- Astragalus Saponins and Liposome Constitute an Efficacious Adjuvant Formulation for Cancer Vaccines. [Journal Article]
- CBCancer Biother Radiopharm 2018; 33(1):25-31
- Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against tumors. An appropriate adjuvant is of fundamental importance for inducing cellular immune response. Since the antigen in pa...
Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against tumors. An appropriate adjuvant is of fundamental importance for inducing cellular immune response. Since the antigen in particulate form is substantially more immunogenic than soluble form antigen, it is beneficial to interact with antigen-presenting cells membrane to induce robust CD8+T cell activation following vaccination. Based on previous research, we designed an adjuvant formulation by combining Astragalus saponins, cholesterol, and liposome to incorporate antigen into a particulate delivery system, so as to enhance cellular immune response. Meanwhile, angiogenesis contributes to tumor growth and metastasis, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is involved in tumor angiogenesis. Therefore, using lipo-saponins adjuvant formulation and a human recombinant bFGF antigen protein, we tried to induce bFGF-specific CTL response to inhibit tumor angiogenesis to achieve antitumor activity. After five immunizations, the lipo-saponins/bFGF complex elicited robust antibody response and markedly higher amount of interferon-γ in BALB/c mice, resulting in superior antitumor activities. Decreased microvessel density in CD31 immunohistochemistry and the lysis of vascular endothelial cells by the T lymphocytes from the immunized mice indicated that the immunity inhibited the angiogenesis of tumors and further led to the inhibition of tumors. Our data suggest that the approach to construct adjuvant formulation between liposome and Astragalus saponins appeared highly desirable, and that Astragalus saponins may be utilized as a valuable additive for enhancing the effectiveness of vaccines and stimulating an appropriate immune response that can benefit tumor therapy.
- Effects of physical activity program on weight, physical fitness, occupational stress, job satisfaction, and quality of life of overweight employees in high-tech industries: a randomized controlled study. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Occup Saf Ergon 2018 Feb 21; :1-23
- CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study showed that PA program can be helpful in improving physical, physiological and psychological outcomes for overweight and sedentary employees in high-tech industries.
- The impact of serum adropin and ischemia modified albumin levels based on BMI in PCOS. [Journal Article]
- EPEndokrynol Pol 2018 Feb 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Although serum adropin levels were significantly decreased in the PCOS group, IMA levels increased. Further studies are needed to determine the effects of adropin and IMA in women with PCOS and to use a new marker to monitorize treatment outcomes.
- Lingguizhugan Decoction Protects against High-Fat-Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Alleviating Oxidative Stress and Activating Cholesterol Secretion. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Genomics 2017; 2017:2790864
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed a "two-hits-targeting" mechanism of LGZG in the treatment for NAFLD: alleviating oxidative stress and activating cholesterol secretion.
- Lipid profile and effect of statin treatment in pooled phase II and phase III baricitinib studies. [Journal Article]
- ARAnn Rheum Dis 2018 Feb 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Baricitinib was associated with increased LDL-C, HDL-C and triglyceride levels, but did not alter the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Evaluation of cardiovascular event rates during long-term treatment is warranted to further characterise these findings and their possible clinical implications.
- The Antioxidant Content and Protective Effect of Argan Oil and Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil in Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Biochemical and Histological Changes. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Feb 18; 19(2)
- Oxidative stress is an important etiology of chronic diseases and many studies have shown that natural products might alleviate oxidative stress-induced pathogenesis. The study aims to evaluate the e...
Oxidative stress is an important etiology of chronic diseases and many studies have shown that natural products might alleviate oxidative stress-induced pathogenesis. The study aims to evaluate the effect of Argan oil andSyzygium aromaticumessential oil on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced liver, brain and kidney tissue toxicity as well as biochemical changes in wistar rats. The antioxidant content of Argan oil andSyzygium aromaticumessential oil was studied with the use of gas chromatography. The animals received daily by gavage, for 21 days, either distilled water,Syzygium aromaticumessential oil, Argan oil, H₂O₂ alone, H₂O₂ andSyzygium aromaticumessential oil, or H₂O₂ and Argan oil. Blood samples were withdrawn on day 21 for the biochemical blood tests, and the kidney, liver and brain tissue samples were prepared for histopathology examination. The results showed that the content of antioxidant compounds inSyzygium aromaticumessential oil is higher than that found in Argan oil. H₂O₂ increased level of blood urea, liver enzymes, total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C), Triglycerides (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), and decreased the total protein, albumin and High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). There was no significant effect on blood electrolyte or serum creatinine. The histopathology examination demonstrated that H₂O₂ induces dilatation in the central vein, inflammation and binucleation in the liver, congestion and hemorrhage in the brain, and congestion in the kidney. The H₂O₂-induced histopathological and biochemical changes have been significantly alleviated bySyzygium aromaticumessential oil or Argan oil. It is concluded that the Argan oil and especially the mixture of Argan oil withSyzygium aromaticumessential oil can reduce the oxidative damage caused by H₂O2,and this will pave the way to investigate the protective effects of these natural substances in the diseases attributed to the high oxidative stress.
- Correlations of 25(OH)D level with blood lipid, inflammatory factors and vascular endothelial function in diabetic patients. [Journal Article]
- EREur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018; 22(3):731-735
- CONCLUSIONS: In diabetic patients, the level of 25(OH)D is decreased and the inflammatory factors are increased. In patients with proper supplementation of 25(OH)D, the inflammation can be reduced and endothelial function can be improved.
- Lower sperm quality and testicular and epididymal structural impairment in adult rats exposed to rosuvastatin during prepuberty. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Appl Toxicol 2018 Feb 19
- The increase of obesity, bad eating habits and the lack of physical exercises are highly related to dyslipidemias. Rosuvastatin is a lipid-lowering drug and has been indicated to prevent cardiovascul...
The increase of obesity, bad eating habits and the lack of physical exercises are highly related to dyslipidemias. Rosuvastatin is a lipid-lowering drug and has been indicated to prevent cardiovascular diseases and to treat dyslipidemias due to its higher efficiency to reduce serum cholesterol concentrations. This study aimed to evaluate the reproductive adverse effects on sexual maturity due to rosuvastatin exposure in juvenile male rats during prepuberty. Three groups were randomly formed with newly weaned rats: control, whose rats received saline solution 0.9% and rosuvastatin at doses of 3 or 10 mg kg-1day-1, administered orally by gavage, from postnatal day 21 until preputial separation (average of 45 days for controls and 49 days for statin-treated animals), indicative of puberty onset. Male rats were maintained until sexual maturity and were killed on postnatal day 110. In the rosuvastatin-treated groups, the results showed diminished follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone concentrations, increased estradiol and prolactin concentrations, histopathologic alterations on testis and epididymis and decreased sperm quality. Moreover, statin-exposed groups showed decreased expression of androgen receptor on testis and epididymis and lower expression of aquaporin-9 on epididymal epithelium. In conclusion, administration of rosuvastatin to prepubertal male rats provoked long-term hormonal deregulation and impaired reproduction at adulthood.
- Effects of Ethanol and Cholesterol on Thermotropic Phase Behavior of Ion-Pair Amphiphile Bilayers. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oleo Sci 2018 Feb 19
- Ion-pair amphiphiles (IPAs, also known as catanionic surfactants) are lipid-like double-chained molecules potentially used for fabricating liposome-like vesicular drug and gene carriers. Frequently e...
Ion-pair amphiphiles (IPAs, also known as catanionic surfactants) are lipid-like double-chained molecules potentially used for fabricating liposome-like vesicular drug and gene carriers. Frequently ethanol and cholesterol are added to modulate the properties of their bilayer membranes. Effects of ethanol and cholesterol on the fundamental properties of IPA bilayers such as thermotropic phase behavior, however, is not known. In this work, the bilayer phase transition behavior of two IPAs (decyltrimethylammonium-tetradecyl sulfate, DeTMA-TS, and dodecyltrimethylammonium-dodecyl sulfate, DTMA-DS) in tris buffer with various amounts of ethanol was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Effect of cholesterol (CHOL) addition on bilayer phase transition of IPAs with 20 vol% ethanol was thereafter systematically investigated. The experimental results showed that the main phase transition temperature (Tm) was monotonously decreased with the increase of ethanol concentration up to 30 vol%. The degree of Tmdepression by ethanol is essentially the same for the two IPAs regardless of different symmetry in the hydrocarbon chains. Further addition of CHOL, however, caused a slight decrease in Tmon the one hand and a significant decrease in the enthalpy of phase transition on the other hand. When the added CHOL exceeded a specific amount, the phase transition disappeared. More hasty disappearance of phase transition was found for IPA with asymmetric structure than the symmetric one. Possible mechanisms of ethanol effect based on binding in the headgroup region of the bilayers and CHOL effect based on opposite (condensing and disordering) interactions with IPA molecules in bilayers, respectively, were proposed.
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- αMβ2Is Antiatherogenic in Female but Not Male Mice. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Immunol 2018 Feb 19
- Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory process characterized by monocyte recruitment into the arterial wall, their differentiation into macrophages, and lipid accumulation. Because integrin αMβ2(C...
Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory process characterized by monocyte recruitment into the arterial wall, their differentiation into macrophages, and lipid accumulation. Because integrin αMβ2(CD11b/CD18) mediates multiple diverse functions of leukocytes, we examined its role in atherogenesis.αM-/-/ApoE-/-andApoE-/-mice were fed a control or high fat diet for 3 or 16 wk to induce atherogenesis. Unexpectedly,αMdeficiency accelerated development of atherosclerosis in female but not in male mice. The size of aortic root lesions was 3-4.5-fold larger in femaleαM-/-/ApoE-/-than inApoE-/-mice. Monocyte and macrophage content within the lesions was increased 2.5-fold in femaleαM-/-/ApoE-/-mice due to enhanced proliferation. αMβ2elimination promoted gender-dependent foam cell formation due to enhanced uptake of cholesterol byαM-/-/ApoE-/-macrophages. This difference was attributed to enhanced expression of lipid uptake receptors, CD36 and scavenger receptor A1 (SR-A1), in female mice. Macrophages from femaleαM-/-/ApoE-/-mice showed dramatically reduced expression of FoxM1 transcription factor and estrogen receptors (ER) α and β. As their antagonists inhibited the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2), E2decreased CD36, SR-A1, and foam cell formation inApoE-/-macrophages in an ERα- and ERβ-dependent manner. However, femaleαM-/-/ApoE-/-macrophages failed to respond to E2and maintained elevated CD36, SR-A1, and lipid accumulation. FoxM1 inhibition inApoE-/-macrophages reduced ERs and enhanced CD36 and SR-A1 expression, whereas FoxM1 overexpression inαM-/-/ApoE-/-macrophages reversed their proatherogenic phenotype. We demonstrate a new, surprising atheroprotective role of αMβ2in femaleApoE-/-mice. αMβ2maintains ER expression in macrophages and E2-dependent inhibition of foam cell formation.