- [Effect of sanguinarine on biomechanics of rat airway smooth muscle cells]. [Journal Article]
- SWSheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2018 Apr 01; 35(4):583-591
- This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sanguinarine on biomechanical properties of rat airway smooth muscle cells (rASMCs) including stiffness, traction force and cytoskeletal stress fiber organi...
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sanguinarine on biomechanical properties of rat airway smooth muscle cells (rASMCs) including stiffness, traction force and cytoskeletal stress fiber organization. To do so, rASMCs cultured in vitro were treated with sanguinarine solution at different concentrations (0.005~5 μmol/L) for 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h, respectively. Subsequently, the cells were tested for their viability, stiffness, traction force, migration and microfilament distribution by using methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, optical magnetic twisting cytometry, Fourier transform traction microscopy, scratch wound healing method, and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. The results showed that at concentration below 0.5 μmol/L sanguinarine had no effect on cell viability, but caused dose and time dependent effect on cell biomechanics. Specifically, rASMCs treated with sanguinarine at 0.05 μmol/L and 0.5 μmol/L for 12 and 24 h exhibited significant reduction in stiffness, traction force and migration speed, together with disorganization of the cytoskeletal stress fibers. Considering the essential role of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) biomechanics in the airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) of asthma, these findings suggest that sanguinarine may ameliorate AHR via alteration of ASMCs biomechanical properties, thus providing a novel approach for asthma drug development.
- Force-transmitting structures in the digital pads of the tree frog Hyla cinerea: a functional interpretation. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anat 2018 Aug 19
- The morphology of the digital pads of tree frogs is adapted towards attachment, allowing these animals to attach to various substrates and to explore their arboreal habitat. Previous descriptions and...
The morphology of the digital pads of tree frogs is adapted towards attachment, allowing these animals to attach to various substrates and to explore their arboreal habitat. Previous descriptions and functional interpretations of the pad morphology mostly focussed on the surface of the ventral epidermis, and little is known about the internal pad morphology and its functional relevance in attachment. In this study, we combine histology and synchrotron micro-computer-tomography to obtain a comprehensive 3-D morphological characterisation of the digital pads (in particular of the internal structures involved in the transmission of attachment forces from the ventral pad surface towards the phalanges) of the tree frog Hyla cinerea. A collagenous septum runs from the distal tip of the distal phalanx to the ventral cutis and compartmentalises the subcutaneous pad volume into a distal lymph space and a proximal space, which contains mucus glands opening via long ducts to the ventral pad surface. A collagen layer connects the ventral basement membrane via interphalangeal ligaments with the middle phalanx. The collagen fibres forming this layer curve around the transverse pad-axis and form laterally separated ridges below the gland space. The topological optimisation of a shear-loaded pad model using finite element analysis (FEA) shows that the curved collagen fibres are oriented along the trajectories of the maximum principal stresses, and the optimisation also results in ridge-formation, suggesting that the collagen layer is adapted towards a high stiffness during shear loading. We also show that the collagen layer is strong, with an estimated tensile strength of 2.0-6.5 N. Together with longitudinally skewed tonofibrils in the superficial epidermis, these features support our hypothesis that the digital pads of tree frogs are primarily adapted towards the generation and transmission of friction rather than adhesion forces. Moreover, we generate (based on a simplified FEA model and predictions from analytical models) the hypothesis that dorsodistal pulling on the collagen septum facilitates proximal peeling of the pad and that the septum is an adaptation towards detachment rather than attachment. Lastly, by using immunohistochemistry, we (re-)discovered bundles of smooth muscle fibres in the digital pads of tree frogs. We hypothesise that these fibres allow the control of (i) contact stresses at the pad-substrate interface and peeling, (ii) mucus secretion, (iii) shock-absorbing properties of the pad, and (iv) the macroscopic contact geometry of the ventral pad surface. Further work is needed to conclude on the role of the muscular structures in tree frog attachment. Overall, our study contributes to the functional understanding of tree frog attachment, hence offering novel perspectives on the ecology, phylogeny and evolution of anurans, as well as the design of tree-frog-inspired adhesives for technological applications.
- Substrate Stiffness Influences the Time Dependence of CTGF Protein Expression in Müller Cells. [Journal Article]
- IPInt Physiol J 2018; 1(1):1
- Following ocular trauma and retinal detachment, gliotic changes in the retina may develop over the subsequent month, a process known as PVR (proliferative vitreoretinopathy). There have been no succe...
Following ocular trauma and retinal detachment, gliotic changes in the retina may develop over the subsequent month, a process known as PVR (proliferative vitreoretinopathy). There have been no successful therapeutic interventions to inhibit PVR. The protein CTGF (Connective Tissue Growth Factor) has been associated with retinal PVR and other fibrotic diseases of the retina in clinical studies but the mechanistic link between different pathologies and retinal gliosis has not been determined. In addition, CTGF has been previously noted to be associated, in some cases, with YAP/TAZ (Yes-associated protein and Tafazzin protein complex), transcriptional regulatory proteins that change subcellular localization in response to mechanical cues, such as the stiffness of the underlying material. We have previously shown that the mRNA for CTGF is markedly (100-fold) upregulated in retinal Müller cells grown on soft substrates. In order to evaluate if the mechanism by which mechanotransduction modulating CTGF production in retinal Müller cells involves the YAP/TAZ complex, this study tests the influence of substrate stiffness on the time dependence of CTGF protein expression, as well as subcellular localization of YAP/TAZ using a conditionally-immortalized mouse retinal Müller cell line plated on laminin-coated, polyacrylamide substrates of varying elastic modulus. Changes were assayed using immunohistochemistry and ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay). In retinal Müller cells, the relationship between elastic modulus and the pattern of CTGF protein expression was bimodal, with CTGF levels rising more rapidly for cells on hard substrates and more slowly for cells grown on soft substrates. In addition, nuclear localization of YAP/TAZ corresponded directly to the maximum CTGF expression.
- Cardiovascular function and structure are preserved despite induced ablation of BMP1-related proteinases. [Journal Article]
- CMCell Mol Bioeng 2018; 11(4):225-266
- CONCLUSIONS: Maintained ventricular and vascular structure and function despite post-natal ablation of Bmp1 and Tll1 suggests that there is an as-yet unidentified compensatory mechanism in cardiovascular tissues. In addition, these findings suggest that proteinases derived from Bmp1 and Tll1 post-natally have less of an impact on cardiovascular tissues compared to skeletal, periodontal, and dermal tissues.
- Association of renal systolic time intervals with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Med Sci 2018; 15(11):1235-1240
- Aims: The renal systolic time intervals (STIs), including renal pre-ejection period (PEP), renal ejection time (ET), and renal PEP/renal ET measured by renal Doppler ultrasound, were associated with...
Aims: The renal systolic time intervals (STIs), including renal pre-ejection period (PEP), renal ejection time (ET), and renal PEP/renal ET measured by renal Doppler ultrasound, were associated with poor cardiac function and adverse cardiac outcomes. However, the relationship between renal hemodynamic parameters and arterial stiffness in terms of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) has never been evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between renal STIs and baPWV. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 230 patients. The renal hemodynamics was measured from Doppler ultrasonography and baPWV was measured from ABI-form device by an oscillometric method. Results: Patients with baPWV ≧ 1672 cm/s had a higher value of renal resistive index (RI) and lower values of renal PEP and renal PEP/ET (all P< 0.001). In univariable analysis, baPWV was significantly associated with renal RI, renal PEP, and renal PEP/renal ET (all P< 0.001). In multivariable analysis, renal PEP (unstandardized coefficient β = -3.185; 95% confidence interval = -5.169 to -1.201; P = 0.002) and renal PEP/renal ET (unstandardized coefficient β = -5.605; 95% CI = -10.217 to -0.992; P = 0.018), but not renal RI, were still the independent determinants of baPWV. Conclusion: Our results found that renal PEP and renal PEP/renal ET were independently associated with baPWV. Hence, renal STIs measured from renal echo may have a significant correlation with arterial stiffness.
- Study on contact performance of ultrasonic-assisted grinding surface. [Journal Article]
- UUltrasonics 2018 Aug 14
- The contact performance of ultrasonic-assisted grinding surface is studied in this paper. An improved simplified model of rough surface profile is proposed to find the microscopic feature parameters,...
The contact performance of ultrasonic-assisted grinding surface is studied in this paper. An improved simplified model of rough surface profile is proposed to find the microscopic feature parameters, such as the curvature radius of the asperity, which are suitable for contact analysis and calculation. Then a more accurate rough surface contact analysis model is obtained by combining the classical ZMC contact model. Based on the contact analysis model, the contact mechanism of ultrasonic-assisted grinding surface is studied. The contact stiffness and local maximum contact pressure of the surfaces under different cutting depths and ultrasonic amplitudes are calculated, and the correlation rule between the parameters of ultrasonic-assisted grinding and the contact performance of the machined surface is obtained: (1) With the increase of the cutting depth, the surface roughness of the workpiece increases; under the same load, the contact stiffness decreases and the maximum local contact pressure increases. (2) With the increase of the ultrasonic amplitude, the surface roughness of the workpiece first decreases and then increases. Under the same load, the contact stiffness increases first and then decreases, while the maximum local contact pressure resents an opposite variation trend. Under the experimental conditions, the surface contact performance of the workpiece is the best when the ultrasonic amplitude is 4 μm. Additionally, the contact performance of the ultrasonic-assisted grinding surface and the conventional grinding surface is compared: (1) When the ultrasonic amplitude is 4 μm, the surface roughness of the workpiece is at least 24% lower than that of the conventional grinding surface. (2) Under the same load, the surface contact stiffness of the ultrasonic-assisted grinding surface is increased by at least 68%, and the maximum local contact pressure is reduced by at least 17%. It is found that the interference motion of abrasive particles in the ultrasonic-assisted grinding process makes the surface height distribution more concentrated and the density of asperity increased, which results in a better contact performance compared with the conventional grinding surface.
- Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of CAD/CAM Materials for Monolithic Dental Restorations. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Prosthodont 2018 Aug 18
- CONCLUSIONS: All CAD/CAM crown materials exhibited high values of fracture and flexural resistance, making them suitable materials for posterior full-crown restorations. Glass-ceramics suffered more from catastrophic and nonreparable fracture patterns, whereas minimal chipping and type II fracture patterns were more common in hybrid materials. The combination of more flexibility, less stiffness, and increased softness with satisfactory flexural and fracture strength values observed in PICN and HPP makes these two hybrid materials suitable choices for chairside monolithic crown fabrication.
- Efficacy of targeting bone-specific GIP receptor in ovariectomy-induced bone loss. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Endocrinol 2018 Aug 18
- Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been recognized in the last decade as an important contributor of bone remodeling and is necessary for optimal bone quality. However, GIP recept...
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been recognized in the last decade as an important contributor of bone remodeling and is necessary for optimal bone quality. However, GIP receptors are expressed in several tissues in the body and little is known about the direct versus indirect effects of GIP on bone remodeling and quality. The aims of the present study were to validate two new GIP analogues, called [D-Ala2]-GIP-Tag and [D-Ala2]-GIP1-30, that specifically target either bone or whole body GIP receptors, respectively; and to ascertain the beneficial effects of GIP therapy on bone in a mouse model of ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Both GIP analogues exhibited similar binding capacities at the GIP receptor and intracellular responses as full-length GIP1-42. Furthermore, only [D-Ala2]-GIP-Tag, but not [D-Ala2]-GIP1-30, was undoubtedly found exclusively in the bone matrix and released at acidic pH. In ovariectomized animals, [D-Ala2]-GIP1-30 but not [D-Ala2]-GIP-Tag ameliorated bone stiffness at the same magnitude than alendronate treatment. Only [D-Ala2]-GIP1-30 treatment led to significant ameliorations in cortical microarchitecture. Although alendronate treatment increased the hardness of the bone matrix and the type B carbonate substitution in the hydroxyapatite crystals, none of the GIP analogues modified bone matrix composition. Interestingly, in ovariectomy-induced bone loss, [D-Ala²]-GIP-Tag failed to alter bone strength, microarchitecture and bone matrix composition. Overall, this study shows that the use of a GIP analogue that target whole body GIP receptors might be useful to improve bone strength in ovariectomized animals.
- Ultrasound elastography: compression elastography and shear-wave elastography in the assessment of tendon injury. [Review]
- IIInsights Imaging 2018 Aug 17
- CONCLUSIONS: • USE is used for the assessment of the mechanical properties of tissues, including the tendons. • USE increases diagnostic performance when coupled to conventional US imaging modalities. • USE will be useful in early diagnosis, tracking outcomes and monitoring treatments of tendon injury. • Technical issues and lack of standardisation limits USE use in the assessment of tendon injury.
New Search Next
- Clogging-free continuous operation with whole blood in a radial pillar device (RAPID). [Journal Article]
- BMBiomed Microdevices 2018 Aug 17; 20(3):75
- Pillar-based passive microfluidic devices combine the advantages of simple designs, small device footprint, and high selectivity for size-based separation of blood cells. Most of these device designs...
Pillar-based passive microfluidic devices combine the advantages of simple designs, small device footprint, and high selectivity for size-based separation of blood cells. Most of these device designs have been validated with dilute blood samples. Handling whole blood in pillar-based devices is extremely challenging due to clogging. The high proportion of cells (particularly red blood cells) in blood, the varying sizes and stiffness of the different blood cells, and the tendency of the cells to aggregate lead to clogging of the pillars within a short period. We recently reported a ra dial pi llar d evice (RAPID) design for continuous and high throughput separation of multi-sized rigid polystyrene particles in a single experiment. In the current manuscript, we have given detailed guidelines to modify the design of RAPID for any application with deformable objects (e.g. cells). We have adapted RAPID to work with whole blood without any pre-processing steps. We were successful in operating the device with whole blood for almost 6 h, which is difficult to achieve with most pillar-based devices. The availability of multiple parallel paths for the cells and the provision for a self-generating cross flow in the device design were the main reasons behind the minimal clogging in our device. We also observed that a vibrator motor attached to the inlet tubing occasionally disturbed the cell clumps. As an illustration of the improved device design, we demonstrated up to ∼ 60-fold enrichment of platelets.