- Guidelines for the Evaluation and Treatment of Pneumonia. [Review]
- PCPrim Care 2018; 45(3):485-503
- Pneumonia is a common cause of respiratory infection, accounting for more than 800,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Presenting symptoms of pneumonia are typically cough, pleuritic ...
Pneumonia is a common cause of respiratory infection, accounting for more than 800,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Presenting symptoms of pneumonia are typically cough, pleuritic chest pain, fever, fatigue, and loss of appetite. Children and the elderly have different presenting features of pneumonia, which include headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and absence of one or more of the prototypical symptoms. Knowledge of local bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility and resistance profiles is the key for effective pharmacologic selection and treatment of pneumonia.
- Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma, Biphasic Type: An Unusual and Insidious Case of Rapidly Progressive Small Blue Cell Tumor. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Jun 06; 10(6):e2749
- Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare neoplasm. It predominantly affects elderly individuals aged over 70 years presenting with a unilateral pleural tumor usually associated with previous as...
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare neoplasm. It predominantly affects elderly individuals aged over 70 years presenting with a unilateral pleural tumor usually associated with previous asbestos exposure. The respiratory symptoms are associated with ipsilateral pleural involvement with concomitant pleural effusions. The diagnosis of MPM is established by the morphologic and immunohistochemical features of a cytologic specimen. MPM can present as three histologic subtypes: epithelioid, sarcomatoid, or biphasic. We present a case of an 85-year-old Caucasian female with a history of occupational asbestos exposure. She complained of 1-week history of progressive sharp right flank and scapular pain with mild shortness of breath, dry cough and pleuritic chest pain. CT of the chest showed a large loculated right pleural effusion with adjacent pleural thickening. CT abdomen and pelvis was negative for other neoplastic findings. CT-guided core biopsy of the right pleural-based mass was positive for a spindle to plasmacytoid small blue cell tumor. An extensive immunohistochemical panel was non-specific. A focal OSCAR keratin and WT-1 expression in the absence of carcinoma markers, a malignant mesothelioma, biphasic type was diagnosed. Further workup with PET-CT and cytotoxic chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy or tyrosine kinase inhibitors was recommended by oncology. The patient refused further imaging and treatment, and palliative care was consulted.
- Cardiac tamponade in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis: a notable response to TNF inhibitors. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Aug 11; 2018
- Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a rheumatological disorder of the spine, and like many other rheumatological diseases, it can manifest as a systemic inflammation. We present a rare case of cardiac man...
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a rheumatological disorder of the spine, and like many other rheumatological diseases, it can manifest as a systemic inflammation. We present a rare case of cardiac manifestations of AS in a 25-year-old man with recurrent chest pain and pericardial effusions. He initially presented with pleuritic chest pain, was diagnosed with cardiac tamponade and required emergent pericardiocentesis. The patient returned again with chest pain and was found to have reaccumulation of pericardial effusion. The cardiac symptoms were finally resolved when he was diagnosed and treated for AS.
- An unusual case of cardiac tamponade: Bronchogenic cyst infection due to Salmonella bredeney. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Chemother 2018 Aug 08
- We present an unusual case of cardiac tamponade in a 17-year-old girl immunocompetent patient due to Salmonella enterica ssp. bredeney following infection of a bronchogenic cyst. The patient was admi...
We present an unusual case of cardiac tamponade in a 17-year-old girl immunocompetent patient due to Salmonella enterica ssp. bredeney following infection of a bronchogenic cyst. The patient was admitted to hospital with pleuritic chest pain, dyspnoea and fever. Pulmonary angio-CT showed a bronchogenic cyst compressing the left atrium. The echocardiography showed diffuse pericardial effusion with right ventricular collapse consistent with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was performed and microbiological cultures of the pericardial fluid became positive for Salmonella species confirmed later as bredeney subspecies by PCR. Empirical antibiotherapy was started with intravenous (IV) ceftriaxone. Bronchogenic cyst infection was suspected and confirmed by 18FDG PET CT. The patient was successfully treated by complete resection of the cyst and continuation of IV ceftriaxone followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate for a total duration of 6 weeks. She then completely recovered and didn't present any relapse after 6 months of follow up.
- Atypical Presentation of Lemierre's Syndrome Causing Septic Shock and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Infect Dis 2018; 2018:5469053
- Lemierre's disease is a rare but life-threatening condition characterized by an oropharyngeal infection complicating with thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and disseminated abscesses. We ...
Lemierre's disease is a rare but life-threatening condition characterized by an oropharyngeal infection complicating with thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and disseminated abscesses. We are presenting a case of a young female who initially presented with fevers, chills, sore throat, and swollen neck later developed progressively worsening shortness of breath along with sudden onset pleuritic chest pain. She then developed progressively worsening acute hypoxic respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Interval chest X-ray showed worsening bilateral effusions. She also developed septic shock requiring pressors. Blood culture showed Fusobacterium, and antibiotics were changed accordingly following which there was a clinical improvement. The diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome was then established based on her presenting age and bilateral pulmonary empyema in the setting of septicemia with Fusobacterium.
- Complicated Infective Endocarditis Limited to a Chiari Network. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Cardiol 2018; 2018:3837825
- CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis and management of isolated Chiari network endocarditis require a high index of clinical suspicion. A multidisciplinary approach incorporating both medical and surgical approaches where necessary is essential for optimal outcome.
- Symptomatic bilateral pulmonary embolism without deep venous thrombosis in an adolescent following arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Case Rep 2018 Jul 06; 12(1):194
- CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic bilateral pulmonary embolism may have a good prognosis if it is diagnosed early and treated appropriately. It is important to appreciate the risk of provoked thromboembolic events in healthy adolescents undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery.
- Acute Pericarditis as a Presentation of Adrenal Insufficiency. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Apr 13; 10(4):e2474
- Acute pericarditis as a presenting sign of adrenal insufficiency is rarely reported. We present a rare case that highlights pericarditis as a clinical presentation of secondary adrenal insufficiency ...
Acute pericarditis as a presenting sign of adrenal insufficiency is rarely reported. We present a rare case that highlights pericarditis as a clinical presentation of secondary adrenal insufficiency later complicated by cardiac tamponade. A 44-year-old lady who presented to the hospital with a one-day history of pleuritic chest pain and shortness of breath. In the emergency room, she had a blood pressure of 70/35 mmHg. Laboratory evaluation revealed white blood cell count of 16.08 k/cumm with neutrophilia, normal renal function and elevated troponin (0.321 ng/mL, normal 0.000-0.028). An electrocardiogram (EKG) showed sinus tachycardia, low voltage, PR suppression and ST changes consistent with acute pericarditis. Echocardiogram showed small pericardial effusion without tamponade physiology. Infectious workup was negative; she was thought to have acute adrenal insufficiency likely secondary to viral pericarditis. We treated the patient with high dose nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and hydrocortisone. Three weeks later, she presented to emergency room with complaints of persistent nausea, vomiting, chills, weakness. Her blood pressure was 49/23 mmHg. Random serum cortisol level was <1.2 mcg/dl (normal A.M. specimens 3.7-19.4 mcg/dl). Echocardiogram showed loculated pericardial fluid adjacent to the right ventricle with echocardiographic evidence of tamponade. Emergent pericardiocentesis yielded 250 ml of straw color fluid. Blood pressure improved after the procedure. The patient was initially started on IV stress dose steroids, but following clinical stabilization, hydrocortisone was switched to a physiological dose of 15 mg in am and 10 mg in pm. Although the mechanism of pericarditis in adrenal failure is unknown, this clinical presentation may help early diagnosis of adrenal failure and pericarditis. Early recognition and prompt treatment of this rare presentation are critical to prevent morbidity and mortality.
- Pneumorrhachis with Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Should It Raise Special Concerns? [Journal Article]
- OMOman Med J 2018; 33(3):256-259
- Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare and benign condition predominantly seen in young males. Patients present with non-specific pleuritic chest pain, cough, and dyspnea. Hence, it is difficu...
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare and benign condition predominantly seen in young males. Patients present with non-specific pleuritic chest pain, cough, and dyspnea. Hence, it is difficult to diagnose in the acute setting until other serious differential diagnoses involving the integrity of the aerodigestive tract have been excluded. This results in over investigation and overtreatment until a diagnosis has been confirmed. We report a case of a 21-year-old Omani female who presented with a complaint of cough. She was diagnosed based on clinical and radiological findings after exclusion of hollow viscous perforation to have SPM extending to the spinal canal (pneumorrhachis). Her condition improved following conservative management, and she was sent home after three days.
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- Pulmonary Infarction: Right Upper Quadrant Pain as a Presenting Symptom With Review of Typical Computed Tomography Imaging Features. [Journal Article]
- MMMil Med 2018 Jun 08
- The purpose of this case presentation is to discuss right upper quadrant pain as an atypical presenting symptom in pulmonary infarction and review the typical computed tomography (CT) imaging feature...
The purpose of this case presentation is to discuss right upper quadrant pain as an atypical presenting symptom in pulmonary infarction and review the typical computed tomography (CT) imaging features of pulmonary infarction to improve diagnostic accuracy. Pulmonary infarction results from occlusion of distal arterial vasculature within the lung parenchyma leading to ischemia, hemorrhage, and ultimately necrosis. Patients with lung infarction typically present with pleuritic chest pain and may have associated signs or symptoms of pulmonary thromboembolism or deep vein thrombosis. In this case study, a 34-yr-old female devoid of any symptoms indicative of either pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis presented with right upper quadrant pain 1 mo status post open reduction internal fixation for a left ankle fracture. Multiple clinic visits spanning approximately 7 d were significant for a right lower lobe opacity seen on CT of the abdomen which was presumed to represent community acquired pneumonia as a source for the patient's RUQ pain. The patient presented to the emergency department 1 wk later (6 wk following her initial surgery) complaining of left lower extremity swelling and was subsequently diagnosed with a left lower extremity DVT via ultrasound. CT of the pulmonary arteries was negative for PE but identified a right lower lobe opacity which in retrospect was consistent with pulmonary infarction.