- Should we be testing for urogenital Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and U. urealyticum in men and women? - a Position Statement from the European STI Guidelines Editorial Board. [Review]
- JEJ Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Jun 20
- At present, we have no evidence that we are doing more good than harm detecting and subsequently treating Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum colonisations/infections. Co...
At present, we have no evidence that we are doing more good than harm detecting and subsequently treating Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum colonisations/infections. Consequently, routine testing and treatment of asymptomatic or symptomatic men and women for M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum is not recommended. Asymptomatic carriage of these bacteria is common and the majority of individuals do not develop disease. Although U. urealyticum has been associated with urethritis in men, it is probably not causal unless a high load is present (likely carriage in 40-80% of detected cases). The extensive testing, detection and subsequent antimicrobial treatment of these bacteria performed in some settings may result in selection of antimicrobial resistance, in these bacteria, "true" STI agents, as well as in the general microbiota, and substantial economic cost for society and individuals, particularly women. The commercialisation of many particularly multiplex PCR assays detecting traditional non-viral STIs together with M. hominis, U. parvum and/or U. urealyticum have worsened this situation. Thus, routine screening of asymptomatic men and women or routine testing of symptomatic individuals for M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum is not recommended. If testing of men with symptomatic urethritis is undertaken, traditional STI urethritis agents such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium and, in settings where relevant, Trichomonas vaginalis should be excluded prior to U. urealyticum testing and quantitative species-specific molecular diagnostic tests should be used. Only men with high U. urealyticum load should be considered for treatment, however, appropriate evidence for effective treatment regimens is lacking. In symptomatic women, bacterial vaginosis (BV) should always be tested for and treated if detected. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Sipi soup inhibits cancer‑associated fibroblast activation and the inflammatory process by downregulating long non‑coding RNA HIPK1‑AS. [Journal Article]
- MMMol Med Rep 2018 Jun 06
- Sipi soup (SPS), the aqueous extract derived from the root bark of Sophora japonical L, Salix babylonica L., Morus alba L., as well as Amygdalus davidiana (Carr.) C. de Vos, is a traditional Chinese ...
Sipi soup (SPS), the aqueous extract derived from the root bark of Sophora japonical L, Salix babylonica L., Morus alba L., as well as Amygdalus davidiana (Carr.) C. de Vos, is a traditional Chinese medicine frequently used to prevent and treat infection and inflammation. However, the role of SPS in cancer‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs) require further investigation. In the present study, the effects of SPS on fibroblast inactivation and the underlying mechanism were investigated. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the mRNA expression levels of fibroblast activation protein (FAP), interleukin (IL)‑6, α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA) and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). Flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Immunofluorescence was used to determine the number of activated fibroblasts. The present study reported that SPS treatment did not affect the proliferative apoptotic potential of fibroblasts. Treatment with HeLa cell culture medium (CM) induced a significant increase in the expression levels of FAP, IL‑6 and α‑SMA, but reduced the expression of PDCD4. SPS reversed the effects of HeLa CM on the expression of these genes. Analysis with a long non‑coding (lnc)RNA array of numerous differentially expressed lncRNAs revealed that the expression levels of the lncRNA homeodomain‑interacting protein kinase 1 antisense RNA (HIPK1‑AS) were increased in cervicitis tissues and cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues compared with in normal cervical tissues. HIPK1‑AS expression levels were upregulated in response to HeLa CM, but were decreased under SPS treatment. The downregulation of HIPK1‑AS expression via short hairpin RNA abolished the effects of HeLa CM on the expression of inflammation‑associated genes. The findings of the present study suggested that SPS may prevent the progression of cervical cancer by inhibiting the activation of CAF and the inflammatory process by reducing HIPK1‑AS expression.
- A prospective pilot evaluation of vaginal and urine self-sampling for the Roche cobas 4800 HPV test for cervical cancer screening. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jun 13; 8(1):9015
- This pilot study sought to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing vaginal self-swabs and urine samples for HPV-based cervical cancer screening in 700 women who had undergone conventional Pap smear scr...
This pilot study sought to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing vaginal self-swabs and urine samples for HPV-based cervical cancer screening in 700 women who had undergone conventional Pap smear screening via the national cervical cancer program in Korea. The cobas 4800 HPV test was utilized to detect HPV in the self-samples. Pap smear results revealed three cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 649 cases of negative for an intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, and 48 non-specific inflammatory findings. High-risk HPV was detected in 6.7% of urine samples and 9.6% of vaginal self-swab samples. The overall agreement for HPV 16/18 between urine and vaginal self-swab samples was 99.1% (95%CI 98.1% to 99.6%). Colposcopic biopsy revealed one cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 lesion, 12 CIN1 lesions, and 23 normal or chronic cervicitis lesions. In conclusion, urine and vaginal self-swab sampling was feasible and deemed a potential alternative for HPV detection in women who hesitate to participate in cervical cancer screening programs. Meanwhile, due to overall lower rates of abnormal cytology and sexual risk behaviors in Korea, a larger sample size than expected is needed to assess the sensitivity of CIN2+ detection via self-samples.
- Applications of genomics to slow the spread of multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. [Review]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 2018 Jun 06
- Infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted pathogen that causes urethritis, cervicitis, and more severe complications, are increasing. Gonorrhea is typically treated with antibioti...
Infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted pathogen that causes urethritis, cervicitis, and more severe complications, are increasing. Gonorrhea is typically treated with antibiotics; however, N. gonorrhoeae has rapidly acquired resistance to many antibiotic classes, and lineages with reduced susceptibility to the currently recommended therapies are emerging worldwide. In this review, we discuss the contributions of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to our understanding of resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Genomics has illuminated the evolutionary origins and population structure of N. gonorrhoeae and the magnitude of horizontal gene transfer within and between Neisseria species. WGS can be used to predict the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae based on known resistance determinants, track the spread of these determinants throughout the N. gonorrhoeae population, and identify novel loci contributing to resistance. WGS has also allowed more detailed epidemiological analysis of transmission of N. gonorrhoeae between individuals and populations than previously used typing methods. Ongoing N. gonorrhoeae genomics will complement other laboratory techniques to understand the biology and evolution of the pathogen, improve diagnostics and treatment in the clinic, and inform public health policies to limit the impact of antibiotic resistance.
- Outcomes of resistance-guided sequential treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infections: a prospective evaluation. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Jun 05
- CONCLUSIONS: In the context of high levels of antimicrobial resistance, switching from azithromycin to doxycycline for presumptive treatment of M. genitalium, followed by resistance-guided therapy, cured ≥92% of infections, with infrequent selection of macrolide resistance.
- BLT1-mediated O-GlcNAcylation is required for NOX2-dependent migration, exocytotic degranulation and IL-8 release of human mast cell induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-secreted LTB4. [Journal Article]
- MIMicrobes Infect 2018 May 31
- Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually-transmitted protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis. Although mast cell activation is important for provoking tissue inflammation during infection ...
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually-transmitted protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis. Although mast cell activation is important for provoking tissue inflammation during infection with parasites, information regarding the signaling mechanisms in mast cell activation and T. vaginalis infection is limited. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues that functions as a critical regulator of intracellular signaling, regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). We investigated if O-GlcNAcylation was associated with mast cell activation induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). Modified TvSP collected from live trichomonads treated with the 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor AA861 inhibited migration of mast cells. This result suggested that mast cell migration was caused by stimulation of T. vaginalis-secreted leukotrienes. Using the BLT1 antagonist U75302 or BLT1 siRNA, we found that migration of mast cells was evoked via LTB4 receptor (BLT1). Furthermore, TvSP induced protein O-GlcNAcylation and OGT expression in HMC-1 cells, which was prevented by transfection with BLT1 siRNA. TvSP-induced migration, ROS generation, CD63 expression and IL-8 release were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with OGT inhibitor ST045849 or OGT siRNA. These results suggested that BLT1-mediated OGlcNAcylation was important for mast cell activation during trichomoniasis.
- Expression of AMHR2 and C-KIT in cervical lesions in Uyghur Women of Xinjiang, China. [Clinical Trial]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(22):e10793
- CONCLUSIONS: AMHR2 might have some correlation with self defense of our body, while c-Kit might link with the potential invasive capacity of cervical cancer.
- Common Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women. [Review]
- NCNurs Clin North Am 2018; 53(2):189-202
- The spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remains a significant public health issue in the United States. Social, economic, and behavioral implications affecting the spread of STIs have be...
The spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remains a significant public health issue in the United States. Social, economic, and behavioral implications affecting the spread of STIs have been identified. The most important social factor in the United States is the stigma associated with discussing sex and STI screening. In this article, specific recommendations for women are included regarding screening, diagnosing, and treating common vaginal and cervical infections. Screening women for infections of the vagina and cervix is essential because untreated infections may result in complications that have current and long-term health consequences and impact quality of life.
- An integrative investigation of the therapeutic mechanism of Ainsliaea fragrans Champ. in cervicitis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based on a rat plasma metabolomics strategy. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Jul 15; 156:221-231
- Cervicitis is an extremely common gynecological disease and can be induced by diverse factors such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. Long-term unh...
Cervicitis is an extremely common gynecological disease and can be induced by diverse factors such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. Long-term unhealed cervicitis may lead to a series of diseases including endometritis, salpingitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and chorioamnionitis. However, the pathogenesis of cervicitis remains unknown. Ainsliaea fragrans Champ. (AFC) has been widely used in clinical treatment of cervicitis. In the present study, we performed an integrative investigation involving histopathology analysis and non-target plasma metabolomics analysis in a cervicitis rat model induced by phenol mucilage, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry approach. Based on the integrative investigation, marked metabolomic differences were identified between the cervicitis and control groups using multivariate analysis. As a result, 32 potential biomarkers were identified in the response to cervicitis, and were involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. After treatment, a total of 27 potential biomarkers exhibited altered levels in the AFC group compared to the model group, and 12 metabolites including 1-stearoylglycerophosphoinositol, bolasterone, lysoPC(16:0), lysoPC(20:4), lysoPC(P-16:0), lysoPC(P-18:0), lysoPC(P-18:1), stearoylcarnitine, taurine, lysoPC(17:0), 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and 1-arachidonoylglycerophosphoinositol returned to their normal levels. This study suggested that the therapeutic mechanism of AFC is related to those altered endogenous metabolites.
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- Comparative Metabolomics Analysis of Cervicitis in Human Patients and a Phenol Mucilage-Induced Rat Model Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:282
- Cervicitis is an exceedingly common gynecological disorder that puts women at high risk of sexually transmitted infections and induces a series of reproductive system diseases. This condition also ha...
Cervicitis is an exceedingly common gynecological disorder that puts women at high risk of sexually transmitted infections and induces a series of reproductive system diseases. This condition also has a significant impact on quality of life and is commonly misdiagnosed in clinical practice due to its complicated pathogenesis. In the present study, we performed non-targeted plasma metabolomics analysis of cervicitis in both plasma samples obtained from human patients and plasma samples from a phenol mucilage induced rat model of cervicitis, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. In addition to differences in histopathology, we identified differences in the metabolic profile between the cervicitis and control groups using unsupervised principal component analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis. These results demonstrated changes in plasma metabolites, with 27 and 22 potential endogenous markers identified in rat and human samples, respectively. The metabolic pathway analysis showed that linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, ether lipid, and glycerophospholipid metabolism are key metabolic pathways involved in cervicitis. This study showed the rat model was successfully created and applied to understand the pathogenesis of cervicitis.