- The physiology of saltwater acclimation in large juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Fish Biol 2018 Jun 21
- The present study investigated the effects of transferring freshwater (FW) acclimated S.salar (678 g) that had been maintained under a constant photoperiod and thermal regime, into FW (salinity 0) an...
The present study investigated the effects of transferring freshwater (FW) acclimated S.salar (678 g) that had been maintained under a constant photoperiod and thermal regime, into FW (salinity 0) and salt water (SW; salinity 35) on growth and physiological responses over a 28 day period. There were no mortalities observed throughout the study and no significant differences in mass or fork length between FW and SW groups after 28 days. Compared with fish transferred to FW, plasma osmolality and plasma chloride levels increased significantly in fish in SW by day 1. In the SW group, plasma chloride and osmolality had decreased significantly at day 14 when compared with day 1. Na+ -K+ -ATPase activity was significantly higher in SW compared with the FW group from day 7 and thereafter, but continued to increase until day 22. No differences in plasma cortisol and thyroxine were observed between FW and SW groups throughout the study. Plasma glucose significantly increased from day 1 to day 2 in SW but not in the FW group and levels were significantly reduced in SW compared with the FW group at day 28. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in FW at day 22 and day 14 to day 22, respectively, when compared with the SW group. In the SW group, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not change significantly throughout the study. The findings of this study suggest that large S. salar retained in FW maintain a high level of SW tolerance in the absence of photoperiod and thermal regimes necessary for smoltification, as demonstrated by 100% survival, unaffected growth performance, increased Na+ -K+ -ATPase activity and a capacity to regulate plasma chloride and osmolality for 28 days in the SW group. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Discrepancies Between BMI and Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors. [Journal Article]
- OSObes Surg 2018 Jun 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Markers of inflammation are strongest related to BMI in obese subjects, most likely due to increased adipose tissue mass, while cardiovascular risk factors do not seem to deteriorate above a certain BMI level. Limited expansion capacity of visceral adipose tissue may explain these findings.
- STK25 Regulates Cardiovascular Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Hypercholesterolemia. [Journal Article]
- ATArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2018 Jun 21
- CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence that STK25 plays a critical role in regulation of cardiovascular disease risk and suggests that pharmacological inhibition of STK25 function may provide new possibilities for prevention/treatment of atherosclerosis.
- The delayed effects of antibiotics in type 2 diabetes, friend or foe? [Journal Article]
- JEJ Endocrinol 2018 Jun 21
- Increasing evidences suggest that the delayed effect of antibiotics (abx) on gut microbiota after its cessation is not as favorable as its immediate effect on host metabolism. However, it is not know...
Increasing evidences suggest that the delayed effect of antibiotics (abx) on gut microbiota after its cessation is not as favorable as its immediate effect on host metabolism. However, it is not known how the diverse abx dependent metabolic effects impact on diabetic subjects and how gut microbiota is involved. Here, we treated db/db mice with abx cocktail for 12 days and discontinued for 24 days. We found that db/db mice showed decreased body weight and blood glucose after abx treatment, which rapidly caught up after abx cessation. Twenty-four days after abx withdraw, db/db mice exhibit increased plasma, hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels and liver weight. The gut microbiota composition at that time showed decreased relative abundances (RA) of Desulfovibrionaceae and Rikenellaceae, increased RA of Erysipelotrichaceae and Mogibacteriaceae, which were correlating with the reduced short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in gut content, such as propionic acid and valeric acid and with the elevated fecal taurine conjugated bile acids (BAs) levels. The molecular biology studies showed inhibited hepatic BA synthesis from cholesterol, impeded intracellular transportation and biliary excretion of cholesterol that all conferred to liver TC accumulation. The associations among alterations of gut microbiota composition, microbial metabolite profiles and host phenotypes suggested the existence of a gut microbiota-linked mechanisms that mediate the unfavorable delayed effects of abx on db/db mice cholesterol metabolism. Thus, we call upon the caution of applying abx in diabetic animal models for studying microbiota-host interaction and in type 2 diabetes subjects for preventing chronic cardiovascular consequences.
- [The effects of aerobic exercise on ERK1/2 activity in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic rats]. [Journal Article]
- ZYZhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2017 Jan 08; 33(1):33-37
- CONCLUSIONS: Long-term aerobic exercise can improve the skeletal muscle ERK1/2 phosphorylation and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetic rats, thereby lowering blood glucose. It is probably one of the mechanisms to improve glucose metabolism disorders and insulin sensitivity.
- Alcohol consumption frequency or alcohol intake per drinking session: Which has a larger impact on the metabolic syndrome and its components? [Journal Article]
- AAlcohol 2018 Feb 01; 71:15-23
- CONCLUSIONS: Frequent alcohol consumption and high alcohol intake per drinking session were associated with higher prevalence of MetS and its components for Korean men; alcohol intake per drinking session only was associated with higher prevalence of MetS and its components for Korean women.
- The effect of leonardite and lignite on the health of weaned piglets. [Journal Article]
- RVRes Vet Sci 2018 Jun 12; 119:134-142
- A three-week trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of leonardite and lignite, natural sources of humic substances, on selected indicators of health status of weaned piglets. A total of 45 weane...
A three-week trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of leonardite and lignite, natural sources of humic substances, on selected indicators of health status of weaned piglets. A total of 45 weaned piglets were assigned to three dietary treatments: Control - basal diet without any medication; Leonardite or Lignite - diet supplemented with lignite or leonardite at a dose of 20 g/kg, respectively. Leonardite differed from lignite in the content of humic substances and minerals. Diarrhoea incidence and severity, growth performance, haematological and biochemical status, biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum fatty acid (FA) profile and faecal microbiota composition were monitored. Significantly lower faecal score, diarrhoea incidence, serum biomarkers of oxidative stress, higher body weight gain and no mortality were observed in leonardite and lignite group. The supplemented groups had or tended to have higher haematocrit, haemoglobin, erythrocyte counts, iron, cholesterol and lower urea in blood. Increased serum minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) were detected in the leonardite group. Different effects of leonardite and lignite on serum FA profile were detected. Significantly lower proportion of saturated FA, higher unsaturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated (PUFA) n-3 FA and PUFA n6/n3 ratio were detected in leonardite group compared to lignite group. Both treatments decreased microbial diversity and richness of faecal microbiota at the genus level. Specifically, lower relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Anaerovibrio, Oscillospira, SMB53, Ruminococcus, and a tendency to a higher abundance of Prevotella was found compared to control group. Natural humic materials may provide benefit to piglets' heath in the difficult post-weaning period.
- An FXR Agonist Reduces Bile Acid Synthesis Independently of Increases in FGF19 in Healthy Volunteers. [Journal Article]
- GGastroenterology 2018 Jun 18
- Bile acid (BA) synthesis is regulated through suppression of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase via FXR activation in hepatocytes and/or enterocytes; in enterocytes, this process requires FGF19 signa...
Bile acid (BA) synthesis is regulated through suppression of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase via FXR activation in hepatocytes and/or enterocytes; in enterocytes, this process requires FGF19 signaling. To study these pathways, we quantified markers of BA synthesis (7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one;C4) and cholesterol production (lathosterol), FGF19, and BAs in serum from healthy male volunteers given 1 oral dose of the nonsteroidal FXR agonist Px-102 (0.15mg/kg, 0.3mg/kg, 0.6mg/kg, 1.12mg/kg, 2.25mg/kg, 3.38mg/kg, or 4.5mg/kg). After 8 hrs, serum levels of C4 decreased by 80% in volunteers given 0.15mg/kg, whereas serum levels of FGF19 were unchanged. Serum levels of FGF19 increased significantly, in a dose-dependent manner, in volunteers given >0.3mg/kg Px-102, up to as much as 1600%, whereas C4 levels remained significantly reduced (by>80%). For all doses, FGF19 levels returned to normal 24 hrs after administration of Px-102. Serum levels of C4 decreased before levels of FGF19 levels increased, and were still reduced by 95% 24 hrs after the highest dose (4.5mg/kg) of Px-102, even though levels of FGF19 had returned to baseline. Our findings indicate that activation of hepatic FXR is able to suppress BA synthesis, independent of FGF19.
- FXR-Mediated Cortical Cholesterol Accumulation Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Type A Hepatic Encephalopathy. [Journal Article]
- CMCell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 6(1):47-63
- CONCLUSIONS: During hepatic encephalopathy, FXR signaling increases brain cholesterol and contributes to neurologic decline. Targeting cholesterol accumulation in the brain may be a possible therapeutic target for the management of hepatic encephalopathy.
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- Hepatotoxic Effects of Hexafluoropropylene Oxide Trimer Acid (HFPO-TA), A Novel Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Alternative, on Mice. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Technol 2018 Jun 21
- As an alternative to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA) has been increasingly used for fluoropolymer manufacture in recent years. Its growing detection in ...
As an alternative to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA) has been increasingly used for fluoropolymer manufacture in recent years. Its growing detection in environmental matrices and wildlife raises considerable concern about its potential health risks. Here we investigated the effects of HFPO-TA on mouse liver following 28 days of exposure to 0.02, 0.1, or 0.5 mg/kg/d of HFPO-TA via oral gavage. Results showed that HFPO-TA concentrations increased to 1.14, 4.48, and 30.8 μg/mL in serum and 12.0, 32.2, and 100 μg/g in liver, respectively. Liver injury, including hepatomegaly, necrosis, and increase in alanine aminotransferase activity, was observed. Furthermore, total cholesterol and triglycerides decreased in the liver in a dose-dependent manner. Liver transcriptome analysis revealed that 281, 1 001, and 2 491 genes were differentially expressed (fold change ≥ 2 and FDR < 0.05) in the three treated groups, respectively, compared with the control group. KEGG enrichment analysis highlighted the PPAR and chemical carcinogenesis pathways in all three treatment groups. Protein levels of genes involved in carcinogenesis, such as AFP, p21, Sirt1 C-MYC, and PCNA, were significantly increased. Compared with previously published toxicological data of PFOA, HFPO-TA showed higher bioaccumulation potential and more serious hepatotoxicity. Taken together, HFPO-TA does not appear to be a safer alternative to PFOA.