- An adult autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease patient with pulmonary Aspergillus terreus infection. [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2018 Nov 08; 18(1):552
- CONCLUSIONS: We describe, for the first time, the presence of pulmonary A. terreus infection in an adult autosomal CGD patient on long-term corticosteroid treatment. The combination of the molecular characterization of the inherited CGD and the sequencing of fungal DNA has allowed the identification of the disease-causing agent and the optimal treatment to be given as a consequence.
- Torticollis as Presentation for Atypical Kawasaki Disease Complicated by Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysms. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Pediatr 2018; 2018:4236264
- Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. The diagnosis can be made in a patient who presents with a prolonged high fever and meeting at least four of five criteria includin...
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. The diagnosis can be made in a patient who presents with a prolonged high fever and meeting at least four of five criteria including polymorphous rash, mucosal changes, extremity changes (including swelling and/or palmar and plantar erythema), bilateral nonsuppurative conjunctivitis, and unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Atypical KD refers to patients who have not met the full criteria and in whom atypical features may be present. We discuss a case of a 6-year-old male who presented to the Emergency Department with torticollis. A series of investigations for elevated inflammatory markers revealed dilated coronary artery aneurysms on echocardiogram, and thus he was diagnosed with atypical KD. His only other criteria were bilateral nonsuppurative conjunctivitis and a prior brief febrile illness. He was treated with high-dose intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and low-dose aspirin. Low-molecular-weight heparin and atenolol were added due to the presence of giant aneurysms.
- Determinants of level Ib involvement in oral squamous cell carcinoma and implications for submandibular gland-sparing neck dissection. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018; 47(12):1507-1510
- Traditional neck dissection for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) involves removal of the submandibular salivary gland. Several studies have cited the low incidence of direct gland invasion by tumo...
Traditional neck dissection for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) involves removal of the submandibular salivary gland. Several studies have cited the low incidence of direct gland invasion by tumours and have recommended gland-sparing neck dissection. In this study, a detailed audit of level Ib involvement in OSCC was performed in order to assess the feasibility of submandibular gland-sparing in neck dissection; the rate of direct involvement by the primary tumours, the involvement of periglandular level Ib nodes, and their determinants were investigated. A total of 586 neck dissection specimens obtained between 2005 and 2014 from patients operated on at the study institution for floor of mouth, tongue, and buccal primaries, were evaluated for direct invasion of the gland and periglandular lymphadenopathy. Of 226 node-positive patients, 21 (9.3%) had direct gland invasion by tumour. Risk factors were tumour diameter >4cm (P=0.002) and depth of invasion >10mm (P=0.003). Determinants of periglandular lymphadenopathy were depth of invasion >10mm (P<0.001), perineural invasion (P=0.02), lymphovascular invasion (P=0.014), and moderate/poor differentiation (P<0.0001). Gland-sparing neck dissection is safe in early tumours (pT1pN0-1), with a good chance of minimizing xerostomia without radiotherapy. Larger tumours without clear evidence of submandibular gland invasion or suspicious level Ib lymphadenopathy may be considered for gland preservation, however the oncological safety is unclear.
- A Case of Generalized, Superinfected Dermatitis and Inguinal Mycobacterium Lymphadenitis - TB or not TB? [Journal Article]
- ADActa Dermatovenerol Croat 2018; 26(3):270-272
- Dear Editor, Eczema is an inflammatory dermatitis mediated by cellular immunity, with an etiology in which environmental, immunological, and genetic factors are involved. Skin inflammation through pr...
Dear Editor, Eczema is an inflammatory dermatitis mediated by cellular immunity, with an etiology in which environmental, immunological, and genetic factors are involved. Skin inflammation through proinflammatory cytokines creates a favorable environment for microbial antigens and optimal conditions for infection (1). In case of underlying immunosuppression, inflammatory features of dermatitis and superimposed infections are more severe. The presence of minor trauma of the skin in the form of fissures can favor both easier inoculation of some bacterial germs, leading to a dermatitis superinfection, and/or the transcutaneous inoculation of atypical mycobacteria, with a possibility of developing localized types of tuberculous lymphadenitis (TLA). TLA, the localized type of systemic tuberculosis (TB) infection, is the most common form of extra-pulmonary TB in developing countries (2), while lymphadenitis due to atypical mycobacteria is a localized disease, more frequently seen in developed countries (3,4). In tuberculosis, the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is airborne, while in atypical mycobacterium lymphadenitis transmission can be both airborne or by ingestion or inoculation (5). In both forms of TB, lymphadenopathy evolves towards abscess and presents fibrotic scars or calcifications upon healing (6). A positive diagnosis involves a clinical and epidemiological investigation, a purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test, ultrasound, and CT / MRI of lymph node masses. A lymph node biopsy is used to confirm the diagnosis of TB and PCR, while positive culture confirms the etiology of TB lymphadenitis. The differential diagnosis of TLA is difficult: neoplastic, bacterial, or viral and fungal infections, sarcoidosis, Castleman's disease, drug reactions, etc. (5). TB-induced immunosuppression may favor the development of fungal and bacterial infections, sometimes severe and poorly responsive to treatment. On the other hand, immunosuppressive conditions increase the risk of extra-pulmonary TB (2). A 40-year old woman who had experienced recurrent episodes of dermatitis over the previous 7 years was hospitalized with fever, malaise, and a disseminated erythematous and crusted, exudative, and flexural itching rash (Figure 1). There were fetid, purulent secretions at the conjunctival, auricular, genital, and umbilical areas. The clinical exam also revealed lymphadenopathy syndrome (large, painful submandibular, cervical, and axillar bilateral lymph nodes; an indurated, painful, and adherent left inguinal lymph node of 5-6 cm). Microbial cultures isolated multiple multi-drug-resistant bacteria (SAH-MRSA, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, E. coli, Enterobacter) and Candida albicans in the oral cavity and conjunctival, auricular, nasal, umbilical, and genital areas. The skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of dermatitis. PPD skin test was 21 mm. Other tests (HIV and syphilis serology, blood culture, chest X-ray) were negative. Systemic treatment with vancomycin, metronidazole, fluconazole, local antiseptic compresses, and topical corticosteroid ointments was initiated. 2 days after starting the treatment with vancomycin, Redman syndrome occurred (headache, dyspnea, colicky pains, myalgia, rush, fever (39 °C), hypotension (80/40 mmHg), and tachycardia (100 bpm)). This syndrome resolved upon discontinuation of Vancomycin. Further treatment with imipenem/cilastatinand linezolid for 14 days lead to a favorable response with amelioration of the symptoms. Biopsy of the submandibular lymph node raised the suspicion of Castleman's disease; however, due to the overall incomplete clinical picture (no night sweats, no weight reduction, lack of hepatosplenomegaly and peripheral neuropathy), we decided to perform a biopsy of an inguinal lymph node. The histopathological aspect suggested TLA (lymphoid hyperplasia predominantly diffuse, reactive, presenting tuberculous follicles with central caseous necrosis) (Figure 2). A combination of specific antituberculous drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol) for 6 months resolved the lymphadenopathy syndrome with no further recurrence of eczema and skin infections. Certain delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms are involved both in dermatitis and in TB. CD4 lymphocytes are the primary mediators of anti-TB immunity, while proinflammatory cytokines mediate the activation of macrophages involved in controlling bacillary growth (1). In cases of superinfected dermatitis, microbial exotoxins penetrate the skin barrier more easily due to inflammation. Released cytokines (IL-1, TNF, and IL12) favor the expression of E-selectin on endothelial vascular growth factor and on skin lymphocyte antigen expression, with amplification of initial skin inflammation and creating favorable conditions for microbial colonization and infection (7). The common denominator in dermatitis and TB are the circulating immune complexes (up to 56% of TB cases), which are formed by the interaction between an antibody and bacterial antigen (8), which was in this case evidenced by increased levels of IgA and IgG. In our case, the frequent recurrences of infected dermatitis with multiple multi-drug-resistant germs that were poorly responsive to treatment and displayed a severe evolution towards generalization as well as the lymphadenopathy and the persistence of a biological inflammatory syndrome indicated that another immunosuppressive cause could be involved. Isolated bacterial and fungal germs changed the immune status of the patient. The risk of mycobacterium infection was increased by the environment they created and the patient's underlying skin inflammation. The diagnosis of TB lymphadenitis was established by the histopathologist, but in the absence of PCR we could not determine whether the TB infection was caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or by atypical mycobacteria. Given that there was no evidence of other sites of TB infection, we conjectured that inoculation of mycobacterium took place at the skin lesion and that an atypical mycobacterium might have contributed to the etiology of the TLA. In our case, the anti-tuberculous drugs and skin infection treatment with follow-up of the side-effects led to complete remission of mycobacterium lymphadenitis, dermatitis, and infectious processes, without relapses. In conclusion, in the present case chronic dermatitis alongside infection with multi-drug-resistant germs led to an immunosuppressive status which, when associated with the presence of multiple skin ports of entry, allowed a mycobacterial infection at the inguinal lymph node level. Inguinal TLA induced severe dermatitis and difficulties in diagnosis and treatment.
- Cervical lymphadenopathy in a dental patient: An eye opener case report. [Case Reports]
- SCSpec Care Dentist 2018 Oct 31
- Cervical lymphadenopathy, a condition with multifactorial etiology is one of the common presentations in patients reporting to dental clinic. It is thus imperative that oral physicians have to be wel...
Cervical lymphadenopathy, a condition with multifactorial etiology is one of the common presentations in patients reporting to dental clinic. It is thus imperative that oral physicians have to be well versed with the causes of cervical lymphadenopathy. The present article describes a case of 24-year-old male who reported to his dentist with complaint of painless swelling of 4 months duration on right side of neck. Oral examination revealed missing mandibular third molars on both sides, which was confirmed on radiograph. Considering reactive lymphadenitis secondary to inflamed impacted molar as a reason for neck swelling, the surgical removal of third molar of right side was performed under antibiotic coverage which was uneventful. As the neck swelling persisted even after removal of molar, patient had undergone fine needle aspiration cytology and then the swelling was diagnosed as tubercular lymphadenitis. He was treated by antitubercular therapy for 6 months regimen, after then he was perfectly alright. The present report aims to highlight contemplative role of oral physician in early diagnosis of neck swellings that can result in on-time management.
- Is recurrent Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease a precursor to systemic lupus erythematosus? [Journal Article]
- RJRom J Intern Med 2018 Oct 04
- Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD), also known as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a rare, benign, self-limiting disease characterized by cervical lymphadenopathy and fever. Since KFD was first ...
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD), also known as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a rare, benign, self-limiting disease characterized by cervical lymphadenopathy and fever. Since KFD was first reported in 1972, the validity of this clinical entity has been controversial and its aetiology remains unknown. Herein, we report a case of a patient with KFD, which was believed to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.
- [Rhinoscleroma of the cavum with expression in cervical lymph nodes: about a case]. [Journal Article]
- PAPan Afr Med J 2018; 30:116
- Rhinoscleroma is a specific granulomatous and chronic disorder with insidious evolution. It is causes by pathogen Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. It mainly occurs in the nasal cavities and positive diag...
Rhinoscleroma is a specific granulomatous and chronic disorder with insidious evolution. It is causes by pathogen Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. It mainly occurs in the nasal cavities and positive diagnosis is sometimes problematic. We report the case of a 19 year old female patient presenting with rhinoscleroma considered atypical due to its rare nasopharyngeal localization and its exceptional association with cervical lymphadenopathy in the right submandibular angle region. Anatomopathological exam revealed Mikulicz's cells, thus enabling the diagnosis. The patient underwent antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin for 16 weeks associated with washing of nasal cavities with physiological saline solution. Patient's outcome was favorable during the 14-month follow-up period.
- A rare case of inguinal kimura disease. [Journal Article]
- MJMed J Malaysia 2018; 73(5):326-327
- Kimura's disease is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, commonly presenting with painless lymphadenopathy and subcutaneous masses in the head and neck regions.1 However, presenta...
Kimura's disease is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, commonly presenting with painless lymphadenopathy and subcutaneous masses in the head and neck regions.1 However, presentations with inguinal lymphadenopathy are rare and mimics other differentials, may pose a diagnostic challenge. We present a case of a 50-year-old male, with right inguinal swelling for one month duration that was finally diagnosed with Kimura's Disease after a multitude of investigations to rule out differentials of lymphadenopathy, delaying conclusive treatment. Specialized test had been done resonated with the histopathological findings only. We report this case to increase awareness of Kimura's Disease.
- Tuberculosis of the parotid lymph nodes: clinical and imaging features. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Drug Resist 2018; 11:1795-1805
- CONCLUSIONS: TB of the parotid nodes tend to simulate tumors clinically and radiologically. Their preferential sites are the superficial lobe. In young patients with positive purified protein derivative skin test and lesions accompanied by cervical lymphadenopathy, changes in the parotid fascia and parotid parenchymal edema adjacent to the lesions on CT and MRI may be helpful in the diagnosis and to facilitate differential diagnosis.
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- Persistent cervical lymphadenitis in a patient with prior thyroid cancer attributed to Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Oct 21; 2018
- We describe a 50-year-old woman with a history of thyroid cancer who presented with bilateral cervical and submandibular lymphadenopathy, low-grade fevers, and increasing fatigue. The patient underwe...
We describe a 50-year-old woman with a history of thyroid cancer who presented with bilateral cervical and submandibular lymphadenopathy, low-grade fevers, and increasing fatigue. The patient underwent lymph node fine-needle aspiration, which showed no evidence of metastatic or lymphoproliferative disease. This procedure was complicated by a parapharyngeal abscess and cellulitis. She was treated unsuccessfully with various courses of antibiotics, but briefly responded to short courses of steroids. As her cervical lymphadenopathy returned, she underwent an excisional lymph node biopsy, which demonstrated caseating granulomatous lymphadenitis. Extensive review of systems, physical examination, laboratory and imaging studies demonstrated no evidence of malignancy, infection or systemic lupus erythematosus . Our patient was clinically diagnosed with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease and successfully treated with prednisone tapered over 3 months. She remains in clinical remission.