- Comparison of Fimasartan and Amlodipine Therapy on Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Inflammation. [Journal Article]
- CCClin Cardiol 2018 Dec 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Fimasartan and amlodipine reduce carotid atherosclerotic plaque inflammation similarly in patients with acute coronary syndrome, offering the same level of effectiveness.
- Effects of Angelica gigas Nakai on the production of decursin- and decursinol angelate-enriched eggs. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sci Food Agric 2018 Dec 07
- CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that AGN root and byproducts (stem and leaf) could be utilized for production of value-added eggs and to improve the health of hens in the poultry industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Menadione perturbs oxidative stress biomarkers and testicular function indices of rats. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biochem Mol Toxicol 2018 Dec 10; :e22282
- In this study, we evaluated the influence of menadione on the androgenic, oxidative stress biomarkers, and testicular function indices in rats. Rats (20) were randomized into four groups (A-D) of fiv...
In this study, we evaluated the influence of menadione on the androgenic, oxidative stress biomarkers, and testicular function indices in rats. Rats (20) were randomized into four groups (A-D) of five rats each. Rats in groups A, B, C, and D received the vehicle of administration (olive oil), 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg body weight menadione intraperitoneally, respectively, for 7 days. Menadione lowered serum cholesterol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone and luteinizing hormone reduced significantly in rats when compared with the control rats. Furthermore, menadione lowered the testicular function indices in the testes of rats. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the testes of menadione-treated rats decreased significantly. Also, glutathione was depleted with concomitant malondialdehyde increase. The findings of this study show that menadione induces testicular toxicity by depleting the antioxidant defense system leading to perturbation in the testicular function indices.
- The Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Genetic and Metabolic Profiles in Patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. [Journal Article]
- PAProbiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2018 Dec 08
- This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on genetic and metabolic profiles in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who were not on oral hypoglycemi...
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on genetic and metabolic profiles in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who were not on oral hypoglycemic agents. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 48 patients with GDM. Participants were randomly divided into two groups to intake either probiotic capsule containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus fermentum (2 × 109 CFU/g each) (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24) for 6 weeks. Probiotic intake upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (P = 0.01), transforming growth factor beta (P = 0.002) and vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.006), and downregulated gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (P = 0.03) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of subjects with GDM. In addition, probiotic supplementation significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose (β, - 3.43 mg/dL; 95% CI, - 6.48, - 0.38; P = 0.02), serum insulin levels (β, - 2.29 μIU/mL; 95% CI, - 3.60, - 0.99; P = 0.001), and insulin resistance (β, - 0.67; 95% CI, - 1.05, - 0.29; P = 0.001) and significantly increased insulin sensitivity (β, 0.009; 95% CI, 0.004, 0.01; P = 0.001) compared with the placebo. Additionally, consuming probiotic significantly decreased triglycerides (P = 0.02), VLDL-cholesterol (P = 0.02), and total-/HDL-cholesterol ratio (P = 0.006) and significantly increased HDL-cholesterol levels (P = 0.03) compared with the placebo. Finally, probiotic administration led to a significant reduction in plasma malondialdehyde (P < 0.001), and a significant elevation in plasma nitric oxide (P = 0.01) and total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.01) was observed compared with the placebo. Overall, probiotic supplementation for 6 weeks to patients with GDM had beneficial effects on gene expression related to insulin and inflammation, glycemic control, few lipid profiles, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress.
- Biochemical Activity and Hypoglycemic Effects of Rumex obtusifolius L. Seeds Used in Armenian Traditional Medicine. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2018; 2018:4526352
- Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious chronic metabolic disorder. Various diseases are being treated with medicinal plants and that is because of the less side effects of the current therapy. The diver...
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious chronic metabolic disorder. Various diseases are being treated with medicinal plants and that is because of the less side effects of the current therapy. The diversity of plants in Armenia is due to the singularity of natural environment. However, biochemical activity of these plants has not been studied well. Thus, the goal was to investigate biochemical activity and antihyperglycemic properties of Rumex obtusifolius L. in rabbits with hyperglycemia. The high content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins has been determined in this plant extract. Oral administration of ethanol extract showed significant effect on hyperglycemia, reducing fasting glucose levels (57.3%, p<0.05), improving glucose tolerance, and increasing liver glycogen content (1.5-fold, p<0.01) compared to the hyperglycemic control group. Furthermore, ethanol extract of R. obtusifolius reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and vice versa increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and also decreased liver enzymes levels (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) compared with untreated group. These findings suggest that R. obtusifolius may have beneficial effects and should be supplement, as herbal remedy in the treatment of DM.
- Low cholesterol is not always good: low cholesterol levels are associated with decreased serotonin and increased aggression in fish. [Journal Article]
- BOBiol Open 2018 Dec 10; 7(12)
- The inverse relationship between serum cholesterol and levels of aggression led to the cholesterol-serotonin hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, low dietary cholesterol intake leads to depresse...
The inverse relationship between serum cholesterol and levels of aggression led to the cholesterol-serotonin hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, low dietary cholesterol intake leads to depressed central serotonergic activity, which is associated with increased aggression. Here we present the hypothesis about the evolutionary origins of low cholesterol and aggressive behavior, investigating the relationship between low levels of plasma cholesterol and aggressive behavior in fish. We used Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a species of aggressive fish with a clear dominant subordinate relation, as an experimental model. The fish were treated with statin, a cholesterol-lowering drug. Aggressive behavior, brain serotonin (5-HT) concentrations, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, the major 5-HT metabolite) and plasma cholesterol were analyzed after chronic administration of statin. Our results show that fish treated with statin exhibited reduced plasma cholesterol, reduced telencephalic indexes of 5-HIAA/5-HT and increased aggressive behavior compared to control fish. These results indicate that changes in plasma cholesterol may affect neurochemical processes underlying aggressive behavior in fish, suggesting an evolutionary mechanism conserved among vertebrates. Such mechanisms may be important for the control of aggression in many vertebrate species, not just mammals, as has been demonstrated so far.
- SREBP-1a-stimulated lipid synthesis is required for macrophage phagocytosis downstream of TLR4-directed mTORC1. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 10
- There is a growing appreciation for a fundamental connection between lipid metabolism and the immune response. Macrophage phagocytosis is a signature innate immune response to pathogen exposure, and ...
There is a growing appreciation for a fundamental connection between lipid metabolism and the immune response. Macrophage phagocytosis is a signature innate immune response to pathogen exposure, and cytoplasmic membrane expansion is required to engulf the phagocytic target. The sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are key transcriptional regulatory proteins that sense the intracellular lipid environment and modulate expression of key genes of fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism to maintain lipid homeostasis. In this study, we show that TLR4-dependent stimulation of macrophage phagocytosis requires mTORC1-directed SREBP-1a-dependent lipid synthesis. We also show that the phagocytic defect in macrophages from SREBP-1a-deficient mice results from decreased interaction between membrane lipid rafts and the actin cytoskeleton, presumably due to reduced accumulation of newly synthesized fatty acyl chains within major membrane phospholipids. We show that mTORC1-deficient macrophages also have a phagocytic block downstream from TLR4 signaling, and, interestingly, the reduced level of phagocytosis in both SREBP-1a- and mTORC1-deficient macrophages can be restored by ectopic SREBP-1a expression. Taken together, these observations indicate SREBP-1a is a major downstream effector of TLR4-mTORC1 directed interactions between membrane lipid rafts and the actin cytoskeleton that are required for pathogen-stimulated phagocytosis in macrophages.
- Common polymorphism in the cannabinoid receptor gene type 2 (CB2R) rs3123554 are associated with metabolic changes after two different hypocaloric diets with different dietary fatty profiles. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Nutr 2018 Nov 30
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that carriers of the minor allele of rs3123554 variant of CB2R gene lose less body weight during to different hypocaloric diets with different fatty acid. Moreover, non A-allele carriers showed a better response of LDL-cholesterol, HOMA-IR and insulin levels than A-carriers with both hypocaloric diets.
- Fat replacement by oleogel rich in oleic acid and its impact on the technological, nutritional, oxidative, and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages. [Journal Article]
- MSMeat Sci 2018 Nov 28; 149:141-148
- Bologna-type sausages were made with 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of pork back fat by oleogel made with pork skin, water, and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) (1.5, 1.5: 1). The technological, nutr...
Bologna-type sausages were made with 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of pork back fat by oleogel made with pork skin, water, and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) (1.5, 1.5: 1). The technological, nutritional, oxidative, and sensory properties were evaluated. Emulsion stability increased and cooking loss decreased with increasing the pork back fat replacement by oleogel. The reformulation increased the proportion of oleic acid within the lipid fraction by up to 20% and decreased the proportion of linoleic acid by up to 10%, with no changes in the oxidative stability. The acceptance and the sensory profile of the samples were not affected by the substitution of up to 50% of pork back fat by oleogel. Thus, the results showed that it is possible to produce Bologna-type sausages with reduced fat (~16% fat, ~29% reduction), cholesterol (40 mg, ~10% reduction), and energy value (~210 kcal/100 g, ~21% reduction) and with healthier lipid profile using oleogel from HOSO.
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- Genotype effects of glucokinase regulator on lipid profiles and glycemic status are modified by circulating calcium levels: results from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. [Journal Article]
- NRNutr Res 2018; 60:96-105
- Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucokinase regulator (GCKR) are associated with major cardiovascular risk factors (ie, lipid profile and glycemic status). Recently, GCKR was shown to b...
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucokinase regulator (GCKR) are associated with major cardiovascular risk factors (ie, lipid profile and glycemic status). Recently, GCKR was shown to be related to circulating calcium levels involved in lipid and glycemic controls. Therefore, we hypothesized that GCKR SNPs are associated with major cardiovascular risk factors in the Korean population, and the association is modified by circulating calcium levels. Epidemiological data and GCKR SNPs (rs780093T>C, rs780094 T>C, and rs1260326 T>C) were collected from a subset of Ansung-Ansan cohort in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n = 7815). Consistent with the results of previous studies, GCKR SNPs were significantly associated with decreased total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increased glucose levels and insulin resistance. Minor C allele carriers, particularly CC homozygotes, had lower serum calcium levels than TT homozygotes for all 3 SNPs. Particularly, the effect of GCKR SNPs on total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance was apparent when serum calcium levels were in normal range (8.8-10.1 mg/dL). When serum calcium levels were high (≥10.2 mg/dL), CC homozygotes also had significantly lower triglyceride and higher fasting glucose than TT homozygotes. However, the associations were not observed when serum calcium levels were low (<8.8 mg/dL). In conclusion, GCKR SNPs are associated with lipid profiles and glycemic status in the Korean population, and the genetic effect is modified by basal circulating calcium levels, particularly in normal or high ranges. It provides important information for individualized prevention and management of cardiovascular risk associated with GCKR SNPs.