostate, meninges and pituitary have been encountered. Based upon the available expertise, initiation of cross-sex hormone treatment in elderly subjects is without disproportionate risks.
- Immediate Clinical Success After Percutaneous Ablation of Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma. [Journal Article]
- CICardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2018 Jun 19
- Paragangliomas (PGLs) are catecholamine-secreting neoplasms of chromaffin cells and represent a rare but curable cause of secondary hypertension. Surgery is the treatment of choice for symptomatic PG...
Paragangliomas (PGLs) are catecholamine-secreting neoplasms of chromaffin cells and represent a rare but curable cause of secondary hypertension. Surgery is the treatment of choice for symptomatic PGLs. A small (7 mm) extra-adrenal PGL was diagnosed in the right retroperitoneal space in a 19-year-old patient affected by symptomatic hypertension unresponsive to medical treatment. Indication to percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was given by a multidisciplinary team on the basis of the size of the nodule, the surgical risks, the young age of the patient, and his wish to reduce as much as possible the post-interventional rehabilitation. To our knowledge, the use of percutaneous RFA in the treatment of retroperitoneal extra-adrenal primary paragangliomas has never been described. We describe its feasibility and the patient's clinical outcome.
- Dyserythropoiesis in the diagnosis of the myelodysplastic syndromes and other myeloid neoplasms: problem areas. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Haematol 2018 Jun 19
- An evaluation of the significance of specified dyserythropoietic features in suspected myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia with erythroid dysplasia was made by means of evaluat...
An evaluation of the significance of specified dyserythropoietic features in suspected myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia with erythroid dysplasia was made by means of evaluation of 100 electronic images of bone marrow erythroblasts from each of 20 subjects: 11 with a myeloid neoplasm, six with another condition that could cause erythroid dysplasia and three healthy controls. The evaluation was carried out independently by seven experienced haematologists/haematopathologists who were blinded to the diagnosis. The majority of the dyserythropoietic features listed in the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues were validated, although karyorrhexis was found to be infrequent and lacking in specificity; multinuclearity and megaloblastosis were more often observed but also lacked specificity. Good majority agreement on the identification of dysplastic features was obtained. Despite this, it was demonstrated that a reliable diagnosis of MDS can often not be made on the basis of erythroid morphology alone. Interpretation of dyserythropoiesis must be carried out with full knowledge of other clinicopathological features and with a constant awareness of the other conditions that can be confused with MDS. An iron stain is essential, as cases with ring sideroblasts may otherwise not be recognised as having MDS.
- Efficacy and safety of cisplatin and weekly docetaxel in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Intern Med 2018 Jun 20
- CONCLUSIONS: For patients with R/M HNSCC, a cisplatin and weekly docetaxel regimen showed high efficacy with tolerable toxicity as a first-line treatment.
- Influence of PARP-1 inhibition in the cardiotoxicity of the topoisomerase 2 inhibitors doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. [Journal Article]
- TVToxicol In Vitro 2018 Jun 15
- Doxorubicin (DOX) and Mitoxantrone (MTX) are very effective drugs for a range of tumors despite being highly cardiotoxic. DNA topoisomerase 2 beta (Top2β) was revealed as key mediator of DOX-induced ...
Doxorubicin (DOX) and Mitoxantrone (MTX) are very effective drugs for a range of tumors despite being highly cardiotoxic. DNA topoisomerase 2 beta (Top2β) was revealed as key mediator of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, although ROS generation is also an important mechanism. Oxidative stress is also an important issue in MTX-induced cardiotoxicity that is manifested by mitochondrial dysfunction. Studies have demonstrated the relationship between PARP-1 overactivation and cell viability in DOX-treated cardiomyocytes. In reference of MTX, data regarding PARP-1 overactivation as the mechanism responsible for cardiotoxicity is difficult to find. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of PARP-1 inhibitor DPQ on DOX- and MTX-mediated cardiotoxicity. Cells were exposed for 24 h to DOX or MTX in the presence or absence of DPQ. Viability, apoptosis, and genotoxicity assays were carried out. Immunofluorescence of phosphorylated histone H2AX was analyzed in H9c2 cells and cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats. Results demonstrated that DPQ co-treatment increases DOX-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. DPQ also prevents DOX and MTX-ROS generation in part by increasing SOD and CAT activities. Furthermore, DPQ co-treatment increased the generation of DNA strand breaks by DOX and MTX whilst also inducing phosphorylation of H2AX, MRE11, and ATM in H9c2 cells. Our results demonstrated that as well as increasing DNA damage and inducing apoptotic cell death, DPQ enhances DOX- and MTX-mediated cytotoxicity in H9c2.
- Intracardiac Tumors with Extracardiac Extension Diagnosed by EUS-FNA via EBUS. [Journal Article]
- ATAnn Thorac Surg 2018 Jun 14
- Obtaining biopsies for pathological diagnosis of primary cardiac tumors is challenging due to their anatomical location and the risk of tumor embolization. Due to the difficulty of histological diagn...
Obtaining biopsies for pathological diagnosis of primary cardiac tumors is challenging due to their anatomical location and the risk of tumor embolization. Due to the difficulty of histological diagnosis and limited treatment strategies, it is not uncommon to treat patients based on radiological findings alone. However, firm pathological diagnosis may permit more appropriate treatment selection, especially for those with primary cardiac lymphoma. EUS-B-FNA is a minimally invasive modality for sampling mediastinal lymph nodes and mediastinal lesions adjacent to the esophagus. We report two cases with cardiac tumors that were successfully and safely diagnosed by EUS-B-FNA.
- Extracranial-intracranial bypass in medial sphenoid ridge meningioma associated with severe stenosis of the intracranial segments of the internal carotid artery: A case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(24):e11123
- CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive treatment of tumor resection and extracranial-intracranial bypass concerning medial sphenoid ridge meningioma associated with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery of intracranial segments is effective.
- Proscillaridin A induces apoptosis and suppresses non-small-cell lung cancer tumor growth via calcium-induced DR4 upregulation. [Journal Article]
- CDCell Death Dis 2018 Jun 13; 9(6):696
- Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant histological type of lung cancer and is characterized by the highest mortality and incidence rates among these types of malignancies. Cardiac gly...
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant histological type of lung cancer and is characterized by the highest mortality and incidence rates among these types of malignancies. Cardiac glycosides, a class of natural products, have been identified as a potential type of chemotherapeutic agent. This study aims to investigate the anti-cancer effects and the mechanisms of action of Proscillaridin A (P.A) in NSCLC cells. In vitro sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+ ATPase) enzyme assays indicated that P.A is a direct Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor. P.A showed potent cytotoxic effects in NSCLC cells at nanomolar levels. Treatment mechanism studies indicated that P.A elevated Ca2+ levels, activated the AMPK pathway and downregulated phosphorylation of ACC and mTOR. Subsequently, P.A increased death receptor 4 (DR4) expression and downregulated NF-κB. Interestingly, P.A selectively suppressed EGFR activation in EGFR mutant cells but not in EGFR wild-type cells. In vivo, P.A significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. Compared with the Afatinib treatment group, P.A displayed less pharmaceutical toxicity, as the body weight of mice treated with P.A did not decrease as much as those treated with Afatinib. Consistent changes in protein levels were obtained from western blotting analysis of tumors and cell lines. Immunohistochemistry analysis of the tumors from P.A-treated mice showed a significant suppression of EGFR phosphorylation (Tyr 1173) and reduction of the cell proliferation marker Ki-67. Taken together, our results suggest that P.A is a promising anti-cancer therapeutic candidate for NSCLC.
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- Outcomes After Surgical Resection of Primary Non-Myxoma Cardiac Tumors. [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Cardiovasc Surg 2018 Mar-Apr; 33(2):162-168
- CONCLUSIONS: Complete resection of the cardiac tumors, whenever possible, is the main goal of surgery. Surgical resection of benign cardiac tumors is safe, usually curative and provides excellent long-term prognosis. On the contrary, malignant cardiac tumors still remain highly lethal.