- Mechanism of YLTZ on glycolipid metabolism based on UPLC/TOF/MS metabolomics. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2018 Aug 24; 1097-1098:128-141
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by dysfunction of glycolipid metabolism. YLTZ is used to treat hyperlipidemia, yet its hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic mechanism on...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by dysfunction of glycolipid metabolism. YLTZ is used to treat hyperlipidemia, yet its hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic mechanism on T2DM are unknown. Thus, UPLC/TOF/MS was applied in this study to identify the potential bio-markers, and deduce the possible metabolic pathways. According to bio-indexes, the increased blood lipid levels, including TC, TG, LDL and FA, and the decreased HDL, the elevated glucose, reduced insulin level and impaired OGTT were observed in diabetic rat model. While YLTZ can decrease the lipid levels and glucose content, as well as increased insulin standards and improve OGTT. After data from UPLC/TOF/MS processed, 17 metabolites were obtained, including phospholipids (LPCs, PCs and PGP (18:1)), beta-oxidation production (HAA, VAG and CNE) and precursors (THA), bile acid (CA, CDCA and IDCA), hydrolysate of TG (MG (22:4)), glycometabolism (G6P), cholesterol-driven synthetics (ADO) and production of arachidonate acid (THETA). As a result, YLTZ was able to reduce LPCs, PCs, PGP (18:1), HAA, VAG, CNE, CA, ADO and THETA, as well as enhance MG (22:4) and G6P. After analyzing results, several metabolic pathways were deduced, which containing, cholesterol synthesis and elimination, FA beta-oxidation, TG hydrolysis, phospholipids synthesis, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and inflammation. Consequently, YLTZ performed to prohibit the FA beta-oxidation, synthesis of cholesterol and phospholipids, gluconeogenesis and inflammation level, as well as promote TG hydrolysis, glycolysis and blood circulation. Hence, applying metabonomics in TCM research can uncover its pharmacological edges, elucidating comprehensively that YLTZ has capacity of hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and promoting blood circulation, matching the effect of removing blood stasis, eliminating phlegm and dampness.
- Effects of simvastatin on the PXR signaling pathway and the liver histology in Mugilogobius abei. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Sep 11; 651(Pt 1):399-409
- Simvastatin is one of the most commonly cholesterol-lowering prescribed drugs all over the world. With the increase of consumption of these pharmaceuticals and subsequent their discharge into the aqu...
Simvastatin is one of the most commonly cholesterol-lowering prescribed drugs all over the world. With the increase of consumption of these pharmaceuticals and subsequent their discharge into the aquatic environment in recent years, they are present at detectable levels in most sewage effluents. Unfortunately, limited information is provided about their potential impacts on aquatic organisms, especially on the detoxification-related metabolism in fish. In the present study, one local native benthic fish (Mugilogobius abei) in southern China was employed as test species and exposed to SV (0.5 μg L-1, 5 μg L-1, 50 μg L-1 and 500 μg L-1) for 72 h. The transcriptional expression of nucleus transcriptional factor pregnane X receptor (PXR) and its downstream targeted genes including multixenobiotics resistance protein or permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), cytochrome 1A (CYP1A), cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the expression of associated microRNA such as miR-27, miR-34 and miR-148 in Mugilogobius abei were investigated. Result showed that the expressions of P-gp, CYP 1A, CYP 3A, GST and PXR were induced to some extend under simvastatin exposure for 72 h. A positive correlation was observed between PXR and CYP1A, CYP3A and P-gp. While for microRNA, a negative relationship was found between miR-34a and CYP3A, CYP1A. The expression of miR-148a was significantly induced under the exposure of SV (50 μg L-1), which was positive related to the transcriptional expression of PXR. For enzyme activity, erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) significantly increased at 24 h and the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) exhibited different trends. CAT was slightly inhibited at 24 h exposure but SOD was significantly induced in high concentration. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was significant inhibited after 72 h exposure. The reductive small molecule glutathione (GSH) content showed obvious decrease, while the quantity of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly in high concentrations of SV exposure. GSH and MDA showed a typical negative correlation to some degree. Moreover, simvastatin caused histological changes in the liver tissues of M. abei, especially the size of adipocyte significantly decreased. The present study indicated that environmentally relevant concentration SV may affect the PXR signaling pathway in M. abei and pose potential ecological risks to non-target organisms like fish.
- Effect of S-adenosyl-L-methionine on liver biochemistry and quality of life in patients with primary biliary cholangitis treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. A prospective, open label pilot study. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2018; 27(3):273-279
- CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot study demonstrates a positive effect of adding SAMe to UDCA in non-cirrhotic patients with PBC.
- Type 2 diabetes genetic loci informed by multi-trait associations point to disease mechanisms and subtypes: A soft clustering analysis. [Journal Article]
- PMPLoS Med 2018; 15(9):e1002654
- CONCLUSIONS: Our approach identifies salient T2D genetically anchored and physiologically informed pathways, and supports the use of genetics to deconstruct T2D heterogeneity. Classification of patients by these genetic pathways may offer a step toward genetically informed T2D patient management.
- Ascorbic acid supplementation ameliorates testicular hormonal signaling, sperm production and oxidative stress in male rats exposed to rosuvastatin during pre-puberty. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Appl Toxicol 2018 Sep 21
- Dyslipidemias are occurring earlier in the population due to the augmentation of obesity. Rosuvastatin reduces cholesterol and triglycerides; however, previous studies have shown that it may affect m...
Dyslipidemias are occurring earlier in the population due to the augmentation of obesity. Rosuvastatin reduces cholesterol and triglycerides; however, previous studies have shown that it may affect male reproduction. Ascorbic acid (AA), an antioxidant compound, plays a protective role in the male reproductive system. This study aimed to evaluate whether pre-pubertal exposure to rosuvastatin may impair testicular structure and antioxidant status in male rats and if supplementation with AA may alleviate these damages. Male rats were randomly divided into six experimental groups (n = 10) on postnatal day (PND) 23 and received the different treatments by gavage from PND 23 to 53. The experimental groups received vehicle (saline solution 0.9%), 3 or 10 mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin diluted in saline solution 0.9%, supplementation with 150 mg/day of AA, 3 mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin in association with 150 mg/day of AA or 10 mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin associated with 150 mg/day of AA. Testicular parameters were assessed on PND 53 and 110. There were diminished androgen receptors staining in the Sertoli cells and increased germ cell death in rosuvastatin-exposed groups, in both periods. Spermatids showed lower estrogen alpha-receptors staining in the group exposed to 10 mg of statin at adulthood. There were androgen depletion and increased lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in statin-exposed groups. Rosuvastatin exposure during pre-puberty impaired testicular structure, steroid receptor distribution and increased oxidative stress; however, AA was able to ameliorate the impairment provoked by statin exposure.
- Effects of diets with different energy and bile acids levels on growth performance and lipid metabolism in broilers. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Sep 17
- This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bile acids (BAs) on the growth performance and lipid metabolism of broilers fed with different energy level diets. 480 one-day-old Arbor Acres...
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bile acids (BAs) on the growth performance and lipid metabolism of broilers fed with different energy level diets. 480 one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers (45.01 ± 0.26 g) were allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 levels of energy (basal or high-energy level) and 2 levels of BAs (with or without BAs supplementation), resulting in 4 groups of 8 replicates; the experiment lasted 42 d. High-energy diets decreased the feed/gain ratio (F/G) from 1 to 21 d (P < 0.05), and increased the liver index and abdominal fat percentage at 42 d (P < 0.05). The serum total triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 42 d were increased by high-energy diets (P < 0.05), while the hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity at 21 and 42 d was decreased (P < 0.05). BAs supplementation increased the body weight at 21 d and decreased the F/G during entire period (P < 0.05), as well as improved the carcass quality reflected by decreased abdominal fat percentage at 42 d and increased breast muscle percentage at 21 and 42 d (P < 0.05). The serum TG at 21 and 42 d were decreased by BAs (P < 0.05), and the hepatic LPL activity at 42 d was increased (P < 0.05). In addition, high-energy diets increased the expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase (P < 0.05), while BAs diets decreased these genes expression (P < 0.05). Moreover, BAs supplementation also increased the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (P < 0.05), which was increased in high-energy groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, BAs supplementation could increase growth performance, elevate carcass quality, and improve lipid metabolism in broilers.
- Differential effects of medium- and long-chain saturated fatty acids on blood lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Clin Nutr 2018 Sep 18
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this research demonstrate a differential effect of MCFAs and LCSFAs on HDL cholesterol concentrations. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the mechanism by which the lipid profile is altered. This trial was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO as CRD42017078277.
- Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Annona squamosa seed extract against alcohol-induced liver injury in Sprague Dawley rats. [Journal Article]
- DCDrug Chem Toxicol 2018 Sep 21; :1-7
- Alcohol is regarded as the third most common cause of death after hypertension and smoking. Its long-term excess exposure leads to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and liver injury, a worldwide health p...
Alcohol is regarded as the third most common cause of death after hypertension and smoking. Its long-term excess exposure leads to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and liver injury, a worldwide health problem without efficient therapy. As there is no reliable liver protective drugs in allopathic medical practices, herbs play a major role in the management of liver diseases. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of Annona squamosa seed extract against alcohol-induced liver injury in Sprague Dawley rats. Liver toxicity was induced by 50% alcohol at dose level of 12 ml/kg po each, for 8 days. Ethanolic extract of A. squamosa seed (EEAS) at dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg po were administered once daily for 8 consecutive days. The hepatoprotective activity of EEAS was assessed in experimental rats using various biochemical parameters like ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, SBL, albumin, total cholesterol, and total protein; and antioxidant parameters like SOD, CAT, GSH, and TBARS. It demonstrated that the treatment with EEAS significantly (p < 0.05-p < 0.001) and dose-dependently prevented the alcohol-induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes and significantly increased the levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH. It also significantly decreased the level of MDA. Histopathology of the liver tissues showed that EEAS attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis and led to regeneration and repair of cells toward normal. Results of this study strongly indicated the protective effect of A. squamosa against alcohol-induced liver injury which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities.
- Changes in cholesterol metabolism during acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: liver cirrhosis and non cirrhosis compared. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2018 Sep 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed substantial abnormalities in the cholesterol plasma profile including both the processes of cholesterol acquisition in patients with upper acute gastrointestinal bleeding. The patients with or without liver cirrhosis had similar trends in cholesterol plasma levels. Depression of cholesterol synthesis was, however, prolonged in the cirrhotic group and the data also suggest a different phytosterol metabolism.
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- Effects of Nickel Supplementation on Antioxidant Status, Immune Characteristics, and Energy and Lipid Metabolism in Growing Cattle. [Journal Article]
- BTBiol Trace Elem Res 2018 Sep 20
- Nickel (Ni) has not been elucidated as an essential mineral in dairy animals, though in plants and lower organisms, its role in activation of urease enzyme is well known. This study was conducted to ...
Nickel (Ni) has not been elucidated as an essential mineral in dairy animals, though in plants and lower organisms, its role in activation of urease enzyme is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ni supplementation on intake, growth performance, urease activity, antioxidant and immune status, and energy and lipid metabolism in growing cattle. Eighteen growing Hariana heifers were randomly allocated into three groups on body weight (125 ± 3.0 kg) and age basis (10 ± 2.0 months). Feeding regimen was similar in all the groups except that treatment groups were supplemented with 0.0 (Ni0.0), 1.5 (Ni1.5), and 3.0 (Ni3.0) mg of Ni/kg dry matter (DM) in three respective groups. DM intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency, plasma urease activity, biomarkers of antioxidant and immune status, energy and lipid metabolism, and plasma Ni levels were observed during the 90-day experimental period. There was linear increase (p < 0.05) in mean DMI and ADG without affecting feed efficiency was observed in 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM supplemented heifers. Dietary Ni supplementation showed linear increase (p < 0.05) in mean plasma urease activity. No effects of (p > 0.05) of Ni supplementation were observed on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity and plasma lipid peroxide (LPO) concentration; whereas, mean plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) showed linear decrease (p < 0.001) in Ni-supplemented groups. Adding Ni up to 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM did not exert (p > 0.05) any effect on plasma total immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. Mean plasma cortisol level showed negative association with supplemental Ni levels and concentration was found lowest (p < 0.05) in 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM-added group. Dietary Ni supplementation did not affect mean plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). There was a linear increase (p < 0.001) in plasma Ni concentrations as the Ni concentrations increased in the diet. The results of present study indicated that dietary supplementation of 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM improved performance of growing cattle by increasing urease activity.